National symbols of Hungary
The national symbols of Hungary are flags, icons or cultural expressions that are emblematic, representative or otherwise characteristic of Hungary or Hungarian culture. The valued special Hungarian products and symbols are called Hungaricum; the flag of Hungary is a horizontal tricolor of red and green. The coat of arms of the Árpád dynasty is popular. A fifth of the country is forested, however only 10 percent is natural forest. Hungary is home to some 2,200 flowering plant species and, because of its topography and transitional climate, many of them are not found at this latitude. Much of the flora in the Villány and Mecsek Hills in Southern Transdanubia, for example, is seen only around the Mediterranean Sea. On the southern Szársomlyó Hill of the Villány Mountains, the unknown Colchicum hungaricum' was found and botanically described in 1867 by the Hungarian botanist Viktor Janka; this is the earliest Hungarian flower to bloom. The saline Hortobágy region on the Eastern Plain has many plants found on the seashore, the Nyírség area is famous for meadow flowers.
The Gemenc forest on the Danube River near Szekszárd, the Little Balaton in the center of Transdanubia, the Tisza River backwater east of Kecskemét are important wetlands. Most of the trees in the nation's forests are deciduous beech and birch, a small percentage are fir. Since the 14th century, over 250 new plants have colonized Hungary, of which 70 are considered invasive. Many such plants are perennial herbs that have extirpated some native flora. Hungary was the second largest supplier of paprika to the United States, despite the spice not being a product of a Hungarian native plant. Hungarian paprika has a distinctive flavor and is in great demand in Europe where it is used as a spice rather than as a coloring agent. "Himnusz" was adopted in the 19th century and the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies. The words were written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet in 1823, its official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel in 1844, although other, lesser known musical versions exist.
The traditional Hungarian dishes abound in piquant aromas. Dishes are flavorful and rather heavy. Flavors of Hungarian dishes are based on centuries-old traditions in spicing and preparation methods; the exquisite ingredients are produced by local husbandry. Paprika and garlic are to be found everywhere. In the Middle Ages the fish soup was the most lovely fishmeal in Hungary. A cookery book from 1860 contains 400 fish recipes; the most well-known specialities of Hungarian cuisine such as goulash soup, the different varieties of stew and paprikás are red with paprika. Hungary List of Hungarian dishes Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park
John Hunyadi was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century. According to most contemporary sources, he was the son of a noble family of Romanian ancestry, he mastered his military skills on the southern borderlands of the Kingdom of Hungary that were exposed to Ottoman attacks. Appointed voivode of Transylvania and head of a number of southern counties, he assumed responsibility for the defense of the frontiers in 1441. Hunyadi adopted the Hussite method of using wagons for military purposes, he employed professional soldiers, but mobilized local peasantry against invaders. These innovations contributed to his earliest successes against the Ottoman troops who were plundering the southern marches in the early 1440s. Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.
The pope ordered that European Churches ring their bells at noon to gather the faithful in prayer for those who were fighting. The bells of Christian churches are rung at noon to commemorate the Belgrade victory. John Hunyadi was an eminent statesman, he took part in the civil war between the partisans of Wladislas I and the minor Ladislaus V, two claimants to the throne of Hungary in the early 1440s, on behalf of the former. Popular among the lesser nobility, the Diet of Hungary appointed him, in 1445, as one of the seven "Captains in Chief" responsible for the administration of state affairs until Ladislaus V came of age; the next Diet went further, electing Hunyadi as sole regent with the title of governor. When he resigned from this office in 1452, the sovereign awarded him with the first hereditary title in the Kingdom of Hungary, he had by this time become one of the wealthiest landowners in the kingdom, preserved his influence in the Diet up until his death. This Athleta Christi, as Pope Pius II referred to him, died some three weeks after his triumph at Nándorfehérvár/Belgrade, falling to an epidemic that had broken out in the crusader camp.
However, his victories over the Turks prevented them from invading the Kingdom of Hungary for more than 60 years. His fame was a decisive factor in the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus, as king by the Diet of 1457. Hunyadi is a popular historical figure among Hungarians, Serbians and other nations of the region. A royal charter of grant issued on 18 October 1409 contains the first reference to John Hunyadi. In the document, King Sigismund of Hungary bestowed Hunyad Castle and the lands attached to it upon John's father and Voyk's four kinsmen, including John himself. According to the document, John's father served in the royal household as a "court knight" at that time, suggesting that he was descended from a respected family. Two 15th-century chroniclers—Johannes de Thurocz and Antonio Bonfini—write that Voyk had moved from Wallachia to Hungary upon King Sigismund's initiative. László Makkai, Malcolm Hebron, Pál Engel and other scholars accept the two chroniclers' report of the Wallachian origin of John Hunyadi's father.
In contrast with them, Ioan-Aurel Pop says that Voyk was a native of the wider region of Hunyad Castle. Antonio Bonfini was the first chronicler to have made a passing remark of an alternative story of John Hunyadi's parentage, soon stating that it was just a "tasteless tale" fabricated by Hunyadi's opponent, Ulrich II, Count of Celje. According to this anecdote, John was not Voyk's child, but King Sigismund's illegitimate son; the story became popular during the reign of John Hunyadi's son, Matthias Corvinus who erected a statue for King Sigismund in Buda. The 16th-century chronicler Gáspár Heltai repeated and further developed the tale, but modern scholars—for instance and Kubinyi—regard it as an unverifiable gossip. Hunyadi's popularity among the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula give rise to further legends of his royal parentage; the identification of John Hunyadi's mother is less certain. In connection with King Sigismund's supposed parentage, both Bonfini and Heltai say that she was the daughter of a rich boyar, or nobleman, whose estates were located at Morzsina.
Pop proposes. According to historian László Makkai, John Hunyadi's mother was a member of the Muzsina kenez family from Demsus, but Pop refuses the identification of the Morzsina and Muzsina families. With regard of John Hunyadi's mother, Bonfini provides an alternative solution as well, stating that she was a distinguished Greek lady, but does not name her. According to Kubinyi, her alleged Greek origin may refer to her Orthodox faith. In a letter of 1489, Matthias Corvinus wrote that his grandmother's sister, whom the Ottoman Turks had captured and forced to join the harem of an unnamed Sultan, became the ancestor of Cem, the rebellious son of Sultan Mehmed II. Based on this letter, historian Kubinyi says that the "Greek connection cannot be discounted entirely". If Matthias Corvinus' report is valid, John Hunyadi—the hero of anti-Ottoman wars—and the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II were first cousins. On the other hand, historian Péter E. Kovács writes that Matthias Corvinus's story about his family connection with the Ottoman Sultans was nothing but a pack of lies.
Hunyadi's year of birth is uncertain. Although Gáspár Heltai writes that Hunyadi was born in
Coat of arms of Croatia
The coat of arms of the Republic of Croatia consists of one main shield and five smaller shields which form a crown over the main shield. The main coat of arms is a checkerboard that consists of 12 silver fields. It's informally known in Croatian as šahovnica; the five smaller shields represent five different historical regions within Croatia. The checkerboard coat of arms is first attested as an official symbol of the Kingdom of Croatia on an Innsbruck tower depicting the emblem of Maximilian I, Archduke of Austria in 1495, it appeared on a seal from the Cetingrad Charter that confirmed the 1527 election of Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria as king of Croatia in Cetin. The origin of the design has been purported as being medieval. Historic tradition states it to be the arms of Stephen Držislav in the 10th century. A Split stone baptistry from the time of Peter Krešimir IV has engraved falcons that carry something that resembles a chequy on their wings, the bell tower of the medieval Church of St. Lucy, Jurandvor has a checkerboard pattern carved onto it.
The size of the checkerboard ranges from 3×3 to 8×8, but most 5×5, like in the current design. It was traditionally conjectured that the colours represented two ancient Croat states, Red Croatia and White Croatia, but there is no historical evidence to support this. Towards the Late Middle Ages the distinction for the three crown lands was made; the šahovnica was used as the coat of arms of Croatia proper & together with the shields of Slavonia and Dalmatia was used to represent the whole of Croatia in Austria-Hungary. It was used as an unofficial coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia adopted in 1848 and as an official coat of arms of the post-1868 Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia; the two are the same except for the position of the šahovnica and Dalmatian coat of arms which are switched around & with different crowns used above the shield – the employing St Stephen's crown. By late 19th century šahovnica had come to be considered a recognized symbol for Croats and Croatia and in 1919, it was included in the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes to represent Croats.
When the Banovina of Croatia was formed, the šahovnica was retained as the official symbol. The Ustashe regime which had ruled Croatia during the World War II superimposed their ideological symbol, the letter "U" above or around the šahovnica as the official national symbol during their rule. After the Second World War, the new Socialist Republic of Croatia became a part of the federal Second Yugoslavia; the šahovnica was included in the new socialist coat of arms. It was designed in the socialist tradition, including symbols like wheat for peasants and an anvil for workers, as well as a rising sun to symbolize a new morning and a red star for communism. During the change to multiparty elections in Croatia, prior to the establishment of the current design, the šahovnica, shedding the communist symbols that were the hallmark of Croatia in the second Yugoslavia, reappeared as a stand-alone symbol as both the'upper left square red' and'upper left square white' variants; the choice of'upper left square red' or'upper left square white' was dictated by heraldic laws and aesthetic requirements.
The first-field-white variant was adopted by the Republic of Croatia and used in 1990. According to constitutional changes which came into effect on 26 June 1990 the red star in the flag of SR Croatia was to be replaced by the "historical Croatian coat of arms with 25 red and white fields", without specifying order of fields; the first-field-white variant was used at the official flag hoisting ceremony on 25 July and was occasionally used on par with the first-field-red variant until 12 December 1990 when the current coat of arms was adopted. On 21 December 1990, the post-socialist government of Croatia, passed a law prescribing the design created by the graphic designer Miroslav Šutej, under the aegis of a commission chaired by Nikša Stančić head of the Department of Croatian History at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zagreb; the new design added the five crowning shields. They are, from left to right: Some of the more traditional heraldic pundits have criticized the latest design for various design solutions, such as adding a crown to the coat, varying shades of blue in its fields, adding the red border around the coat.
The government has accepted their criticism insofar as not accepting further non-traditional designs for the county coats of arms, but the national symbol has remained intact. Unlike in many countries, Croatian design more uses symbolism from the coat of arms, rather than from the Croatian flag; this is due to the geometric design of the shield which makes it appropriate for use in many graphic contexts, because the Pan-Slavic colors are present in many European flags. Most coats of arms used in the crown on the modern-day coat of arms differ from accurate versions. Flag of Croatia Republic of Croatia – Ministry of Foreign Affairs & European Integration Croatian Government website – Flag, Coat-of-Arms and National Anthem Croatian Coat of Arms during centuries – Darko Zubrinic, 2005 Croatia – Coat of Arms – Zeljko Heimer 2000 Croatia – Proposals for
The Turul is a mythological bird of prey depicted as a hawk or falcon, in Hungarian tradition and a national symbol of modern Hungary and Transylvania. The Turul is based on a large falcon, the origin of the word is most Turkic: togrıl or turgul means a medium to large bird of prey of the family Accipitridae, goshawk or red kite. In Hungarian the word sólyom means falcon, there are three ancient words describing different kinds of falcons: kerecsen and turul. In Hungarian tradition, it originated as the clan symbol used in the 9th and 10th centuries by the ruling House of Arpad. In the legend of Emese, recorded in the Gesta Hungarorum and the Chronicon Pictum, the turul is mentioned as occurring in a dream of Emese, when she was pregnant. In older literature, this was interpreted as "impregnation"; the Turul's role is one of a protector spirit. In a second dream by the leader of the Hungarian tribes, in which eagles attacked their horses and a Turul came and saved them, it is said that the mythic bird, the Turul, is the original bird of the original Hungarians, the Magyars, who migrated out of the plains of Central Asia.
The legend says that in 896 AD, the bird dropped its sword in what is now modern day Budapest, indicating to the Magyars that the area was to be their homeland. Thus, what they say was the beginning of the 1000 years the Magyars have lived in their now capital city area of Budapest; the Turul is used as in the design of coats of arms of the Hungarian Army, the Counter Terrorism Centre and the Office of National Security. There were each with a wingspan of 15 metres, in Greater Hungary; the last of the three stands on a mountain near Tatabánya, but the other two were destroyed. It is the largest bird statue in Europe, the largest bronze statue in Central Europe. There remain at least 195 Turul statues in Hungary, as well as 48 in Romania, 8 in Slovakia, 7 in Serbia, 5 in Ukraine, 1 in Austria. One of the most erected, as of 29 September 2012, on St. Michael the Archangel's Day, is in Hungary's Ópusztaszer National Heritage Park; some of the Kingdom of Hungary postage stamps issued after 1900 feature the Turul.
Oksoko Konrul National symbols of Hungary Historical coat of arms of Transylvania Tughril Media related to Turul at Wikimedia Commons Hungarian Mythology - The origin of the mythical bird, its connection to the hun culture
"Himnusz" is the national anthem of Hungary. It was adopted in the 19th century and the first stanza is sung at official ceremonies; the words were written by Ferenc Kölcsey, a nationally renowned poet, in 1823, its official musical setting was composed by the romantic composer Ferenc Erkel in 1844, although other less-known musical versions exist. The poem bore the subtitle "A magyar nép zivataros századaiból"; the full meaning of the poem's text is evident only to those well acquainted with Hungarian history. The lyrics of "Himnusz" are a prayer beginning with áldd meg a magyart; the title in the original manuscript is "Hymnus"—a Latin word meaning "song of praise", one, used in languages other than English to mean "anthem." The phonetic transcription "Himnusz" replaced the original Latin spelling over time, as the poem gained widespread acceptance as the de facto anthem of Hungary, so too the word "himnusz" took on the meaning "national anthem" for other countries as well. Although Kölcsey completed the poem on 22 January 1823, it was only published first in 1829 in Károly Kisfaludy's Aurora, without the subtitle, despite it being part of the manuscript.
It subsequently appeared in a collection of Kölcsey's works in this time with the subtitle. A competition for composers to make the poem suitable to be sung by the public was staged in 1844 and won by Erkel's entry, his version was first performed in the National Theatre in July 1844 in front of a larger audience on 10 August 1844, at the inaugural voyage of the steamship Széchenyi. By the end of the 1850s it became customary to sing Himnusz at special occasions either alongside Vörösmarty's Szózat or on its own. In the early 1900s, various members of the Hungarian Parliament proposed making the status of Himnusz as the national anthem of Hungary within Austria-Hungary official, but their efforts never got enough traction for such a law to be passed. In the 1950s, Rákosi made plans to have the anthem replaced by one more suited to the Communist ideology, but the poet and composer he had in mind for the task, Illyés and Kodály, both refused, it wasn't until 1989 that Erkel's musical adaptation of Himnusz gained official recognition as Hungary's national anthem, by being mentioned as such in the Constitution of Hungary.
The public radio station Kossuth Rádió plays Himnusz at ten minutes past midnight each day at the close of transmissions in the AM band, as do the state TV channels at the end of the day's broadcasts. Himnusz is traditionally played on Hungarian television at the stroke of midnight on New Year's Eve. "Szózat", which starts with the words Hazádnak rendületlenül légy híve, óh magyar enjoys a social status nearly equal to that of "Himnusz" though only "Himnusz" is mentioned in the Constitution of Hungary. Traditionally, Himnusz is sung at the beginning of ceremonies, Szózat at the end. Recognition is given to the "Rákóczi March", a short wordless piece, used on state military occasions. Another popular song is the "Székely Himnusz", an unofficial ethnic anthem of the Hungarian-speaking Szekler living in Eastern Transylvania, the Székely Land and in the rest of the world. Two English versions are given below; as Hungarian is a genderless language, masculine pronouns in the English translations are in fact addressed to all Hungarians regardless of gender.
On May 7, 2006, a sculpture was inaugurated for Himnusz at Szarvas Square, Budakeszi, a small town close to Budapest. It was created by Mária V. Majzik, an artist with the Hungarian Heritage Award, depicting the full text of the poem in a circle, centered around a two metres high bronze figure of God, with 21 bronze bells in seven arches between eight pieces of stone, each four and a half metres high; the musical form of the poem can be played on the bells. The cost of its construction, 40 million forints, was collected through public subscription. Hungarian anthem Hungary: Himnusz - Audio of the national anthem of Hungary, with information and lyrics National and historical symbols of Hungary has a page about the anthem, featuring a vocal sound file. Sheet Music is available at the Hungarian Electronic Library website. Hungarian Anthem on Music Keyboard 2.4
Árpád was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or kende of the Hungarians, or their military leader or gyula, although most details of his life are debated by historians, because different sources contain contradictory information. Despite this, many Hungarians refer to him as the "founder of our country", Árpád's preeminent role in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin has been emphasized by some chronicles; the dynasty descending from Árpád ruled the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301. Árpád was the son of Álmos, mentioned as the first head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes by all Hungarian chronicles. His mother's name and family are unknown. According to historian Gyula Kristó, Árpád was born around 845, his name derived from the Hungarian word for barley, árpa, of Turkic origin. The Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus states that the Hungarians "had never at any time had any other prince" before Árpád, in sharp contrast to the Hungarian chronicles' report of the position of Árpád's father.
In Porphyrogenitus's narration, the Khazar khagan initiated the centralization of the command of the Hungarian tribes in order to strengthen his own suzerainty over them. The khagan wanted to appoint a chieftain named Levedi to lead the Hungarians. However, Levedi did not accept this offer and suggested that either Álmos or Árpád should be promoted instead of him; the khagan approached the Hungarians with this new proposal. They preferred Árpád to his father, because he was "greatly admired for wisdom and counsel and valour, capable of this rule". Thereafter, Árpád was made "prince according to the custom... of the Chazars, by lifting him upon a shield." Constantine Porphyrogenitus refers to Árpád as "great prince of Turkey". The reliability of the Byzantine emperor's report of Árpád's election is debated by modern historians: for instance, Victor Spinei states that it is "rather vague and scarcely credible", but András Róna-Tas writes that its core is reliable; the latter historian adds that Árpád's election was promoted by Álmos who forced Levedi kende to renounce.
Accordingly, in Róna-Tas's view, Árpád succeeded Levedi as sacred ruler or kende, which enabled his father to preserve his own position of the actual leader of the Hungarians or gyula. The earliest reliable source of Árpád's life is an early 10th-century document, the Continuation of the Chronicle by George the Monk, it narrates that the Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise sent his envoy Nicetas Sclerus to the Hungarians in 894 or 895 "to give presents" and incite them against the Bulgarian Empire. Sclerus met with Árpád and Kurszán, at the Lower Danube. Sclerus's mission succeeded: a Hungarian army soon crossed the Danube on Byzantine ships against Bulgaria. An interpolation in Porphyrogenitus's text suggests that the invading Hungarians were under the command of Árpád's son, Liüntika; the positions held by Árpád and Kurszán at the time of their negotiations with Sclerus are debated by historians. Spinei wrote that Árpád was the gyula, Kurszán was the kende. In contrast, Kristó said that Kurszán was the gyula and Árpád represented his father, Álmos kende.
At that time, the Bulgarians had disregarded the peace treaty and were raiding through the Thracian countryside. Justice pursued them for breaking their oath to Christ our God, the emperor of all, they met up with their punishment. While our forces were engaged against the Saracens, divine Providence led the, in place of the Romans, to campaign against the Bulgarians. Our Majesty's fleet of ships supported them and ferried them across the Danube. sent them out against the army of the Bulgarians that had so wickedly taken up arms against Christians and, as though they were public executioners, they decisively defeated them in three engagements, so that the Christian Romans might not willingly stain themselves with the blood of the Christian Bulgarians. The Hungarian army defeated the Bulgarians; the Bulgarians and Pechenegs invaded the Hungarians' territories in the western regions of the Pontic steppes in 895 or 896. The destruction of their dwelling places by the Pechenegs forced the Hungarians to leave for a new homeland across the Carpathian Mountains towards the Pannonian Plain.
The Illuminated Chronicle says that Árpád's father Álmos "could not enter Pannonia, for he was killed in Erdelw" or Transylvania. Engel, Kristó and Molnár, who accept the reliability of this report, wrote that Álmos's death was a ritual murder, similar to the sacrifice of the Khazar khagans in case of a disaster affecting their people. In contrast with them, Róna-Tas states that if the report on Álmos's murder "reflects true event, the only possible explanation would be that Árpád or someone in his entourage" killed the aged prince. Spinei rejects the Illuminated Chronicle's report on Álmos's murder in Transylvania, because the last mention of Álmos in the contrasting narration of the Gesta Hungarorum is connected to a siege of Ungvár by the Hungarians; the latter chronicle says that Álmos appointed Árpád "as leader and master" of the Hungarians on this occasion. Árpád's name "is unknown" to all sources written in East Francia, one of the main powers of the Carpathian Basin at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.
These sources, including the Annales Alamannici and the Annales Eisnidlenses, only mention another Hungarian leader, Kurszán. According to Kristó and other historians, these sources suggest that Kurszán must have been the
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king