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Synagogue

A synagogue is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship. Synagogues have a large place for prayer and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices; some called the בית מדרש beth midrash, lit. "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, reading of the Tanakh and assembly. Halakha holds. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. In terms of its specific ritual and liturgical functions, the synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. In the New Testament, the word appears 56 times in the Synoptic Gospels, but in the Gospel of John and the Book of Revelation, it is used in the sense of'assembly' in the Epistle of James. Israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset "house of assembly". Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech.

Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the term kenesa, derived from Aramaic, some Mizrahi Jews use kenis; some Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative Jews use the word temple. The Greek word synagogue is used in English to cover the preceding possibilities. Although synagogues existed a long time before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, communal worship in the time while the Temple still stood centered around the korbanot brought by the kohanim in the Temple in Jerusalem; the all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the day's sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers. Prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, there were no standard prayers that were recited.

Johanan ben Zakai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era, promulgated the idea of creating individual houses of worship in whatever locale Jews found themselves. This contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. Synagogues in the sense of purpose-built spaces for worship, or rooms constructed for some other purpose but reserved for formal, communal prayer, existed long before the destruction of the Second Temple; the earliest archaeological evidence for the existence of early synagogues comes from Egypt, where stone synagogue dedication inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE prove that synagogues existed by that date. More than a dozen Jewish Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists in Israel and other countries belonging to the Hellenistic world. Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue. Synagogues have been constructed by ancient Jewish kings, by wealthy patrons, as part of a wide range of human institutions including secular educational institutions and hotels, by the entire community of Jews living in a particular place, or by sub-groups of Jews arrayed according to occupation, style of religious observance, or by the followers of a particular rabbi.

It has been theorized that the synagogue became a place of worship in the region upon the destruction of the Second Temple during the First Jewish–Roman War. The popularization of prayer over sacrifice during the years prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE had prepared the Jews for life in the diaspora, where prayer would serve as the focus of Jewish worship. Despite the possibility of synagogue-like spaces prior to the First Jewish–Roman War, the synagogue emerged as a stronghold for Jewish worship upon the destruction of the Temple. For Jews living in the wake of the Revolt, the synagogue functioned as a "portable system of worship". Within the synagogue, Jews worshipped by way of prayer rather than sacrifices, which had served as the main form of worship within the Second Temple. Rabbi and philosopher, described the various customs in his day with respect to local synagogues: Synagogues and houses of study must be treated with respect, they sprinkled to lay the dust. In Spain and the Maghreb, in Babylonia and in the Holy Land, it is customary to kindle lamps in the synagogues and to spread mats on the floor upon which the worshippers sit.

In the lands of Edom, they sit in synagogues upon chairs. The Samaritan house of worship is called a synagogue. During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, during the Hellenistic per

Australian Lacrosse Association

The Australian Lacrosse Association is the governing body for the sport of Lacrosse in Australia. Lacrosse in Australia has a long and proud history dating back to 1876, with a small but dedicated community of participants and volunteers; the established centres for the game are in the greater metropolitan areas of Melbourne and Perth. In these cities there are organised Saturday field lacrosse competitions for men and women at senior and junior levels, played over the winter months. In the off-season, there are informal box lacrosse and sofcrosse competitions, though the majority of players in Australia are foremostly of the field lacrosse type; some lacrosse is played in Sydney and Hobart, although it is much at the developmental level. Lacrosse in Australia is now governed by a single governing body, the Australian Lacrosse Association, following the merger of Lacrosse Australia and Women's Lacrosse Australia, who had until 2008 governed the men's and women's versions of the games independently.

The national body has eight state member associations: Lacrosse Victoria Lacrosse South Australia Lacrosse Western Australia Lacrosse Queensland New South Wales Lacrosse Lacrosse Tasmania Lacrosse in Australia List of Australian Lacrosse national champions

Oregon Air National Guard

The Oregon Air National Guard is the aerial militia of the State of Oregon, United States of America. It is, along with the Oregon Army National Guard, an element of the Oregon National Guard; as state militia units, the units in the Oregon Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Oregon though the office of the Oregon Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States; the Oregon Air National Guard is headquartered at the Oregon Military Department buildings in Salem. Under the "Total Force" concept, Oregon Air National Guard units are considered to be Air Reserve Components of the United States Air Force. Oregon ANG units are trained and equipped by the Air Force and are operationally gained by a Major Command of the USAF if federalized. In addition, the Oregon Air National Guard forces are assigned to Air Expeditionary Forces and are subject to deployment tasking orders along with their active duty and Air Force Reserve counterparts in their assigned cycle deployment window.

Along with its federal obligations, the Oregon ANG may be activated by order of the Governor to provide protection of life and property, preserve peace and public safety. State missions include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes and forest fires and rescue, protection of vital public services, support to civil defense; the Oregon Air National Guard consists of the following major units: 142nd Fighter WingEstablished 18 April 1941. Both operational and training missions take 142d Fighter Wing units around the globe in support of drug interdiction, Air Expeditionary Force missions, contingency operations.173rd Fighter WingEstablished 1 January 1983. The Oregon Air National Guard origins date to 30 July 1940 with the establishment of the 123rd Observation Squadron and is oldest unit of the Oregon Air National Guard, it is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II. The unit consisted of two officers, 108 enlisted men and two aircraft, a North American BC-1A and a Douglas O-46A.

The squadron flew observation missions along the Pacific Coast and made mail flights. The 123rd Observation Squadron was ordered into active service on 15 September 1941 as part of the buildup of the Army Air Corps prior to the United States entry into World War II. On 24 May 1946 the United States Army Air Forces, in response to dramatic postwar military budget cuts, imposed by President Harry S. Truman, allocated inactive unit designations to the National Guard Bureau for the formation of an Air Force National Guard; these unit designations were allotted and transferred to various State National Guard bureaus to provide them unit designations to re-establish them as Air National Guard units. The modern Oregon ANG received federal recognition on 30 August 1946 as the 142nd Fighter Group at Portland Municipal Airport, Portland, its 123rd Fighter Squadron was equipped with F-51D Mustangs and its mission was the air defense of the state. 18 September 1947, however, is considered the Oregon Air National Guard's official birth concurrent with the establishment of the United States Air Force as a separate branch of the United States military under the National Security ActToday the 142nd Fighter Wing at Portland and the 173rd Fighter Wing at Klamath Falls both fly the F-15 Eagle with a homeland defense mission.

After the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, elements of every Air National Guard unit in Oregon has been activated in support of the Global War on Terrorism. Flight crews, aircraft maintenance personnel, communications technicians, air controllers and air security personnel were engaged in Operation Noble Eagle air defense overflights of major United States cities. Oregon ANG units have been deployed overseas as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq as well as other locations as directed. In April 2016, the Oregon Air National Guard celebrated its 75th Anniversary with a commemorative paint job on one of the 173rd Fighter Wing's F-15's, as seen below. Oregon Civil Defense Force Oregon Wing Civil Air Patrol This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Oregon Military Department Oregon National Guard web site