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Systems engineering

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge; the individual outcome of such efforts, an engineered system, can be defined as a combination of components that work in synergy to collectively perform a useful function. Issues such as requirements engineering, logistics, coordination of different teams and evaluation, maintainability and many other disciplines necessary for successful system design, development and ultimate decommission become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, risk management tools in such projects, it overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as industrial engineering, process systems engineering, mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, control engineering, software engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, organizational studies, civil engineering and project management.

Systems engineering ensures that all aspects of a project or system are considered, integrated into a whole. The systems engineering process is a discovery process, quite unlike a manufacturing process. A manufacturing process is focused on repetitive activities that achieve high quality outputs with minimum cost and time; the systems engineering process must begin by discovering the real problems that need to be resolved, identifying the most probable or highest impact failures that can occur – systems engineering involves finding solutions to these problems. The term systems engineering can be traced back to Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1940s; the need to identify and manipulate the properties of a system as a whole, which in complex engineering projects may differ from the sum of the parts' properties, motivated various industries those developing systems for the U. S. Military; when it was no longer possible to rely on design evolution to improve upon a system and the existing tools were not sufficient to meet growing demands, new methods began to be developed that addressed the complexity directly.

The continuing evolution of systems engineering comprises the development and identification of new methods and modeling techniques. These methods aid in a better comprehension of the design and developmental control of engineering systems as they grow more complex. Popular tools that are used in the systems engineering context were developed during these times, including USL, UML, QFD, IDEF0. In 1990, a professional society for systems engineering, the National Council on Systems Engineering, was founded by representatives from a number of U. S. corporations and organizations. NCOSE was created to address the need for improvements in systems engineering practices and education; as a result of growing involvement from systems engineers outside of the U. S. the name of the organization was changed to the International Council on Systems Engineering in 1995. Schools in several countries offer graduate programs in systems engineering, continuing education options are available for practicing engineers.

Systems engineering signifies only an approach and, more a discipline in engineering. The aim of education in systems engineering is to formalize various approaches and in doing so, identify new methods and research opportunities similar to that which occurs in other fields of engineering; as an approach, systems engineering is interdisciplinary in flavour. The traditional scope of engineering embraces the conception, development and operation of physical systems. Systems engineering, as conceived, falls within this scope. "Systems engineering", in this sense of the term, refers to the building of engineering concepts. The use of the term "systems engineer" has evolved over time to embrace a wider, more holistic concept of "systems" and of engineering processes; this evolution of the definition has been a subject of ongoing controversy, the term continues to apply to both the narrower and broader scope. Traditional systems engineering was seen as a branch of engineering in the classical sense, that is, as applied only to physical systems, such as spacecraft and aircraft.

More systems engineering has evolved to a take on a broader meaning when humans were seen as an essential component of a system. Checkland, for example, captures the broader meaning of systems engineering by stating that'engineering' "can be read in its general sense. Enterprise Systems Engineering pertains to the view of enterprises, that is, organizations or combinations of organizations, as systems. Service Systems Engineering has to do with the engineering of service systems. Checkland defines a service system as a system, conceived as serving another system. Most civil infrastructure systems are service systems. Systems engineering focuses on analyzing and eliciting customer needs and required functionality early in the development cycle, documenting requirements proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem, the system lifecycle; this includes understanding all of the stakeholders invol

Harold Forster

Major Harold Thomas Forster DSO and Bar, MC and Bar was a British career soldier. He first served in the Royal Marines Light Infantry in the late 19th century before joining the British Army where he served in the ranks of the Royal Berkshire Regiment. By the outbreak of the First World War he was a company sergeant major. Decorated during the war he was commissioned, continuing to serve with the Royal Berkshires until 1918, he transferred to the 2nd Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment as second-in-command. At the time of his death, he was acting commanding officer following the earlier death of the battalion's lieutenant-colonel. Forster was a keen sportsman and played a season of first-class cricket for Hampshire County Cricket Club in 1911, he was a left-handed batsman. Forster was born at St Faith, Hampshire on 14 November 1878, his service record shows that he served with the Royal Marines Light Infantry from 1897 to 1899. Having bought himself out, he re-enlisted in the Royal Berkshire Regiment.

He progressed through the ranks, by the outbreak of the First World War was a company sergeant major in 1st Battalion, Royal Berkshires. His battalion was sent to France as part of the British Expeditionary Force, he is recorded as first entering a theatre of war on 13 August 1914. Forster was commissioned on 25 June 1915, posted to the 2nd Battalion, he was promoted lieutenant on 28 December 1915. On 15 June 1916 Forster was Mentioned in Despatches, on 19 August 1916 he was awarded the Military Cross for distinguished conduct in the field while still a CSM, the citation read: Coy. S./M. Harold Thomas Forster, R. Berks. R. For gallantry and devotion to duty. A gallant warrant officer, he has maintained the same standard in the performance of his duties, he was appointed battalion adjutant on 22 October 1916. He received a further Mention on 25 May 1917; the award of the Distinguished Service Order was gazetted on 26 September 1917, as was the Bar to his MC, He was again Mentioned in Despatches on 21 December 1917.

The citations for the DSO and Bar to the MC followed on 9 January 1918: Lt. Harold Thomas Forster, M. C. R. Berks. R. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, he took over command of his battalion when his colonel had become a casualty, led them with great skill to their objective, twice changing direction in order to avoid hostile barrage. He made a personal reconnaissance and ascertained the position of the enemy, after which he formed a defensive flank, was able to re-establish his line when it had been driven back by determined hostile couner-attacks, he remained cheerful throughout, showing a fine example of fearlessness and contempt for danger.... Lt. Harold Thomas Forster, D. S. O. M. C. R. Berks. R. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during an attack, he performed invaluable work as Adjutant throughout the day and controlling the men and showing great grasp of the situation. He set a fine example of resource to all. In April 1918 he was attached to 2nd Battalion, Northamptonshire Regiment as an acting major and second-in-command.

He assumed command of the battalion. Forster himself was killed in action at Bouleuse Ridge, near Ventelay, Marne on 29 May 1918, he was only reported missing, it took until 23 March 1919 for his death to be confirmed, he is buried at Wimille. On 16 September 1918 he was belatedly awarded a Bar to his DSO for the first few days of his command of 2nd Northants, the citation read: Lt. Harold Thomas Forster, ID. S. O. M. C. R. Berks. R. attd. North'n R. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, he assumed command of his battalion when his colonel was killed, by his coolness and skill extricated it from a critical situation and formed a defensive flank of the utmost importance. For three days and nights, by his pluck and energy, he set an example to his men of inestimable value under adverse conditions of continuous and heavy shell fire. Forster made his first-class debut for Hampshire 1911 against the Marylebone Cricket Club, where on debut he took 5/38 in the Marylebone Cricket Club's first innings, claiming figures of 9/92 in the match.

Forster played five first-class matches for Hampshire in 1911, with his final first-class appearance coming against Gloucestershire. In his five first-class matches Forster took ten wickets at an average of 21.20. This was Forster's only season in first-class cricket. During his army career, Forster played hockey for battalion sides. By one of Harold Forster's grandsons.http://www.alfo.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/htforster.htm Harold Forster at CricketArchive

254-260 Canal Street

254-260 Canal Street known as the Bruce Building, on the corner of Lafayette Street in the Chinatown neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, was built in 1856-57 and was designed in the Italian Renaissance revival style. The cast-iron elements of the facade may have been provided by James Bogardus, a pioneer in the use of cast iron in architecture; the building was constructed for George Bruce, a prosperous printer and inventor of new technologies in the printing industry, one of New York's leading industries. It was converted to offices in 1987 by architect Jack L. Gordon; the use of cast-iron columns in the large, five-story tall building allowed for the installation of large windows that improved manufacturing conditions and efficiency. The lot had become available because a lumber mill standing on the site had been destroyed by fire, making fire-retardant cast-iron construction attractive; the mildly Italinate style of the building, makes it a handsome example of nineteenth century industrial architecture.

It has been called "Beautiful!" and "an important early example of cast-iron architecture in New York City". If the cast iron did in fact come from Bogardus' iron works, the building would be "the largest and most important of his extant works."The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1985, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan below 14th Street Notes Media related to 254-260 Canal Street at Wikimedia Commons photo of 254 Canal Street

Nettop

A nettop is a small-sized, low-power, legacy-free desktop computer designed for basic tasks such as web browsing, accessing web-based applications, document processing, audio/video playback. The word nettop is a portmanteau of desktop, it is the desktop counterpart of the netbook. Compared to ordinary desktop computers, nettops are not only smaller and cheaper, but they consume much less power. For example, CompuLab's fit-PC2 consumes no more than 8 watts of power whereas a typical desktop would consume more than 100 watts of power; some do not have an optical disk drive and use a solid state drive, making them silent. The tradeoff is that the hardware specifications and processing power are reduced and hence make nettops less appropriate for running complex or resource-intensive applications. Nettops and Mini PCs have; the "first wave" of such devices, which occurred in the mid to late 2000s, were referred to as "nettops". These included devices such as the Acer AspireRevo seen above, were considered to be a kind of "temporary substitute" PC of a lower cost for users needing a second PC or for use in developing countries.

Another held view at the time was their use as a stepping stone towards a Thin Client-based always online computer that would "replace inefficient PCs". As demand for these devices waned, the industry responded by addressing the chief complaint that these devices would be better as portable devices such as a new form of laptop; the result was the netbook, a device, considered the true future of the nettop. However, prevailing attitudes and economic issues in 2008 onward made these popular due to their low cost and portability along with the then-expanding feature-set. In August 2009, reports from reviewers were that a netbook of the time and a traditional laptop of the same price were otherwise identical; the implications that the price of standard notebooks should be dropped was a financial liability, due to huge unsold inventories of standard laptops in retail chains and an unfavorable market in which to unload them meant that cannibalisation of laptop sales by netbooks would be financially undesirable for the industry.

A clearance sale was not an option under these conditions among multiple retail chains and online shopping sites. These factors, along with a desire to keep netbook sales going to recoup R&D, design and manufacturing costs, were all contributing factors of an industry-wide effort to sabotage netbooks through purposefully limited devices that could be sold cheaply while acting as a form of social engineering towards discrediting netbook devices; the direct lineage between nettops and netbooks meant that the concept of a "net-" prefix was considered a failed idea. Devices such as Chromebooks, Tablet PCs, Ultrabooks and other devices responded by branding themselves as a different type of device such as Chrome OS being a pure web client or the proposal that the ultrabook succeeded by compensating for its lighter weight and otherwise equal-performance parts with a higher price tag. In 2015, a revival of the concept came about from a unrelated source, a technological form of convergent evolution.

Via the likely-observed success of the stick PC, the idea of combining a System on a chip with a Single-board computer has led to a continuation of the nettop's original product goals. Mini PCs such as the MINIX Z83-4 or the Azulle Access Plus are referred to as "Mini PCs", despite being identical or near-identical on paper to the nettop architecture. There are three platforms that are intended for nettops and netbooks: Intel's Centrino Atom platform Nvidia's Ion platform VIA's Trinity PlatformSome nettops have adopted system-on-a-chip designs. Although many major parts such as chipsets, video cards and storage devices can be found on desktops, the CPUs that are put inside nettops are the fundamental component that differentiate them from normal desktops; the list below contains a range of hardware components. CPU Intel Atom, Core i3 VIA Nano and VIA C7 processors AMD Fusion AMD Geode ARM Cortex-based CPU Loongson GPU Intel GMA 950 S3 Graphics Chrome GeForce 9400M G AMD Radeon HD 6310 ATI HD4530 PowerVR Chipset 945GSE and 945GC Express chipsets MCP79MX VIA VX800 IGP Chipset RAM 512 MB to 2 GB SDRAM, DDR or DDR2 memory Storage devices at least 1 GB flash memory 2.5" hard disk drive or solid-state drive Network Ethernet and/or Wi-Fi I/O ports LAN, USB 2.0, video out, audio outIntel's Atom processor has been adopted by several hardware manufacturers, such as ASUS, MSI, Sony, for nettops.

Nvidia has released its first generation ION platform, which puts GeForce 9400M Motherboard GPU alongside the Atom processor to provide better high definition video playback ability and lower power consumption. In addition, Nvidia has announced. To further reduce the manufacturing cost and improve power efficiency, many manufacturers and start-up companies have chosen to use CPUs that were targeted at embedded computing devices such as AMD's Geode and ARM Cortex-based CPUs. Many net-top models are as such are capable of running standard PC OSes. There are operating systems designed for nettops and other machines in the same performance class; some high-end nettops are capable of running Windows 10. Google's Android Linux distribu

St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church (New Bern, North Carolina)

St. Paul Catholic Church is a Roman Catholic parish in New Bern, North Carolina within the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Raleigh, its historic parish church is located at 510 Middle Street. The parish hosts a parochial school, St. Paul Catholic School; the church, built in 1840-1841, is a Greek Revival rectangular frame structure three bays wide and four bays deep covered by a gable roof. It features a central square projecting entrance tower, added in 1896, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Historic American Buildings Survey No. NC-53, "St. Paul's Roman Catholic Church, 510 Middle Street, New Bern, Craven County, NC", 1 photo, 2 data pages

Reuben Gaylord

Reuben Gaylord was the recognized leader of the missionary pioneers in the Nebraska Territory, has been called the "father of Congregationalism in Nebraska." Writing in memory of Gaylord in the early 1900s, fellow Omaha pioneer George L. Miller said, "It was Reuben Gaylord, the brave Christian soldier who brought Sunday into Omaha and the Trans-Missouri country. Born in Norfolk, Reuben Curtis Gaylord was one of eight children of Reuben Gaylord and Mary Curtis who were of Congregational heritage. Gaylord committed himself to Christianity, he graduated in 1834, when delivered the graduating oration. After he graduated Gaylord worked at the Illinois College in Illinois. There he taught and studied theology with Dr. Edward Beecher, president of the college and a son of Dr. Lyman Beecher, Yale 1797. In 1837 he returned to Yale Theological Seminary and graduated in 1838. Gaylord belonged to a band of pioneer ministers well known in the history of Congregationalism who came west after they graduated from the Yale Divinity School in 1838 to established churches in Iowa.

He was ordained at Plymouth, Connecticut in August 1839. His first daughter was born on October 13, 1839, his 23-year-old wife died on September 23, 1840. Soon after graduation Gaylord was commissioned by the American Home Missionary Society of Yale College to work in Henry County, Iowa, he was the second Congregational minister in that state, preaching at the Mount Pleasant and Danville, Iowa churches, became the permanent minister at the Danville Congregational Church. While there he became a founding member of the board of trustees of Iowa College at Grinell, now known as Grinnell College. O. D. Richardson, former governor of Michigan and Congregationalist, invited Gaylord to come and work in Omaha, Nebraska, he first came in September 1855. Moving his family there on Christmas Day, 1855, Gaylord preached his sermons in the Nebraska State House in Omaha, the only place in Omaha available. On May 4, 1856, Gaylord organized the First Congregational Church of Omaha with nine members. A building was completed in August 1857.

He organized the Congregational Church in Fontanelle and Fort Calhoun. He played a key role in establishing the first Nebraska University in Fontanelle. In 1864 he was appointed agent for the American Home Missionary Society for western Iowa and the entirety of Nebraska, he accepted this appointment and resigned from the church in Omaha, working there until 1871. Afterwards he returned to Omaha preaching in LaPlatte, Papillion and other places. In 1875, he returned to Fontanelle as the minister, preached at the church in Jalapa as well. Gaylord died in the town of Fontanelle in 1880. Gaylord's first wife was Sarah Burton, whom he was married to in 1838, they had one child. In 1841 Reuben married Mary N. Welles, a direct descendant of Thomas Welles, the Fourth Colonial Governor of Connecticut. Reuben and Mary were the parents of four children. History of Omaha