Táin Bó Cúailnge is an epic from early Irish literature, called "The Irish Iliad" though, like the Icelandic sagas and most other Early Irish literature, the Táin is written in prosimetrum, i.e. prose with periodic additions of verse composed by the characters. The Táin tells of a war against Ulster by Queen Medb of Connacht and her husband King Ailill, who intend to steal the stud bull Donn Cuailnge. Due to a curse upon the King and warrior's of Ulster, the invaders are opposed only by teenaged demigod Cú Chulainn; the Táin is traditionally set in the 1st century in a pre-Christian heroic age, is the central text of a group of tales known as the Ulster Cycle. It survives in three written versions or "recensions" in manuscripts of the 12th century and the first a compilation written in Old Irish, the second a more consistent work in Middle Irish, the third an Early Modern Irish version; the Táin has had an enormous influence on Irish culture. It is considered Ireland's national epic; the Táin is preceded by a number of remscéla, or pre-tales, which provide background on the main characters and explain the presence of certain characters from Ulster in the Connacht camp, the curse that causes the temporary inability of the remaining Ulstermen to fight and the magic origins of the bulls Donn Cuailnge and Finnbhennach.
The eight remscéla chosen by Thomas Kinsella for his 1969 translation are sometimes taken to be part of the Táin itself, but come from a variety of manuscripts of different dates. Several other tales exist which are described as remscéla to the Táin, some of which have only a tangential relation to it; the first recension begins with Ailill and Medb assembling their army in Cruachan, the purpose of this military build-up is taken for granted. The second recension adds a prologue in which Ailill and Medb compare their respective wealths and find that the only thing that distinguishes them is Ailill's possession of the phenomenally fertile bull Finnbhennach, born into Medb's herd but scorned being owned by a woman so decided to transfer himself to Ailill's. Medb determines to get the potent Donn Cuailnge from Cooley to equal her wealth with her husband, she negotiates with the bull's owner, Dáire mac Fiachna, to rent the animal for a year. However, her messengers while drunk, reveal that Medb intends to taken the bull by force if she is not allowed to borrow him.
The deal breaks down, Medb raises an army, including Ulster exiles led by Fergus mac Róich and other allies, sets out to capture Donn Cuailnge. The men of Ulster are disabled by the ces noínden. A separate tale explains this as the curse of the goddess Macha, who imposed it after being forced by the king of Ulster to race against a chariot while pregnant; the only person fit to defend Ulster is seventeen-year-old Cú Chulainn, he lets the army take Ulster by surprise because he's off on a tryst when he should be watching the border. Cú Chulainn, assisted by his charioteer Láeg, wages a guerrilla campaign against the advancing army halts it by invoking the right of single combat at fords, defeating champion after champion in a stand-off lasting months. However, he is unable to prevent Medb from capturing the bull. Cú Chulainn is both hindered by supernatural figures from the Tuatha Dé Danann. Before one combat the Morrígan, the goddess of war, visits him in the form of a beautiful young woman and offers him her love, but Cú Chulainn spurns her.
She reveals herself and threatens to interfere in his next fight. She does so, first in the form of an eel who trips him in the ford as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, as a heifer at the head of the stampede, but in each form, Cú Chulainn wounds her. After he defeats his opponent, the Morrígan appears to him in the form of an old woman milking a cow, with wounds corresponding to the ones Cú Chulainn gave her in her animal forms, she offers him three drinks of milk. With each drink he blesses her, the blessings heal her wounds. Cú Chulainn tells the Morrígan that had he known her real identity, he would not have spurned her. After a arduous combat Cú Chulain is visited by another supernatural figure, who reveals himself to be Cú Chulainn's father. Lug puts Cú Chulainn to sleep for three days. While Cú Chulainn sleeps the youth corps of Ulster come to his aid but are all slaughtered; when Cú Chulainn awakes he undergoes a spectacular ríastrad or "distortion", in which his body twists in its skin and he becomes an unrecognisable monster who knows neither friend nor foe.
Like a Viking berserker, Cú Chulainn launches a savage assault on the Connacht camp and avenges the youth corps sixfold. After this extraordinary incident, the sequence of single combats resumes, although on several occasions Medb breaks the agreement by sending several men against him at once; when Fergus, his foster-father, is sent to fight him, Cú Chulainn agrees to yield to him on the condition that Fergus yields the next time they meet. Medb incites Cú Chulainn's foster-brother Ferdiad to enter the fray, with poets ready to mock him as a coward, offering him the hand of her daughter Finnabair, her own "friendly thighs" as well. Cú Chulainn does not wish to kill his foster-brother and pleads with Ferdiad to withdraw from the fight. There follows a physically and gruelling three-day duel between the hero and his foster-brother. Cú Chulainn wins, killing Ferdiad with the Gáe Bolga. Wounded too sorely to continue
Atyrau, known as Guryev until 1991, is a city in Kazakhstan, the capital of Atyrau Region. It is located at the mouth of the Ural River on the Caspian Sea, 2,700 kilometres west of Almaty and 351 kilometres east of the Russian city of Astrakhan. Modern Atyrau is famous for its gas industries, it has 154,100 inhabitants, up from 142,500, 90% ethnic Kazakhs, the rest being Russians and other ethnic groups such as Tatars and Ukrainians. The wooden fort at the mouth of the Yaik River was founded in 1645 as Nizhny Yaitzky gorodok by the Russian trader Gury Nazarov, a native of Yaroslavl, who specialized in trade with Khiva and Bukhara; the fort was plundered by the Yaik Cossacks. Tsar Alexis sent a garrison of Streltsy to protect the fort from Cossack incursions. Despite these efforts, the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin held the town in 1667 and 1668; the fort lost its strategic significance and was demolished in 1810. Between 1708 and 1992 the city was known as Guriev; the Kazakh name Atyraý means'river delta'.
Atyrau is Kazakhstan's main harbour city on the Caspian Atyrau at the delta of the Ural River. Atyrau city is 20 metres below sea level; the city is considered to be located both in Europe, as it is divided by the Ural River. The city is a hub for the oil-rich Caspian Depression. An oil pipeline runs from Atyrau to Samara. A separate oil pipeline runs from the Tengiz field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiisk. Murzaev E. Dictionary of popular geographical terms states: "The branched coast of a large lake or sea, on which appeared the bay and islands, the estuaries of rivers and capes; the north-eastern coast of the Caspian Sea, including its alyp, the locals still call Atyrau. "A. Nurmaganbetov and M. Khobdabayev states: "The word atyrau, which earlier means" island " grasps the concept of the word saga -" the mouth of the river, "and this is natural, whatever the river, at the point where it enters the ocean or the sea, its mouth branches out, between each branch appears dry We think that this is the main reason for joint use of Atyrau together with the "mouth of the river".
Ecological Kazakh-Russian dictionary states: Atyrau is a tract, a cane shoal in the mouth of the Urals. Atyrau's climate is semi-arid, just shy of being classified as arid, with hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is low throughout the year. Snow is common, though light in winter; the lowest temperature on record is −37.9 °C, recorded in 1909, the highest temperature is 42.7 °C, recorded in 1984. It is much more continental than areas further west on the European continent, with summers characterized by temperatures averaging 33 °C and lack of precipitation, resembling continental hot-summer mediterranean climates, subarctic winters with little snow but with chilling temperatures; these vast temperature swings are more comparable to the North American plains. The third biggest refinery in Kazakhstan is located in Atyrau. Atyrau Refinery has a capacity of 16,600 m ³ / day. A deep oil refining complex is under construction, the final stage of complete reconstruction of Atyrau Oil Refinery.
This project is designed to process 2.4 million tons/year of raw materials. The project will increase the depth of the oil processing at the refinery by 2016 to 85%; the volume of oil refining will reach 5.5 million tons per year. Atyrau is located near Tengiz field, operated in part by Chevron. Most families of Chevron employees live in Dostyk village, a compound that includes housing, recreational facilities, an international school. Atyrau has expatriate populations working for Agip, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhillips; the city is home to the basketball team BC Barsy Atyrau. The team competes in the international FIBA Asia Champions Cup and the Kazakhstan Basketball Championship, it plays its home games at the Sports and Recreation complex Atyrau. Atyrau state university, http:/asu.edu.kz/ Atyrau is twinned with: Aktau, Kazakhstan Oral, Kazakhstan Aktobe, Kazakhstan Shirvan, Azerbaijan Astrakhan, Russia Syktyvkar, Russia Aberdeen, United Kingdom Ashdod, Israel On August 28, 1965, the first real reinforced concrete bridge in the city, passing through the Ural River, was built and put into operation.
The bridge is 10 meters high. The bridge connects Abay Street. On the right European coast on Satpayev Avenue, the akimat of the city and akimat of the Atyrau region adjoin the bridge. In 2001, a unique pedestrian suspension bridge was built; the 551-meter -long bridge is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the longest pedestrian bridge in the world. From the middle of the bridge over the Urals there are views of its surroundings. In 2009, the Sultan Beibars was opened - a four-lane bridge with a throughput capacity of 5–7 thousand cars a day, 800 meters long with access roads, 380.74 meters long and 22 meters wide. The width of the roadway is two walking paths of 2.5 meters each. Beibarys Atyrau Tengiz Field Atyrau Football Club Atyrau Airport Radio Tande
Kim Rae-won is a South Korean actor. He rose to fame in 2003 romantic comedy series Cats on the Roof, is known for his leading roles in My Little Bride, Love Story in Harvard, Gourmet, A Thousand Days' Promise and Doctors. Kim Rae-won wanted to become a professional basketball player, but when an injured ankle tendon ended that childhood dream, he turned to acting and studied Theater and Film at Chung-Ang University, he made his acting debut in the 1997 teen drama Me, in the role of a newbie at the broadcasting club of his high school. This was followed by School 2 and coming-of-age film Plum Blossom. In 2002, Kim rose to fame after starring in the romance comedy drama My Love Patzzi, his popularity further increased in 2003, playing a law student slacker who cohabitates with a girl in the popular romance series Cats on the Roof. He played a carefree photographer who enters the life of an introverted girl in melodrama...ing and starred in the romantic comedy film My Little Bride, in the role of a college graduate forced to marry a high school girl.
My Little Bride became a sleeper hit and was the second top-grossing Korean film of 2004. Kim continued playing romantic heroes on television, in dramas such as Snowman, Love Story in Harvard, Which Star Are You From, but on the big screen, he focused on more masculine fare. He played a lowlife-turned-cop in Mr. Socrates, a former gangster attempting to turn over a new leaf in Sunflower, an antihero art restorer in Insadong Scandal. In 2008, Kim played an elementary school teacher who falls for a Korean-Japanese jewelry designer in the Japanese film Flower Shadow; that year, he starred as a genius aspiring chef in Gourmet, a hit series based on Huh Young-man's manhwa Sikgaek. Kim explored the melodrama genre in A Thousand Days' Promise, by renowned TV screenwriter Kim Soo-hyun. Kim impressed the audience with his portrayal of a character torn between the longtime girlfriend whom his parents approve of, the woman he loves who suffers from early-onset Alzheimer's disease. In the 2012 film My Little Hero, Kim played a cynical music director who "discovers" a young boy in an audition contest.
He next starred in 2014 legal thriller Punch, where he wowed critics with his portrayal of a prosecutor, diagnosed with a terminal illness and decides to use his remaining six months to bring down the corrupt officials within the legal system. This was followed by Gangnam Blues, a 2015 noir action film by director Yoo Ha about the seedy underbelly behind the rapid real estate development of Gangnam in the 1970s. Kim shed 15 kilograms to make his role as a fist-fighting gangster more realistic, he made his small-screen comeback in the SBS's medical drama Doctors opposite Park Shin-hye. The drama topped viewership ratings and popularity charts during its 10-week broadcast. Following Doctors, Kim experienced a rise in popularity and commercial offers. In 2017, Kim starred in the crime action film The Prison alongside Han Suk-kyu, playing a former detective behind bars; the film became a surprise received critical acclaim. Kim next starred in mystery thriller film RV: Resurrected Victims by Kwak Kyung-taek.
The same year, Kim made his television comeback in fantasy romance drama Black Knight: The Man Who Guards Me. In September 2018, Kim was cast in the action film Long Live The King alongside Won Jin-ah, based on a webtoon of the same name. Kim will take the role of a mob boss who becomes a politician. In 2019, Kim was cast in the romantic comedy film Crazy Romance alongside Snowman co-star Gong Hyo-jin. On 28 September 2011, Kim was involved in a physical altercation with a waitress at a bar in Gangnam, Seoul where he and employees of his then-agency Bless Entertainment were drinking, he issued a denial, claiming he had only interceded in a verbal argument between the woman and an agency rep, made a public apology regarding the incident. Kim has long been rumored to come from a affluent family, which he denied in a 14 January 2013 guest appearance on talk show Healing Camp, though he confirmed that he did inherit an apartment unit during middle school as well as a large sum of money from his grandmother.