The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales. An estimated 168 rust genera and 7,000 species, more than half of which belong to the genus Puccinia, are accepted. Rust fungi are specialized plant pathogens with several unique features. Taken as a group, rust fungi affect many kinds of plants. However, each species has a narrow range of hosts and cannot be transmitted to non-host plants. In addition, most rust fungi cannot be grown in pure culture. A single species of rust fungi may be able to infect two different plant hosts in different stages of its life cycle, may produce up to five morphologically and cytologically distinct spore-producing structures viz. spermogonia, uredinia and basidia in successive stages of reproduction. Each spore type is host specific, can infect only one kind of plant. Rust fungi are obligate plant pathogens. Infections begin when a spore lands on the plant surface and invades its host. Infection is limited to plant parts such as leaves, tender shoots, fruits, etc.
Plants with severe rust infection may appear stunted, chlorotic, or may display signs of infection such as rust fruiting bodies. Rust fungi grow intracellularly, make spore-producing fruiting bodies within or, more on the surfaces of affected plant parts; some rust species form perennial systemic infections that may cause plant deformities such as growth retardation, witch's broom, stem canker, galls, or hypertrophy of affected plant parts. Rusts get their name because they are most observed as deposits of powdery rust-coloured or brown spores on plant surfaces; the Roman agricultural festival Robigalia has ancient origins in combating wheat rust. Rusts are considered among the most harmful pathogens to agriculture and forestry. Rust fungi are major concerns and limiting factors for successful cultivation of agricultural and forestry crops. White pine blister rust, wheat stem rust and coffee rust are examples of notoriously damaging, economically important crops. All rusts are obligate parasites, meaning that they require a living host to complete their life cycle.
They do not kill the host plant but can reduce growth and yield. Cereal crops can be devastated in one season and trees that get infected in the main stem within their first five years by the rust Cronartium quercuum die. Rusts can produce up to five spore types from corresponding fruiting body types during their life cycle, depending on the species. Roman numerals have traditionally been used to refer to these morphological types. 0-Pycniospores from Pycnidia. These serve as haploid gametes in heterothallic rusts. I-Aeciospores from Aecia; these serve as non-repeating, asexual spores, go on to infect the primary host. II-Urediniospores from Uredia; these serve as repeating dikaryotic vegetative spores. These spores are referred to as the repeating stage because they can cause auto-infection on the primary host, re-infecting the same host from which the spores were produced, they are profuse, red/orange, a prominent sign of rust disease. III-Teliospores from Telia; these dikaryotic spores are the survival/overwintering stage of life cycle.
They germinate to produce basidia. IV-Basidiospores from Teliospores; these haploid spores infect the alternate host in Spring. Although these are observed outside of the laboratory. Rust fungi are categorized by their life cycle. Three basic types of life cycles are recognized based on the number of spore states as macrocyclic and microcyclic; the macrocyclic life cycle has all spore states, the demicyclic lacks the uredinial state, the microcyclic cycle lacks the basidial and the aecial states, thus possess only uredinia and telia. Spermagonia may be absent from each type but the microcyclic life cycle. In macrocyclic and demicyclic life cycles, the rust may be either host alternating, i.e. the aecial state is on one kind of plant but the telial state on a different and unrelated plant, or non-host alternating, i.e. the aecial and telial states on the same kind of plant. Heteroecious rust fungi require two unrelated hosts to complete their life cycle, with the primary host being infected by aeciospores and the alternate host being infected with basidiospores.
This can be contrasted with an autoecious fungus which can complete its life cycle on a single host species. Understanding the life cycles of rust fungi allows for proper disease management. There are definite patterns of relationship with host plant groups and the rust fungi that parasitize them; some genera of rust fungi Puccinia and Uromyces, comprise species that are capable of parasitizing plants of many families. Other rust genera appear to be restricted to certain plant groups. Host restriction may, in heteroecious species, apply to both phases of life cycle or to only one phase; the fungi produce asexual spores which disperse by wind, water or by insect vectors spreading the infection. Rust fungi are biotrophs; when airborne spores settle on a plant, weak hydrophobic interactions are formed with the cutin on the plant cell surface, securing it. By a process not understood, the production of mucous like substances called'adhesins' stick the spore to the plant surface. Once attached, the spore germinates by growing a germ tube and locates a stoma by a touch responsive process known as thigmotropism.
This involves growing towards a ridge between the epidermal cells, followed by a perpendi
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. More they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foam they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, structurally by having one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene or steroid derivative; the aglycone portions of the saponins are termed sapogenins. The number of saccharide chains attached to the sapogenin/aglycone core can vary – giving rise to another dimension of nomenclature – as can the length of each chain. A somewhat dated compilation has the range of saccharide chain lengths being 1–11, with the numbers 2–5 being the most frequent, with both linear and branched chain saccharides being represented. Dietary monosaccharides such as D-glucose and D-galactose are among the most common components of the attached chains; the lipophilic aglycone can be any one of a wide variety of polycyclic organic structures originating from the serial addition of 10-carbon terpene units to compose a C30 triterpene skeleton with subsequent alteration to produce a C27 steroidal skeleton.
The subset of saponins that are steroidal have been termed saraponins. Aglycone derivatives can incorporate nitrogen, so some saponins present chemical and pharmacologic characteristics of alkaloid natural products; the figure at right above presents the structure of the alkaloid phytotoxin solanine, a monodesmosidic, branched-saccharide steroidal saponin. Saponins have been understood to be plant-derived, but they have been isolated from marine organisms such as sea cucumber. Saponins are indeed found in many plants, derive their name from the soapwort plant, the root of, used as a soap. Saponins are found in the botanical family Sapindaceae, with its defining genus Sapindus, in the related families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, it is found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum in a form called gypenosides, ginseng or red ginseng in a form called ginsenosides. Saponins are found in the unripe fruit of Manilkara zapota, resulting in astringent properties. Within these families, this class of chemical compounds is found in various parts of the plant: leaves, roots, bulbs and fruit.
Commercial formulations of plant-derived saponins, e.g. from the soap bark tree, Quillaja saponaria, those from other sources are available via controlled manufacturing processes, which make them of use as chemical and biomedical reagents. Froth Test Uses plant Gogo Entada phaseoloides as control; the positive result shows a honeycomb froth, higher than 2 cm that persists for 10 minutes or longer. Blood Agar Media: Is an agar cup semi-quantitative method that shows positive result of hemolytic halos. In plants, saponins may serve as anti-feedants, to protect the plant against microbes and fungi; some plant saponins may enhance nutrient aid in animal digestion. However, saponins are bitter to taste, so can reduce plant palatability, or imbue them with life-threatening animal toxicity; some saponins are toxic to cold-blooded insects at particular concentrations. Further research is needed to define the roles of these natural products in their host organisms, which have been described as "poorly understood" to date.
Most saponins, which dissolve in water, are poisonous to fish. Therefore, in ethnobotany, they are known for their use by indigenous people in obtaining aquatic food sources. Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal plants those containing saponins, for fishing. Although prohibited by law, fish poison plants are still used by indigenous tribes in Guyana. On the Indian Subcontinent, the Gond tribes are known for their use of plant extracts in poison fishing. Many of California's Native American tribes traditionally used soaproot, and/or the root of various yucca species, which contain saponin, as a fish poison, they would pulverize the roots, mixing in water to create a foam, add the suds to a stream. This would kill or incapacitate the fish, which could be gathered from the surface of the water. Among the tribes using this technique were the Lassik, the Luiseño, the Mattole; the amphipathic nature of saponins gives them activity as surfactants with potential ability to interact with cell membrane components, such as cholesterol and phospholipids making saponins useful for development of cosmetics and drugs.
Saponins have been used as adjuvants in development of vaccines, such as Quil A, an extract from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. This makes them of interest for possible use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens. In their use as adjuvants in the production of vaccines, toxicity associated with sterol complexation remains a concern. While saponins are promoted commercially as dietary supplements and food ingredients, are used in traditional medicine preparations from licorice, there is no high-quality clinical evidence that they have any beneficial effect on human health. Quillaja is toxic when consumed in large
A topical medication is a medication, applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, gels and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous. Topical medications may be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth; the word topical derives from Greek τοπικός topikos, "of a place". The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the pharmacodynamic effect thereof is local. In other cases, topical is defined as applied to a localized area of the body or to the surface of a body part regardless of the location of the effect. By this definition, topical administration includes transdermal application, where the substance is administered onto the skin but is absorbed into the body to attain systemic distribution.
Such medications are hydrophobic chemicals, such as steroid hormones. Specific types include transdermal patches which have become a popular means of administering some drugs for birth control, hormone replacement therapy, prevention of motion sickness. One example of an antibiotic that may be applied topically is chloramphenicol. If defined as having local effect, the topical route of administration can include enteral administration of medications that are poorly absorbable by the gastrointestinal tract. One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycin, recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis. A medication's potency is changed with its base. For example, some topical steroids will be classified one or two strengths higher when moving from cream to ointment; as a rule of thumb, an ointment base is more occlusive and will drive the medication into the skin more than a solution or cream base. The manufacturer of each topical product has total control over the content of the base of a medication.
Although containing the same active ingredients, one manufacturer's cream might be more acidic than the next, which could cause skin irritation or change its absorption rate. For example, a vaginal formulation of miconazole antifungal cream might irritate the skin less than an athlete foot formulation of miconazole cream; these variations can, on occasion, result in different clinical outcomes though the active ingredient is the same. No comparative potency labeling exists to ensure equal efficacy between brands of topical steroids. Studies have confirmed that the potency of some topical steroid products may differ according to manufacturer or brand. An example of this is the case of brand name Valisone cream and Kenalog cream in clinical studies have demonstrated better vasoconstrictions than some forms of this drug produced by generic drug manufacturers. However, in a simple base like an ointment, much less variation between manufacturers is common. In dermatology, the base of a topical medication is as important as the medication itself.
It is important to receive a medication in the correct base, before applying to the skin. A pharmacist should not substitute an ointment for a cream, or vice versa, as the potency of the medication can change; some physicians use a thick ointment to replace the waterproof barrier of the inflamed skin in the treatment of eczema, a cream might not accomplish the same clinical intention There are many general classes, with no clear dividing line between similar formulations. As a result, what the manufacturer's marketing department chooses to list on the label of a topical medication might be different from what the form would be called. For example, Eucerin "cream" is more appropriately described as an ointment than as a cream. Topical solutions can be marketed as rinses, sprays, or drops, are of low viscosity and use water or alcohol in the base; the solution can cause drying of the skin. These are a powder dissolved in water and sometimes oil. Alcohol in topical steroids can cause drying if it is used as a base ingredient.
There is significant variability between brands. There is a risk of irritation, depending on the preservative and fragrances used in the base; some examples of topical solutions are given below: Aluminium acetate topical solution: This is colorless, with a faint acetous odour and sweetish taste. It is applied topically as an astringent after dilution with 10-40 parts of water; this is used in many types of dermatologic lotions and pastes. Commercial packed tablets and powders are available for this preparation. Povidone iodine topical solution: This is a chemical complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone, the agent being a polymer having an average molecular weight of 40,000; the povidone iodine contains 10% available iodine released when applied to skin. This preparation is employed topically as a surgical scrub and non irritating antiseptic solution, with its effectiveness being directly attributed to the presence and release of iodine from the complex. Commercial product: Betadine solution.
Lotions are similar to solutions but are thicker and tend to be more emollient in nature than solution. They are an oil mixed with water, more than not have less alcohol than solutions. Lotions can be drying. There is a significant variability in the ingre
Cynoglossum virginianum known as the wild comfrey, is a plant native to North America. It is sometimes called the blue houndstongue, it gets its name from the appearance of its leaves that look like the a dog's tongue, which translates to Cynoglossum in Greek. Cynoglossum virginianum is native across Canada, it densely populates the central and southeastern parts of the U. S. and is found in open uplands, such as in southern New England, from New York to Illinois, Louisiana and from the south to Florida. Although Cynoglossum virginianum is ranked as globally secure by Nature Conservancy, the distinct northern variety, Cynoglossum virginianum var. boreale is disappearing from the southern part of its range in the United States. Studies indicate that some parts of the life cycle of C. virginianum are dependent on humidity, low temperature, low competition. Therefore, a forest is a good place. Flowering and seedling require increased light and a richer soil; this is achieved by random fires. This has not been researched but it can be said because other understory herbs require the same conditions.
However, if there is too much light woody species may develop destroying the habitat and there is possibility for smaller herbs to take place. AdaptationsCynoglossum virginianum has adapted a unique ability to survive fire because, as mentioned above, it requires fire to eliminate competition and increase light to help nurture itself; this as not been proven by research but history suggests that there may be a possibility that this species is adapted to occasional fires. This can be said due to the frequent fires the forest has gone through in which this species is found. Cynoglossum virginianum is an erect, unbranched perennial with rough fine hair on its leaves and stem, their leaves are simple and have an alternate pattern. The leaves are denser at the lower end of the stem and they get smaller going up the stem, it has two to six racemes. The flowers have five deep lobes that are connected to a superior ovary which in turn is connected to the style; the flowers have rounded, light blue corollas.
The corollas alternate with stamen with anthers. Unlike C. virginianum, C. virginianum var. boreale has petioles on its cauline leaves and its corolla lobes are not rounded and do not overlap. It, in general, is a smaller plant. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, hepatoxins capable of affecting grazing animals and humans, are synthesized by many borages including Cynoglossum officinale; this provides some protection against generalist herbivores. Botanists suspect that C. virginianum may contain some of these alkaloids. Leaves10–20 cm long 2.5–7 cm wide Alternate Simple Entire Not margined Leaves get smaller going up the branch, towards the apical meristem Cynoglossum virginianum forms from a taproot every spring around May. Plants that do not flower grow more leaves in a rosette. However, the flowering plants grow from the center of the rosette. Cynoglossum virginianumis a monoecious plant, self-compatible, it produces fruits from July to August. The flowers produce four grayish brown seeds. FlowersFlower size: 8–12 mm Flower color: Pale blue Pistil: superior ovary lobed into four parts.
Corolla: 5-8mm wide, light blue, short tube, lobes oblong and do not overlap. Calyx: 1–3 mmFruit1-4 nutlets per flower 3.5-5mm each with one seed prickly convex surface protruding horizontally no margin Herbalists from the nineteenth-century have suggested that C. virginianum may be a replacement or a substitute for Symphytum officinale For a long time, C. virginianum has been used to help treat wounds and to flush out any internal digestive disorders and respiratory infections. It acts as a sedative medication; because of one of the active substances in the plant, large doses of it should not be taken because it can cause liver problems. USDA Plants Profile for Cynoglossum virginianum
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold in powder form; the aromatic principles of many spices, herbs, etc. and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond, cloves, lemon, orange, pistachio, spearmint, violet and wintergreen. The majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from the blossoms, roots, etc. or the whole plants, through four techniques: 1) expression, 2) absorption, 3) maceration, 4) distillation. Expression is used when the oil is plentiful and obtained, as in lemon peel. Absorption is accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans. Maceration is used to create smaller bits of the whole, as in making peppermint extract, etc. Distillation is used with maceration, but in many cases, it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of costly stills; the distinctive flavors of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, are desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but only a few are practical sources of sufficiently concentrated flavor extract.
The most important among those that lend themselves to "pure" extract manufacture include lemons and vanilla beans. The majority of concentrated fruit flavors such as banana, peach, pineapple and strawberry, are produced by combining a variety of esters with special oils; the desired colors are obtained by the use of dyes. Among the esters most employed are ethyl acetate and ethyl butyrate; the chief factors in the production of artificial banana and strawberry extract are amyl acetate and amyl butyrate. Artificial extracts do not possess the delicacy of natural fruit flavor, but taste sufficiently similar to be useful when true essences are unobtainable or too expensive. Vanilla extract Spagyric This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas; the Grocer's Encyclopedia