Baraolt is a town and administrative district in Covasna County, Romania. It lies in an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania; the town was mentioned for the first time as a settlement in 1224. It administers five villages: Biborțeni / Bibarcfalva Bodoș / Bodos Căpeni / Köpec Micloșoara / Miklósvár Racoșul de Sus / Felsőrákos According to the 2011 Census, Baraolt has a population of 8,567 and an absolute Székely Hungarian majority 8,213 Hungarians, 237 Romanians, 100 Roma, 15 others). 47.9% of the town's inhabitants adhere to the Hungarian Reformed Church, while 29.9% follow Roman Catholicism, 16.8% consider themselves Unitarians and 2.6% are Romanian Orthodox. According to the 2011 Census the ethnic composition of the town was as follows: Székely Hungarian made up; the town has a provincial hospital with 82 beds. The hospital's specialties include internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, paediatrics. Demographic movement according to the censuses: About the town on Covasna County's Prefecture's Site About the town on Covasna County's Council's site
Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary. It is the largest part of the wider Pannonian Plain. In Hungarian, the plain is known as Alföld, its boundaries are the Carpathians in the north and east, the Transdanubian Mountains and Croatian mountains in the southwest, the Sava river in the south. Its territory covers 52,000 km2 of Hungary 56% of its total area of 93,030 km2; the highest point of the plain is Hoportyó. The terrain ranges from flat to rolling plains; the most important Hungarian writers inspired by and associated with the plain are Ferenc Móra and Zsigmond Móricz, as well as the poets Sándor Petőfi and Gyula Juhász. Hungarian scientists born on the plain include physicist; the most important river of the plain is Tisza. The notable cities and towns with medicinal baths are Berekfürdő, Cserkeszőlő, Hajdúszoboszló, Szentes and Szolnok. Among the cultural festivals and programmes characteristic of the region are the Csángófesztivál in Jászberény, the Cseresznyefesztivál in Nagykörű, the Gulyásfesztivál in Szolnok, the Hídi Vásár in Hortobágy National Park, the Hunniális at Ópusztaszer, the Szabadtéri Játékok in Szeged, the Várjátékok in Gyula, the Virágkarnevál in Debrecen and the Bajai Halászléfőző Népünnepély in Baja.
The part of the plain located in Hungary comprises the following areas: The term is being used in Serbia to denote Hungarian portion of the Pannonian plain. Pannonian plain in Serbia is divided into 3 large geographical areas: Bačka, Banat and Srem, most of which are located in the Vojvodina province; the term is used in Croatia, is associated with the geography of Hungary. Parts of Pannonian Croatia can be considered an extension of Alföld eastern Slavonia and the connected parts of Syrmia. Part of the plain located in Slovakia is known as Eastern Slovak Lowland. Part of the plain located in Ukraine is known as Transcarpathian Lowland. In Romania, the plain includes various regions like Crişana. Here, its name is The Western Plain. During the prehistoric era, the Great Hungarian Plain was a place of cultural and technological changes, as well as an important meeting point of cultures of Eastern and Western Europe, it is a region of great archaeological importance to major European cultural transitions.
Agriculture began in the Great Hungarian Plain with the Early Neolithic Körös culture, located in present-day Serbia, 6.000-5.500 B. C. E. Followed 5.500 B. C. E. by the Linear Pottery culture which became the dominant agricultural culture of Europe. The LBK was followed by the Lengyel culture in the Late Neolithic 5000-3400 BC. During the Early Bronze Age, the growing demand for metal ores in Europe resulted in the new pan-European and intercontinental trade networks. During that period cultures of the Great Hungarian Plain incorporated many elements from the other cultures of Bronze Age Near Eastern and Central Europe During the early Iron Age, a variant of the Central European Hallstatt culture inhabited Transdanubia, while pre-Scythian and Scythian cultures were found in the eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain. In 2014, a major study of DNA from burials in the Great Hungarian Plain was published; the 5,000-year record indicated significant genomic shifts at the beginning of the Neolithic and Iron Ages, with periods of stability in between.
The earliest Neolithic genome was similar to other European hunter-gatherers and there was no evidence of lactase persistence at that period. The most recent samples, from the Iron Age, showed an eastern genomic influence contemporary with introduced Steppe burial rites. There was a transition towards lighter pigmentation. Little Hungarian Plain Eurasian Steppe Steppe Route Pannonian Basin Vienna Basin Puszta Media related to Great Hungarian Plain at Wikimedia Commons Great Hungarian Plain travel guide from Wikivoyage Körös Regional Archaeological Project: Neolithic and Copper Age archaeology in the Great Hungarian Plain
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and speak the Slovak language. In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora; the name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs. The original stem has been preserved in all Slovak words except the masculine noun; the first written mention of adjective slovenský is in 1294. The original name of Slovaks Slovenin/Slovene was still recorded in Pressburg Latin-Czech Dictionary, but it changed to Slovák under the influence of Czech and Polish language; the first written mention of new form in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov. The mentions in Czech sources are older; the change is not related to the ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages.
The word Slovak was used later as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language together with other forms. In Hungarian "Slovak" is Tót, an exonym, it was used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but came to refer to Slovaks. Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, Tótkomlós still bear the name. Tóth is a common Hungarian surname; the Slovaks have historically been variously referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende, or Wenden. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements; the early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level. Original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. Weakening of tribal consciousness was accelerated by Avars, who did not respect tribal differences in the controlled territory and motivated remaining Slavs to join together and to collaborate on their defense.
In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union: Samo's empire. Regardless of Samo's empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities; the final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise. The first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia if it was inhabited by related Slavs; the Principality of Nitra become a part of a common state of Moravians and Slovaks. The short existence of Great Moravia prevented it from suppressing differences which resulted from its creation from two separate entities, therefore a common "Slovak-Moravian" ethnic identity failed to develop; the early political integration in the territory of present-day Slovakia was however reflected in linguistic integration. While dialects of early Slovak ancestors were divided into West Slavic and non-West Slavic, between the 8th and 9th centuries both dialects merged, thus laying the foundations of a Slovak language.
The 10th century is a milestone in the Slovak ethnogenesis. The fall of Great Moravia and further political changes supported their formation into a separate nation. At the same time, with the extinction of the Proto-Slavic language, between the 10th and 13th centuries Slovak evolved into an independent language; the early existence of the Kingdom of Hungary positively influenced the development of common consciousness and companionship among Slavs in the Northern Hungary, not only within boundaries of present-day Slovakia. The clear difference between Slovaks and Hungarians made adoption of specific name unnecessary and Slovaks preserved their original name, used in communication with other Slavic peoples. In political terms, the medieval Slovaks were a part of the multi-ethnic political nation Natio Hungarica, together with Hungarians, Germans and other ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary. Since a medieval political nation did not consist of ordinary people but nobility, membership of the privileged class was necessary for all these peoples.
Like other nations, the Slovaks began to transform into a modern nation from the 18th century under the idea of national romanticism. The modern Slovak nation is the result of radical processes of modernization within the Habsburg Empire which culminated in the middle of the 19th century; the transformation process was slowed down by conflict with Hungarian nationalism and the ethnogenesis of the Slovaks become a political question regarding their deprivation and preservation of their language and national rights. In 1722, Mich
Hungarians known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture and language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic-speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries Slovakia, Romania, Croatia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; the Hungarians' own ethnonym to denote themselves in the Early Middle Ages is uncertain. The exonym "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from Oghur-Turkic On-Ogur. Another possible explanation comes from the Old Russian "Yugra".
It may refer to the Hungarians during a time when they dwelt east of the Ural Mountains along the natural borders of Europe and Asia before their conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Prior to the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin in 895/6 and while they lived on the steppes of Eastern Europe east of the Carpathian Mountains, written sources called the Magyars "Hungarians", specifically: "Ungri" by Georgius Monachus in 837, "Ungri" by Annales Bertiniani in 862, "Ungari" by the Annales ex Annalibus Iuvavensibus in 881; the Magyars/Hungarians belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance, it is possible that they became its ethnic majority. In the Early Middle Ages, the Hungarians had many names, including "Węgrzy", "Ungherese", "Ungar", "Hungarus"; the "H-" prefix is a addition of Medieval Latin. The Hungarian people refer to themselves by the demonym "Magyar" rather than "Hungarian". "Magyar" is Finno-Ugric from the Old Hungarian "mogyër". "Magyar" derived from the name of the most prominent Hungarian tribe, the "Megyer".
The tribal name "Megyer" became "Magyar" in reference to the Hungarian people as a whole. "Magyar" may derive from the Hunnic "Muageris" or "Mugel". The Greek cognate of "Tourkia" was used by the scholar and Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII "Porphyrogenitus" in his De Administrando Imperio of c. AD 950, though in his use, "Turks" always referred to Magyars; this was a misnomer, as while the Magyars had adopted some Turkic cultural traits, they are not a Turkic people. The historical Latin phrase "Natio Hungarica" had a wider and political meaning because it once referred to all nobles of the Kingdom of Hungary, regardless of their ethnicity or mother tongue. During the 4th millennium BC, the Uralic-speaking peoples who were living in the central and southern regions of the Urals split up; some dispersed towards the west and northwest and came into contact with Iranian speakers who were spreading northwards. From at least 2000 BC onwards, the Ugrian speakers became distinguished from the rest of the Uralic community, of which the ancestors of the Magyars, being located farther south, were the most numerous.
Judging by evidence from burial mounds and settlement sites, they interacted with the Indo-Iranian Andronovo culture. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Hungarians moved from the west of the Ural Mountains to the area between the southern Ural Mountains and the Volga River known as Bashkiria and Perm Krai. In the early 8th century, some of the Hungarians moved to the Don River to an area between the Volga and the Seversky Donets rivers. Meanwhile, the descendants of those Hungarians who stayed in Bashkiria remained there as late as 1241; the Hungarians around the Don River were subordinates of the Khazar khaganate. Their neighbours were the archaeological Saltov Culture, i.e. Bulgars and the Alans, from whom they learned gardening, elements of cattle breeding and of agriculture. Tradition holds; the names of the seven tribes were: Jenő, Kér, Keszi, Kürt-Gyarmat, Megyer, Nyék, Tarján. Around 830, a rebellion broke out in the Khazar khaganate; as a result, three Kabar tribes of the Khazars joined the Hungarians and moved to what the Hungarians call the Etelköz, the territory between the Carpathians and the Dnieper River.
The Hungarians faced their first attack by the Pechenegs around 854, though other sources state that an attack by Pechenegs was the reason for their departure to Etelköz. The new neighbours of the Hungarians were the eastern Slavs. From 862 onwards, the Hungarians along with their allies, the Kabars, started a series of looting raids from the Etelköz into the Carpathian Basin against the Eastern Frankish Empire and Great Moravia, but against the Balaton principality and Bulgaria. In 895/896, under the leadership of Árpád, some Hungarians crossed the Carpathians and entered the Carpathian Basin; the tribe called Magyar was the leading tribe of the Hungarian alliance that conquered the centre of the basin. At the same time, due to their involvement in the 894–896 Bulgaro-Byzantine war, Hungarians in Etelköz were attacked by Bulgaria and by their old enemies the Pechenegs; the Bulgarians won the decisive b
Upper Hungary is the usual English translation of Felvidék, the Hungarian term for the area, the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, now present-day Slovakia. The region has been called Felső-Magyarország. During the Ottoman wars, Upper Hungary meant only the northeastern parts of the Hungarian Kingdom; the northwestern regions belonged to Lower Hungary. Sometime during the 18th or 19th centuries, Upper Hungary began to imply the whole northern regions of the kingdom; the population of Upper Hungary was mixed and consisted of Slovaks, Hungarians and Ruthenians. The first complex demographic data are from the 18th century, in which Slovaks constituted the majority population in Upper Hungary. Slovaks called this territory "Slovensko", which term appears in written documents from the 15th century, but it was not defined and the region inhabited by Slovaks held no distinct legal, constitutional, or political status within Upper Hungary. There are different meanings: 1; the older Hungarian term Felső-Magyarország formally referred to what is today Slovakia in the 16th-18th centuries and informally to all the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century.
2. There are some 16th-century sources which refer to the Slovak-inhabited territory of the Kingdom of Hungary as "Sclavonia" or "Slováky", names that distinguish the region ethnically as well as geographically.3. The Hungarian Felvidék has had several informal meanings: In the 19th century and part of the 18th, it was used: to denote the mountainous northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary as opposed to the southern lowlands more to denote regions or territories situated at a higher altitude than the settlement of the speaker as a synonym for the then-meaning of Felső-Magyarország After World War I, the meaning in the Hungarian language was restricted to Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia, after World War II to Slovakia only. At the same time, the word felvidék remains a common Hungarian noun applied to areas at higher elevations, e.g. Balaton-felvidék, a hilly region and national park adjacent to Lake Balaton. After World War I, the meaning of Felvidék in the Hungarian language was restricted to the Slovakian and Carpathian Ruthenian parts of Czechoslovakia.
Today the term Felvidék is sometimes used in Hungary when speaking about Slovakia, it is used in Hungarian historical literature when speaking about the Middle Ages, i.e. before the name came into existence. The three counties of the region that remained in Hungary after World War I, are never called Upper Hungary today, only Northern Hungary. Any use of the word Felvidék to denote all of modern Slovakia is considered offensive by Slovaks, inappropriate by some Hungarians, but it is now used by the sizeable Hungarian minority in the southern border-zone of Slovakia to identify the Hungarian-majority areas where they live; some of them call themselves felvidéki magyarok, i.e. the "Upland Hungarians." The word felvidék is used as a component of the toponym Balaton-felvidék, describing the hilly area north of Lake Balaton, with no connection to the historical Upper Hungary. The term Upper Hungary occurs in publications on history as a somewhat-anachronistic translation of other, earlier designations denoting the same territory.
Some of the other terms were Partes Danubii septentrionales or Partes regni superiores. The actual name "Upper Hungary" arose from the latter phrase. In the 15th century, the "Somorja, Galgóc, Nyitra, Léva, Rimaszombat, Rozsnyó, Jászó, Kassa, Gálszécs, Nagymihály" line was the northern "boundary" of the Hungarian ethnic area; the Principality of Nitra developed into an independent Slavic state. In the early 9th century, the polity was situated on the north-western territories of present-day Slovakia; the term emerged after the conquest of today's Hungary by the Ottomans in the 16th century when Felső-Magyarország referred to present-day eastern Slovakia and the adjacent territories of today's Hungary and Ukraine that were not occupied by the Ottoman Empire. That territory formed a separate military district within Royal Hungary. At that time, present-day western Slovakia, sometimes the remaining territories of Royal Hungary to the south of it, were called Lower Hungary, it was a separate vassal state of the Ottoman Empire under Imre Thököly in the 1680s.
This usage occurs in many texts up to around 1800 – for example, the renowned mining school of Schemnitz/Selmecbánya/Banská Štiavnica in present-day central Slovakia was founded in "Lower" Hungary in the 18th century and Pozsony was referred to as being in "Lower" Hungary in the late 18th c
Treaty of Trianon
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary. The treaty defined its borders, it left Hungary as a landlocked state that covered 93,073 square kilometres, only 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary. Its population was 7.6 million, only 36% of the pre-war kingdom's population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total had a majority of non-Hungarians but 31% of Hungarians were left outside of post-Trianon Hungary. Five of the pre-war kingdom's ten largest cities were drawn into other countries; the treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. The principal beneficiaries of the territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, the First Austrian Republic.
One of the main elements of the treaty was the doctrine of "self-determination of peoples", it was an attempt to give the non-Hungarians their own national states. In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours; the treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated, the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, France; the treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August 1921. The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon, with some minor modifications until 1924 and the notable exception of three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947; the Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918 dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: Part of Transylvania south of the Mureş river and east of the Someş river, which came under the control of Romania.
On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania. Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia. Afterwards, the Slovak politician Milan Hodža discussed with the Hungarian Minister of Defence, Albert Bartha, a temporary demarcation line that had not followed the Slovak-Hungarian linguistic border, left more than 900,000 Hungarians in the newly formed Czechoslovakia; that was signed on 6 December 1918. South Slavic lands, after the war, were organised into two political formations – the State of Slovenes and Serbs and Banat, Bačka and Baranja, which both came under control of South Slavs, according to the ceasefire agreement of Belgrade signed on 13 November 1918. On 29 October 1918, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia parliament, an autonomous kingdom within the Transleithania, terminated the union with the Kingdom of Hungary and on 30 October 1918 the Hungarian diet adopted a motion declaring that the constitutional relations between the two states had ended.
Croatia-Slavonia was included in a newly formed State of Slovenes and Serbs on 29 October 1918. This state and the Kingdom of Serbia formed the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes on 1 December 1918; the territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja came under military control by the Kingdom of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. The Great People's Assembly of Serbs and other Slavs from Banat, Bačkam and Baranja declared union of this region with Serbia on 25 November 1918; the ceasefire line had the character of a temporary international border until the treaty. The central parts of Banat were assigned to Romania, respecting the wishes of Romanians from this area, which, on 1 December 1918, were present in the National Assembly of Romanians in Alba Iulia, which voted for union with the Kingdom of Romania; the city of Fiume was occupied by the Italian nationalists group. Its affiliation was a matter of international dispute between the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje remained under Hungarian control after the ceasefire agreement of Belgrade from 13 November 1918.
After the military victory of Croatian forces led by Slavko Kvaternik in Međimurje against Hungarian forces, this region voted in the Great Assembly of 9 January 1919 for separation from Hungary and entry into Yugoslavia. After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this cease-fire line, the Entente powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned and the Communists seized power. In spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was set up; this army was successful against the Czechoslovak Legions, due to covert food and arms aid from Italy. This made it possible for Hungary to reach nearly the forme