Eighty Years' War
The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands. After the initial stages, Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. Under the leadership of the exiled William the Silent, the northern provinces continued their resistance, they were able to oust the Habsburg armies, in 1581 they established the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. The war continued in other areas; the Dutch Republic was recognized by Spain and the major European powers in 1609 at the start of the Twelve Years' Truce. Hostilities broke out again as part of the broader Thirty Years' War. An end was reached in 1648 with the Peace of Münster, when the Dutch Republic was definitively recognised as an independent country no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire; the Peace of Münster is sometimes considered the beginning of the Dutch Golden Age.
There are numerous causes that led to the Eighty Years' War but the primary reasons could be classified into two: resentment towards the Spanish authority and religious tension. The first was articulated by the Dutch nobility who wanted to regain power and privileges lost in favor of the King, so they settled the thought that Phillip II was surrounded by evil advisors; this developed into an overarching discontent against the absolutist Spanish regime. Religious resistance, on the other hand, came with the imposition of an ecclesiastical hierarchy for all of the Spanish territories; this created resistance in the Dutch provinces, which embraced the Reformation. In the decades preceding the war, the Dutch became discontented with Spanish rule. A major concern involved the heavy taxation imposed on the population, while support and guidance from the government was hampered by the size of the Spanish empire. At that time, the Seventeen Provinces were known in the empire as De landen van herwaarts over and in French as Les pays de par deça – "those lands around there".
The Dutch provinces were continually criticised for acting without permission from the throne, while it was impractical for them to gain permission for actions, as requests sent to the throne would take at least four weeks for a response to return. The presence of Spanish troops under the command of the Duke of Alba, brought in to oversee order, further amplified this unrest. Spain attempted a policy of strict religious uniformity for the Catholic Church within its domains, enforced it with the Inquisition; the Reformation meanwhile produced a number of Protestant denominations, which gained followers in the Seventeen Provinces. These included the Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, the Reformed teachings of John Calvin; this growth led to the 1566 Beeldenstorm, the "Iconoclastic Fury", in which many churches in northern Europe were stripped of their Catholic statuary and religious decoration. In October 1555, Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire began the gradual abdication of his several crowns.
His son Philip II took over as sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, which at the time was a personal union of seventeen provinces with little in common beyond their sovereign and a constitutional framework. This framework, assembled during the preceding reigns of Burgundian and Habsburg rulers, divided power between city governments, local nobility, provincial States, royal stadtholders, the States General of the Netherlands, the central government assisted by three councils: the Council of State, the Privy Council and the Council of Finances; the balance of power was weighted toward the local and regional governments. Philip did not govern in person but appointed Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy as governor-general to lead the central government. In 1559 he appointed his half-sister Margaret of Parma as the first Regent, who governed in close co-operation with Dutch nobles like William, Prince of Orange, Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, Lamoral, Count of Egmont. Philip introduced a number of councillors in the Council of State, foremost among these Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, a French-born cardinal who gained considerable influence in the Council, much to the chagrin of the Dutch council members.
When Philip left for Spain in 1559 political tension was increased by religious policies. Not having the liberal-mindedness of his father Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, the Anabaptists. Charles had outlawed heresy in special placards that made it a capital offence, to be prosecuted by a Dutch version of the Inquisition, leading to the executions of over 1,300 people between 1523 and 1566. Towards the end of Charles' reign enforcement had become lax. Philip, insisted on rigorous enforcement, which caused widespread unrest. To support and strengthen the attempts at Counter-Reformation Philip launched a wholesale organisational reform of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands in 1559, which resulted in the inclusion of fourteen dioceses instead of the old three; the new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was unpopular with the old church hierarchy, as the new dioceses were to be financed by the transfer of a number of rich abbey
Canons of Dort
The Canons of Dort, or Canons of Dordrecht, formally titled The Decision of the Synod of Dort on the Five Main Points of Doctrine in Dispute in the Netherlands, is the judgment of the National Synod held in the Dutch city of Dordrecht in 1618–19. At the time, Dordrecht was referred to in English as Dort or Dordt. Today the Canons of Dort form part of the Three Forms of Unity, one of the confessional standards of many of the Reformed churches around the world, including the Netherlands, South Africa and North America, their continued use as a standard still forms an unbridgable problem preventing close cooperation between the followers of Jacob Arminius, the Remonstrants, Dutch Reformed Churches. These canons are in actuality a judicial decision on the doctrinal points in dispute from the Arminian controversy of that day. Following the death of Arminius, his followers set forth a Remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from the stricter Calvinism of the Belgic Confession.
The Canons are the judgment of the Synod against this Remonstrance. Regardless, Arminian theology received official acceptance by the State and has since continued in various forms within Protestantism within the Methodist churches; the Canons were not intended to be a comprehensive explanation of Reformed doctrine, but only an exposition on the five points of doctrine in dispute. The five points of Calvinism, remembered by the mnemonic "TULIP" and popularized by a 1963 booklet, are popularly said to summarize the Canons of Dort. See Stewart's essay in chapter 3; however there is no historical relationship between them, some scholars argue that their language distorts the meaning of the Canons. But for the Grace of God by Cornelis P. Venema The Golden Chain of Salvation by John Bouwers Unspeakable Comfort by Peter Feenstra The Voice of our Fathers by Homer Hoeksema The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination by Lorraine Boettner The Synod of Dordt by Thomas Scott The Canons of Dordt by Henry Peterson The Five Points of Calvinism by David Steele and Curtis Thomas The Works of John Owen, Vol. 10 TULIP by William Jay Hornbeck II Christian Reformed Church: The Canons of Dort The Canons of Dort in Latin, English and Ukrainian The Canons of Dort in Vietnamese Giáo Luật của Dordt bằng Tiếng Việt Audio Recording of the Canons of Dort
Theodore Beza was a French Reformed Protestant theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. He lived most of his life in Geneva. Beza succeeded Calvin as a spiritual leader of the Republic of Geneva, founded by John Calvin himself. Theodore Beza was born in Burgundy, France, his father, Pierre de Beze, royal governor of Vézelay, descended from a Burgundian family of distinction. Beza's father had two brothers. Nicholas, unmarried, during a visit to Vézelay was so pleased with Theodore that, with the permission of his parents, he took him to Paris to educate him there. From Paris, Theodore was sent to Orléans in December 1528 to receive instruction from the famous German teacher Melchior Wolmar, he was received into Wolmar's house, the day on which this took place was afterward celebrated as a second birthday. Young Beza soon followed his teacher to Bourges, where the latter was called by the duchess Margaret of Angoulême, sister of Francis I. At the time, Bourges was the focus of the Reformation movement in France.
In 1534, after Francis I issued his edict against ecclesiastical innovations, Wolmar returned to Germany. Beza, in accordance with the wish of his father, went back to Orléans to study law, spent four years there; the pursuit of law had little attraction for him. He received the degree of licentiate in law August 11, 1539, and, as his father desired, went to Paris, where he began to practice. To support him, his relatives had obtained for him two benefices, the proceeds of which amounted to 700 golden crowns a year. Beza gained a prominent position in literary circles. To escape the many temptations to which he was exposed, with the knowledge of two friends, he became engaged in the year 1544 to a young girl of humble descent, Claudine Denoese, promising to publicly marry her as soon as his circumstances would allow it. In 1548 he published a collection of Latin poetry, which made him famous, he was considered one of the best writers of Latin poetry of his time; some cautioned against reading biographical details in his writings.
Philip Schaff argued that it was a mistake to "read between his lines what he never intended to put there" or to imagine "offences of which he was not guilty in thought."Shortly after the publication of his book, he fell ill and his illness, it is reported, revealed to him his spiritual needs. He came to accept salvation in Christ, which lifted his spirits, he resolved to sever his connections of the time, went to Geneva, the French city of refuge for Evangelicals, where he arrived with Claudine on October 23, 1548. He was received by John Calvin, who had met him in Wolmar's house, was married in the church. Beza was at a loss for immediate occupation. On his way home, he visited Pierre Viret at Lausanne, who brought about his appointment as professor of Greek at the academy there in November 1549. Beza found time to write a Biblical drama, Abraham Sacrifiant, in which he contrasted Catholicism with Protestantism, the work was well received; the text of some verses includes directions for musical performance.
After Clément Marot's death in 1544, John Calvin asked Beza to complete his French metrical translations of the Psalms. Thirty-four of his translations were published in the 1551 edition of the Genevan Psalter, six more were added to editions. About the same time he published Passavantius, a satire directed against Pierre Lizet, the former president of the Parliament of Paris, principal originator of the "fiery chamber", who, at the time, was abbot of St. Victor near Paris and publishing a number of polemical writings. Of a more serious character were two controversies in which Beza was involved at this time; the first concerned the doctrine of predestination and the controversy of Calvin with Jerome Hermes Bolsec. The second referred to the burning of Michael Servetus at Geneva on October 27, 1553. In defense of Calvin and the Genevan magistrates, Beza published, in 1554, the work De haereticis a civili magistratu puniendis. In 1557, Beza took a special interest in the Waldensians of Piedmont, who were being harassed by the French government.
On their behalf, he went with William Farel to Bern, Zürich and Schaffhausen to Strasburg, Mömpelgard, Göppingen. In Baden and Göppingen and Farel made a declaration concerning the Waldensians' views on the sacrament on May 14, 1557; the written declaration stated their position and was well received by the Lutheran theologians, but was disapproved of in Bern and Zurich. In the autumn of 1558, Beza undertook a second journey with Farel to Worms by way of Strasburg in the hopes of bringing about an intercession by the Evangelical princes of the empire in favor of the persecuted brethren at Paris. With Melanchthon and other theologians assembled at the Colloquy of Worms, Beza proposed a union of all Protestant Christians, but the proposal was decidedly denied by Zurich and Bern. False reports reached the German princes that the hostilities against the Huguenots in France had ceased and no embassy was sent to the
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Johannes Arnoldi Corvinus
Johannes Arnoldi Corvinus born Joannes Arnoldsz Ravens was a Dutch Remonstrant minister and jurist. He was born in Leiden, in 1606 was a Calvinist preacher there. A pupil of Jacobus Arminius, he took up the Arminian views, he was a public supporter of them by 1609, in 1610 signed the Five Articles of Remonstrance. Subsequently, as a consequence of the Synod of Dort, he lost his church office in 1619, he left the country, being abroad until 1630. Studying law, he had a career as advocate in Amsterdam. Theological writingsChristelicke ende ernstighe vermaninghe tot vrede aen R. Donteclock, against Reinier Donteclock Teghen-bericht jeghens D. Francisci Gomari, against Franciscus Gomarus Responsio ad Bogermanni adnotationes, pro Grotio, reply to Johannes Bogermann Censura anatomes Arminianismi etc. against Pierre du Moulin Petri Molinaei novi anatomici mala encheiresis. Reply to Du Moulin's Anatome Arminianismi; this work follows Hugo Grotius on the Ten Commandments, suggesting they are divine positive law, rather than the law of nature.
Legal writingsCorvinus had been quite close to Grotius, in the 1610s, from around 1632 taught the law. With Gerard de Wassenaer and Pieter de la Court he was one of a group of legal writers with Remonstrant sympathies who commented on reason of state. Other works were: Posthumus Pacianus on Giulio Pace Jurisprudentia romana Conclusiones de ivre pvblico with Arnoldus Clapmarius, Christoph Besold, Franciscus Rosellus Enchiridium seu institutiones imperiales Jus canonicum per aphorismos strictim explicatum His son Arendt became a professor of law at Mainz. Www.biografischportaal.nl
Covenant theology is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall structure of the Bible. It uses the theological concept of a covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology; the standard form of covenant theology views the history of God's dealings with mankind, from Creation to Fall to Redemption to Consummation, under the framework of three overarching theological covenants: those of redemption, of works, of grace. Covenentalists call these three covenants "theological" because, though not explicitly presented as such in the Bible, they are thought of as theologically implicit and summarizing a wealth of scriptural data. Historical Reformed systems of thought treat classical covenant theology not as a point of doctrine or as a central dogma, but as the structure by which the biblical text organizes itself; the most well known form of Covenant Theology is associated with Presbyterians and comes from the Westminster Confession of Faith. Another form is sometimes called "Baptist Covenant Theology" or "1689 Federalism", to distinguish it from the standard covenant theology of Presbyterian "Westminster Federalism".
It is associated with Reformed Baptists and comes from the Second London Baptist Confession of Faith of 1689. Methodist hermeneutics traditionally use a variation of this, known as Wesleyan covenant theology, consistent with Arminian soteriology; as a framework for biblical interpretation, covenant theology stands in contrast to dispensationalism in regard to the relationship between the Old Covenant and the New Covenant. That such a framework exists appears at least feasible, since from New Testament times the Bible of Israel has been known as the Old Testament, in contrast to the Christian addition which has become known as the New Testament. Detractors of covenant theology refer to it as "supersessionism" or as "replacement theology", due to the perception that it teaches that God has abandoned the promises made to the Jews and has replaced the Jews with Christians as his chosen people on the Earth. Covenant theologians deny that God has abandoned his promises to Israel, but see the fulfillment of the promises to Israel in the person and the work of the Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth, who established the church in organic continuity with Israel, not as a separate replacement entity.
Many covenant theologians have seen a distinct future promise of gracious restoration for unregenerate Israel. God's covenantal relationship with his creation is not made automatically or out of necessity. Rather, God chooses to establish the connection as a covenant, wherein the terms of the relationship are set down by God alone according to his own will; the covenant of works was made in the Garden of Eden between God and Adam who represented all mankind as a federal head. God offered Adam a perfect and perpetual life if he did not violate God's single commandment, but warned that death would follow if he disobeyed that commandment. Adam broke the covenant; the term foedus operum was first used by Dudley Fenner in 1585, though Zacharias Ursinus had mentioned a covenant of creation in 1562. The concept of the covenant of works became recognized in Reformed theology by 1590, though not by all. John Calvin writes of a probationary period for Adam, a promise of life for obedience, the federal headship of Adam, but he does not write of a covenant of works.
It is not referred to as a covenant in the opening chapters of Genesis. The covenant of grace promises eternal life for all people. God promises the Holy Spirit to the elect to give them willingness and ability to believe. Christ is the substitutionary covenantal representative fulfilling the covenant of works on their behalf, in both the positive requirements of righteousness and its negative penal consequences, it is the historical expression of the eternal covenant of redemption. Genesis 3:15, with the promise of a "seed" of the woman who would crush the serpent's head, is identified as the historical inauguration for the covenant of grace; the covenant of grace runs through the Old and New Testaments, is the same in substance under both the law and gospel, though there is some difference in the administration. Under the law, the sacrifices and other types and ordinances of the Jews signified Christ, men were justified by their faith in him just as they would be under the gospel; these were done away with the coming of Christ, replaced with the much simpler sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper.
Reformed orthodox theologians taught that the covenant was unilateral or monopleuric on the part of God, but entailed conditions on the part of men. The conditions of the covenant of grace were spoken of as assumptive and confirmatory rather than duties required in order to receive the covenant; the covenant was therefore bilateral or dipleuric. Scholars have challenged the notion in contemporary scholarship that Genevan Reformers taught a unilateral and unconditional covenant relationship whilst the Rhineland Reformers taught a bilateral contractual relationship. Mark Jones, Richard Muller, J. Mark Beach, John Von Rohr have argued that Leonard Trinterud's identification of the apparent polari
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvin's seminal work of systematic theology. Regarded as one of the most influential works of Protestant theology, it was published in Latin in 1536 and in his native French language in 1541, with the definitive editions appearing in 1559 and in 1560; the book was written as an introductory textbook on the Protestant creed for those with some previous knowledge of theology and covered a broad range of theological topics from the doctrines of church and sacraments to justification by faith alone and Christian liberty. It vigorously attacked the teachings of those Calvin considered unorthodox Roman Catholicism, to which Calvin says he had been "strongly devoted" before his conversion to Protestantism; the Institutes is a regarded secondary reference for the system of doctrine adopted by the Reformed churches called Calvinism. John Calvin was a student of law and classics at the University of Paris. Around 1533 he became involved in religious controversies and converted to Protestantism, a new Christian reform movement, persecuted by the Catholic Church in France, forcing him to go into hiding.
He moved to Basel, for safety in 1535, around this time he must have begun writing a summary of theology which would become the Institutes. His Catholic opponents sought to tie him and his associates to groups of radical Anabaptists, some of, put down by persecution, he decided to adapt the work he had been writing to the purpose of defending Protestants suffering from persecution from false accusations that they were espousing radical and heretical doctrines. The work, written in Latin, was published in Basel in March 1536 with a preface addressed to King Francis I of France, entreating him to give the Protestants a hearing rather than continue to persecute them, it is six chapters long, covering the basics of Christian creed using the familiar catechetical structure of the Ten Commandments, the Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer, the sacraments, as well as a chapter on Christian liberty and political theology. Soon after publishing it, Calvin began his ministry in Switzerland; the Institutes proved popular, with many asking for a revised edition.
In 1539, Calvin published a much larger work, with seventeen chapters of about the same length as the six chapters of the first edition. It includes many references to classical authors and Church fathers, as well as many additional references to the Bible. Calvin's epistle to the reader indicates that the new work is intended for theological students preparing for ministry. Four chapters were added in a third edition in 1543, a 1550 edition was published with only minor changes; the fifth and final edition with which Calvin was involved, and, used by scholars as the authoritative text, is 80% larger than the previous edition and was published in Geneva in 1559. Calvin's theology did not change throughout his life, so while he expanded and added to the Institutes, he did not change their main ideas; the Latin word "institutio", translated in the title as "institutes", may be translated "instruction", as it was in titles of German translations of the work, was used in the titles of legal works as well as other summary works covering a large body of knowledge.
The title of Desiderius Erasmus's Institutio principis Christiani, which Calvin would have been familiar with, is translated The Education of a Christian Prince. The form of the short title of the first edition of Calvin's work, published in 1536 is Christianae religionis institutio; the full title of this edition may be translated The Institute of the Christian Religion, Containing the Whole Sum of Piety and Whatever It is Necessary to Know in the Doctrine of Salvation. A Work Very Well Worth Reading by All Persons Zealous for Piety, Lately Published. A Preface to the Most Christian King of France, in Which this Book is Presented to Him as a Confession of Faith. Author, John Calvin, Of Noyon. Basel, MDXXXVI. In the 1539 edition, the title is Institutio Christianae Religionis to emphasize the fact that this is a new expanded work; this is followed by "at length corresponding to its title", a play on the grandiosity of the title and an indication that the new work better lives up to the expectation created by such a title.
Institutes in its first form was not an exposition of Reformation doctrine. It is indebted to Martin Luther in the treatment of faith and sacraments, to Martin Bucer in what is said of divine will and predestination, to the scholastics for teaching involving unsuspected implications of freedom in the relation of church and state; the book is prefaced by a letter to Francis I. As this letter shows, Institutes was composed, or at least completed, to meet a present necessity, to correct an aspersion on Calvin's fellow reformers; the French king, wishing to suppress the Reformation at home, yet unwilling to alienate the reforming princes of Germany, had sought to confound the teachings of the French reformers with the attacks of Anabaptists on civil authority. "My reasons for publishing the Institutes," Calvin wrote in 1557, "were first that I might vindicate from unjust affront my brethren whose death was precious in the sight of the Lord, next that some sorrow and anxiety should move foreign people, since the same sufferings threaten many."
"The hinges on which our controversy turns," says Calvin in his letter to the king, "are that the Church may exist without any apparent form" and that its ma