In ancient Greece, the symposium was a part of a banquet that took place after the meal, when drinking for pleasure was accompanied by music, recitals, or conversation. Literary works that describe or take place at a symposium include two Socratic dialogues, Plato's Symposium and Xenophon's Symposium, as well as a number of Greek poems such as the elegies of Theognis of Megara. Symposia are depicted in Etruscan art that shows similar scenes. In modern usage, it has come to mean an academic conference or meeting such as a scientific conference; the equivalent of a Greek symposium in Roman society is the Latin convivium. The Greek symposium was a key Hellenic social institution, it was a forum for men of respected families to debate, boast, or to revel with others. They were held to celebrate the introduction of young men into aristocratic society. Symposia were held by aristocrats to celebrate other special occasions, such as victories in athletic and poetic contests, they were a source of pride for them.
Symposia were held in the andrōn, the men's quarters of the household. The participants, or "symposiasts", would recline on pillowed couches arrayed against the three walls of the room away from the door. Due to space limitations, the couches would number between seven and nine, limiting the total number of participants to somewhere between fourteen and twenty seven. If any young men took part, they sat up. However, in Macedonian symposia, the focus was not only on drinking but hunting, young men were allowed to recline only after they had killed their first wild boar. Food and wine were served. Entertainment was provided, depending on the occasion could include games, flute-girls or boys, slaves performing various acts, hired entertainment. Symposia were held for specific occasions; the most famous symposium of all, described in Plato's dialogue of that name was hosted by the poet Agathon on the occasion of his first victory at the theater contest of the 416 BC Dionysia. According to Plato's account, the celebration was upstaged by the unexpected entrance of the toast of the town, the young Alcibiades, dropping in drunken and nearly naked, having just left another symposium.
The men at the symposium would discuss a multitude of topics—often philosophical, such as love and the differences between genders. A symposium would be overseen by a "symposiarch" who would decide how strong the wine for the evening would be, depending on whether serious discussions or sensual indulgence were in the offing; the Greeks and Romans customarily served their wine mixed with water, as the drinking of pure wine was considered a habit of uncivilized peoples. However, there were major differences between the Greek symposia. A Roman symposium served wine before and after food, women were allowed to join. In a Greek symposium, wine was only drunk after dinner, women were not allowed to attend; the wine was drawn from a krater, a large jar designed to be carried by two men, served from pitchers. Determined by the Master of Ceremonies, the wine was diluted to a specific strength and was mixed. Slave boys would manage the krater, transfer the wine into pitchers, they attended to each man in the symposium with the pitchers and filled their cups with wine.
Certain formalities were observed, most important among which were libations, the pouring of a small amount of wine in honour of various deities or the mourned dead. In a fragment from his c. 375 BC play Semele or Dionysus, Eubulus has the god of wine Dionysos describe proper and improper drinking: For sensible men I prepare only three kraters: one for health, the second for love and pleasure, the third for sleep. After the third one is drained, wise men go home; the fourth krater is not mine any more – it belongs to bad behaviour. In keeping with the Greek virtue of moderation, the symposiarch should have prevented festivities from getting out of hand, but Greek literature and art indicate that the third-krater limit was not observed. Symposiums are featured on Attic pottery and Richard Neer has argued that the chief function of Attic pottery was for use in the symposium. An amphora was used as a jug to hold the wine and one single cup was passed amongst the men. Cups used at symposiums were not as nearly intricate as amphoras.
Pottery used at symposiums featured painted scenes of the god Dionysus and other mythical scenes related to drinking and celebration. Poetry and music were central to the pleasures of the symposium. Although free women of status did not attend symposia, high-class female prostitutes and entertainers were hired to perform and converse with the guests. Among the instruments, women might play was the aulos, a Greek woodwind instrument sometimes compared to an oboe; when string instruments were played, the barbiton was the traditional instrument. Slaves and boys provided service and entertainment; the guests participated in competitive entertainments. A game sometimes played at symposia was kottabos, in which players swirled the dregs of their wine in a kylix, a platter-like stemmed drinking vessel, flung them at a target. Another feature of the symposia were skolia, drinking songs of a
Ince Power Station refers to two demolished power stations near Ellesmere Port in Cheshire, North West England. When the uranium enrichment plant at Capenhurst opened in 1949, it was realised that its power demand would require the construction of a new power station nearby. Rendel, Palmer & Tritton were appointed as the construction's civil engineering consultants, while the Central Electricity Authority engineered the station's electrical and mechanical plant; the station was built on an 83-acre plot of land acquired as a result of tidal borings. The main buildings were constructed. After the removal of 14 ft of topsoil it was possible to construct the buildings directly upon hard bearing sand, removing the necessity of piled foundations. However, the cooling towers and north chimney did require piled foundations as the sandstone foundation sloped away from the power station site; the station's main buildings were of steel-framed construction. The boiler house was clad using cellactite sheet cladding, was of a semi-outdoor construction due to the speed of construction required.
The turbine hall was a brick building with prefabricated stone used on door surrounds. The building's roof was made from asbestos cement; the floors in the station were made of quarry terrazzo. The station's coal bunkers were steel girder constructions; the entire building measured 350 ft long by 232 ft wide, containing 3,800 tonnes of steel. The station had two 300 ft chimneys, made from brick with internal diameters of 16 ft, they were supported upon 61 ft concrete plinths. The administration and amenity block was built next to the station, connected to the turbine hall by an overhead access bridge; the block contained the station's control room, along with laboratories, administration offices, a canteen and showers. It was heated by excess steam bled from the turbines. Ince A Power Station was opened on 9 October 1957 by Lord Citrine, the chairman of the Central Electricity Authority; the station used four 60-megawatt turbo alternators, giving the station a total generation capacity of 240 MW.
Each turbine was supplied with steam from a coal-fired boiler at a rate of 550,000 lb per hour, at a temperature of 480 °C. Each boiler and turbine set operated as an independent generating unit, with no interconnection of boilers, it was realised midway through the station's construction that the station should be capable of duel firing heavy fuel oil. Electricity was generated at 12.8 kilovolts. It was passed through a transformer which increased the voltage to 132 kV, before passing into the national grid. Coal was delivered to the station's coal storage area by rail from the East Midlands coalfields. Water for the station's systems was taken from the River Dee at Chester, taken to the station by a pipeline built by the West Cheshire Water Board to serve the power station and the uranium enrichment plant; the water was cooled using four hyperboloid natural draft cooling towers. Each tower was 250 ft tall and had a 205 ft base diameter, with a cooling capacity of 2.75 million gallons per hour.
Ince B Power Station built as part of the Dash for Oil in the UK during the 1960s, schemed as being a base load operating power station. The choice of the Ince site for a large new oil-fired station was politically influenced as the government wanted a station in the North West of England, which led to a rumour that the power station was built with the only purpose of creating jobs; the station's construction suffered lengthy delays. Its transmission system was inadequate to handle the large flow of electricity from the nuclear power stations to the north. There were faults with the station's rotors, which required them returning to the manufacturer's works; the station used two notional spares. Low productivity among construction staff was a problem leading to the abandonment of the project; the station had begun operating by March 1984, when it achieved the second-highest thermal efficiency in the country for a plant of its size, after Pembroke Power Station in Wales. The station occupied a 125-acre site.
Its boiler house was 61 m tall. The turbine hall was 123 m by 60 m and 32 m tall. There were two boilers rated at 447 kg/s, steam conditions were 158.58 bar at 538°C with reheat to 538°C. There were along with two 25-MW Avon gas turbines. In 1993, one of the station's two units, Unit 5, was converted to burn orimulsion, its boilers being provided by Clarke Chapman Ltd; the station B had a single 152.5 m chimney, with a diameter of 12.5 m. The station used a single hyperboloid induced draft cooling tower. Fuel oil was supplied directly to the station by a pipeline, directly from Shell's Stanlow Oil Refinery. Oil was brought to the station by ship, via a berth on the Manchester Ship Canal; the station was controlled by two GEC 2050 computers. The A Station was closed and demolished in the mid-1980s, though its single remaining cooling tower was left standing until 1999; the B Station ceased generating electricity in March 1997 and demolition of the structures commenced a couple of years later. The station's chimney was demolished on 28 April 1999.
The station's cooling tower was demolished on 5 December 1999 along with the A Station's remaining cooling tower. An Unofficial Ince'B' Power Station Web Site – Website with cross sectional diagrams and photos of Ince B Power Station
Karl Hotz was a German engineer and Wehrmacht officer. He was killed as chief of Feldkommandantur Nantes during German occupation of France in World War II; the German occupation forces, under General Otto von Stülpnagel, were not internally attacked from the Armistice of 22 June 1940 to the 22 June 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was de facto allied with Germany under the German–Soviet Non-Aggression Pact; as a result, Moscow's Comintern headquarters had instructed the French Communist Party to take no action against the German occupying power. With a telegram from the Comintern to the PCF on 26 April 1941, a National Front was now to be formed. On 13 August 1941, a group of 100 young people formed by the PCF youth wing walked out of the Strasbourg – Saint-Denis station singing la Marseillaise under the tricolor flag, held by student Olivier Souef. French police intervened and Germans soldiers opened fire. Samuel Tyszelman was hit in the leg. Henri Gautherot was caught in the nearby Boulevard Saint-Martin.
Tyszelman and Gautherot were executed on 19 August Two days on August 21, 1941, the first assassination of a representative of the German occupying power followed as revenge. The naval management assistant Alfons Moser was shot in the Barbès - Rochechouart metro station by the PCF member Pierre "Frédo" Georges in Paris, accompanied by Gilbert Brustlein. In retaliation, six French prisoners were convicted, sentenced to death and executed by a newly-constituted French special court under pressure from the German occupying forces. On September 3, 1941, the corporal of the Commander Transportation Department Ernst Hoffmann was shot dead by unknown persons. Hoffmann was accompanied by his bride; the crime took place around 10 pm in front of Hoffmann's accommodation, the Hôtel Terminus, on rue Strasbourg. Two days the Commander of Greater Paris, Ernst Schaumburg, handed over to the military commander, with reference to the hostage jail, a list of 10 hostages, the first three of whom were executed on September 6 on Mont Valérien.
On September 6, 10 and 11, there were more attacks. In retaliation, the military commander ordered the shooting of 10 communist hostages; the executions took place on 16 September on Mont Valérien. On September 15, the assassination of Captain Wilhelm Scheben occurred. Scheben had lived in the Hôtel Terminus and had been shot from a car on boulevard de Strasbourg, he died on 17 September. The military commander ordered the shooting of 12 communist hostages on the same day, which took place on Mont Valérien on 20 September. On October 20, 1941, just before 8 am, Hotz was shot dead in front of 1 King Albert Street 8, near the Cathedral of Nantes and the German military headquarters, by three resistance fighters sent from Paris by the armed wing of the French Communist Party: Brustlein, Marcel Bourdarias and Spartaco Guisco, the mission of the three men being to shoot down a German officer, depending on the circumstances. Brustlein hit Hotz in the back. Guisco's revolver jammed, saving the life of Captain Wilhelm Sieger.
Hotz died a few moments while the Resistance fled. The assassination led to the arrest and execution of 48 hostages on 22 October 1941, including Guy Môquet, Charles Michels and Jean-Pierre Timbaud. Another 95 hostages were arrested. In three subsequent trials, 47 people were sentenced to death and 14 relatives were shot or deported as hostages and killed in concentration camps