The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Their combined population stands at 763,908. The Municipality of Copenhagen is the most populous in the country with a population of 602,481 inhabitants, the municipal seat of government is the Copenhagen City Hall. The Lord Mayor of Copenhagen is Frank Jensen, since 2010, the relationship between Copenhagen Municipality and the wider city of Copenhagen is one of an administrative unit within a significantly larger city, cf. the City of London or the City of Brussels. In the Middle Ages, Copenhagen was defined as the area enclosed within the city walls, the city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring and kept as a partial green band around it. In 1856 the ramparts were pulled down allowing for growth and expansion, in 1901 the city expanded to include Amager and Valby, while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the municipality. The Finger Plan in the half of the 20th century led to expansion outside of the municipal boundary.
Copenhagen Municipality was one of the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county, the others being Frederiksberg Municipality and Bornholm, on 1 January 2007, the municipality lost its county privileges and became part of Region Hovedstaden. Copenhagen Municipality is a division covering the central city and certain additional areas. It encloses Frederiksberg Municipality and stretches east to the waterfront, neighboring municipalities are Gentofte and Herlev to the north, Rødovre and Hvidovre to the west, and Tårnby to the south. The City Hall Square is the old centre of the city, from which an old shopping street leads northeast to Kongens Nytorv, christiansborg Palace, which houses the Danish parliament, is located on the islet of Slotsholmen. The municipality is divided into ten administrative and tax districts, the suffix -bro in the names Østerbro, Nørrebro and Amagerbro should not be confused with the Danish word for bridge, which is bro. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form of the Danish word brolagt meaning paved, the two figures for 1 February 1901 are before and after the municipality annexed some nearby parishes.
The apparent decline since the mid-1900s are due to the figures not including the suburban and urban areas - notably Frederiksberg - outside Copenhagen municipality, Copenhagen Municipality is distinct from the wider Copenhagen urban area. The seat of Copenhagens municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall, the council is chaired by the Lord Mayor—currently Frank Jensen—who oversees the civic duties of the fifty-five representatives of the council. The council usually meets every week at 17,30 on a Thursday. All members of the council are elected every four years, in the municipal elections in November 2013, the Social Democrats remained in first place with 27. 8% of the vote, while the Red-Green Alliance was in second place with 19. 5%. The Social Democrats have claimed the office of mayor for the past 110 years and it has six political committees and a finance committee. The annual budget for the city is proposed in August and finalized in October, the accounting firm Deloitte is responsible for auditing the City of Copenhagens accounts
Niki Dige Zimling is a Danish professional footballer who currently plays as a midfielder for 1. He was named 2006 Danish under-21 Talent of the Year, and has played 24 games for the Danish national team, as a youngster he played for AB740, Tårnby Boldklub, Fremad Amager and Kjøbenhavns Boldklub, before he moved to the youth team of Brøndby IF. He was included in Brøndbys senior squad in January 2003, and made his debut for Brøndby in April 2003. In the next two years he played a total of 25 matches for the club and scored a single goal, during in which, he made three appearance in the Champions League. He moved on to Superliga rivals Esbjerg fB in summer 2005, in his first season, Zimling was involved in the clubs squad in the Danish Cup Final, which Esbjerg lost 1-0 against Randers. His second season was a big breakthrough for him as he scored ten goals in thirty-appearance and was a second top-scorer for the club, throughout his career at Esbjerg, he was linked with Ligue 1 side Stade Rennais and Bayer Leverkusen.
When his contract expired in December 2008, he moved to Serie A team Udinese Calcio on a free transfer, the deal was announced in July 2008. After two months at Udinese, Zimling finally made his debut for the club, in a 2–0 loss against Genoa on 22 March 2009, in July 2009, Zimling went back to Denmark to finalize a possible transfer, but the deal never materialized and he stayed at Udine. In his full season at Udinese, Zimling would make one appearance in the league, in a 2–2 draw against Parma on the game of the season. In June 2010, Dutch club NEC announced that they had signed him on loan for the rest of the season, at NEC, Zimling established himself in the first team. Two weeks later, Zimling received a red card for a serious foul on an opposition player. Two weeks later, he scored again in a 3-1 loss against Groningen, at NEC, Zimling scored four in twenty-six appearance. On 27 May 2011, Zimling signed a contract with Belgian football club Club Brugge. On his move, Zimling says Club Brugge are a big club, Zimling made his competitive debut for the clubOn the opening game of the season, Zimling made his debut, in a 5-0 win over Westerlo.
At Club Brugge, Zimling since established himself in the first team and he scored his first goal, in the second round of Belgian, in a 4-4 draw against Gent, which gone through penalty shootout and Zimling converted the second penalty but lost 4-2 on penalties. Later in the season at the league play-offs, Zimling scored his first league goal for the club, on 1 May 2012, in his first season, Zimling not only made an impressive performance in the league, but in the Europa League competition. The following season, Zimling playing time was reduced after he damaged his calf muscle. After a month out, Zimling made his return by scoring his first goal for the club in a 7-1 win over Beerschot on 9 December 2012, in his final month at the club, Zimling would make three more appearances
Municipalities of Denmark
Denmark is divided into five regions, which contain 98 municipalities. This structure was established per an administrative reform, effective Monday 1 January 2007 which replaced the counties with five regions, the 270 municipalities were consolidated into 98 larger units, most of which have at least 20,000 inhabitants. The reason was to give the new municipalities greater financial and professional sustainability, many of the responsibilities of the former counties were taken over by the enlarged municipalities. Presented in a report put forward as a proposal by the government in April 2004, the report on the structural reform of the public sector was first presented 9 January 2004 by the commission which was set up by the government 1 October 2002. The archipelago of Ertholmene is not part of any municipality, but is administered by the Ministry of Defence, the existing coat of arms of the municipalities. The average land area of a Danish municipality is 432.59 km2,167.08 square miles, the Constitution of Denmark states, Article 82.
The right of municipalities to manage their own affairs independently, under State supervision,2,522 municipal councillors were elected on Tuesday 15 November 2005 being the first councils elected since the new reform. The number of councillors was reduced to 2,468 in the 2009 elections, in 1997 there were 4,685 municipal and 374 county councillors in the 275 municipalities and 14 counties. As an example of the reduction in the number of councillors, Bornholm had a total of 122 councillors in five municipalities, after the merger on 1 January 2003, of the five municipalities and the county, there was one single municipal council with 27 municipal councillors. These guidelines replaced the old guidelines with the elections in 2005 after the laws initiating the structural reform were passed in parliament. Council elections are held on the third Tuesday of November every four years, the previous were held on 19 November 2013 and the next are due to be held on 21 November 2017. 32 municipalities including those of the recently formed Ærø Municipality and Bornholm Regional Municipality remained unchanged and were not merged with other municipalities, copenhagen County was not included in the municipal reform of 1 April 1970.
This is probably because the municipality was extremely populous. Thus the number of municipalities was 277 from 1 April 1970 to 1 April 1974, the reform is called The municipal reform of 1970, because the decisive changes happened 1 April 1970, when 1098 municipalities were reduced to 277. Also on 1 April 1974, Avedøre, which was part of Glostrup Municipality, was conjoined with Hvidovre Municipality and this combination was logical, as Avedøre bordered Hvidovre, but was separated from Glostrup. This brought the number of municipalities down to 271 from 1 January 2003, the final agreement from 2005 included more parties. Until 1978 the fiscal year from 1 April to 31 March was in use in the sector since a law was passed in 1849. As a consequence of a law passed by the Folketing in 1976, many reforms and laws passed prior to 1979 therefore have effect from 1 April
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Peberholm, is a small artificial island in the Danish part of the Øresund strait, created as part of the Øresund Bridge connecting Denmark with Sweden. Peberholm is close to the natural island of Saltholm, and was named to complement it. The main reason for constructing the island was to have a point between the tunnel and the bridge. The tunnel was built since a bridge spanning the entire link between Malmö and Copenhagen would have interfered with obstacle-free zones around Kastrup Airport, another reason was to provide an opportunity for large ships to pass the Öresund without worrying about the height of the bridge. To make the Øresund Bridge higher would interfere with the train traffic. The other main reason was that the Øresund had to be dug deeper in order to not decrease the flow of the water because of the bridge, the material was used to create this island. The area was so shallow, and the amount of material so large, the original designs for a bridge across the Øresund required extensive use of Saltholm as a stepping-stone for the bridge.
They required either the construction of both a motorway and railway across Saltholm or an expansion of the island to serve the same purpose. The location was chosen in the belief that it would ensure the freest flow of water through the sound, Peberholm is protected by strict laws. Only biologists are allowed one annual visit to the areas of the island outside of the railroad, the island is part of Natura 2000 area 142, comprising Saltholm and surrounding waters with a total area of 7,218 ha. The same area is under two birdprotections as habitats H110 and H126, Peberholm is considered to be a biological experiment. Scientists predicted that nature would colonize it and make the island flourish on its own, as of June 2007, scientists from the Biological Society of Lund had registered 454 species of plants on the island. Also resident to the island as of 2005 were about 20 species of spiders, since 2008, both the amount and number of bird species has seen an increase, and now between 20–30 species breed on Peberholm regularly.
Many geese, Great cormorants and waders rest on the small island, the European green toad, which is rare and to be protected in Denmark, was found living in several ditches. In 2007–08 the toads were counted to be c.2,500 individuals and it is assumed that toads from Saltholm have swum across. Three species of mice have populated Peberholm, from early on. It is important to surveil these populations, as mice in particular are known to be dangerous to the rails stability. In the years 2004–08 surveys focussing on insects registered a total of 345 beetle species,421 species of butterflies and 18 species of bees
European route E20
The European route E20 is part of the United Nations International E-road network. It runs roughly west–east through Ireland, the United Kingdom, Sweden, the road is not continuous, at three points, a sea crossing is required. Roll-on/roll-off ferries make the crossings from Dublin to Liverpool and from Stockholm to Tallinn, no vehicle-carrying vessels traverse the North Sea from Kingston-upon-Hull to Esbjerg. The initial section of the E20 from Shannon Airport to Dublin via Limerick is approximately 228 km long and is partially signed. The section from Shannon Airport to east of Limerick is mainly dual carriageway, the Shannon Tunnel, opened on 16 July 2010, completed the bypass of Limerick. The section from Limerick to Naas is motorway, and the section from Naas to Dublin is dual carriageway. A ferry must be used from Dublin to Liverpool, E20 follows the A5080 from Liverpool to Huyton, the M62 from Huyton to South Cave, and the A63 from South Cave to Kingston upon Hull. The route length across the UK is 205 km in total, there is no ferry between Kingston upon Hull and Esbjerg, but Immingham is 48.3 km/30 mi from Kingston upon Hull with ferries to Esbjerg with DFDS Seaways.
Alternative ferries are available from Harwich but that is 350 km/220 mi from Kingston upon Hull, in Denmark E20 is a motorway from Esbjerg to the Oresund Bridge. The length of the Danish part is 315 km and it passes along the Great Belt Bridge which consists of two parts of 6 +6 km. The Great Belt Bridge and Oresund Bridge are tolled, both more than €30. The Oresund Bridge is 8 km and there is a 4 km tunnel on the Danish side of the Sund, the road crosses the border between DK/S on the bridge. Between Køge and Copenhagen the road has three E-road numbers, in Sweden, E20 is a motorway from the Øresund Bridge in Malmö to Nääs 30 km east of Gothenburg, a 320 km long motorway. Furthermore, it is a motorway most of the route from Vretstorp to Stockholm, the Swedish part of E20 is 770 km long. Its extent is shared with E6 along a 280 km long stretch, with E18 along 50 km, the part through Stockholm has very heavy traffic, including the most heavily trafficked road in Scandinavia, Essingeleden. There is often congestion on this stretch, a new tunnel for route E20, Norra länken, was built north of the inner city, opened 30 November 2014.
The planned Förbifart Stockholm bypass will divert traffic from Essingeleden, between Stockholm and Tallinn a car ferry departs daily, taking 15 hours. The port in Stockholm is located at Lilla Värtan, about 4 km northeast of the core of the city
SAS Commuter, branded as Scandinavian Commuter, was a regional airline which operated in Denmark and Sweden. A sister company of Scandinavian Airlines, it operated regional services on behalf of the Scandinavian flag carrier. The airline was headquartered at Copenhagen Airport, which served as its main base. It also operated bases at Tromsø Airport, Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Trondheim Airport, Værnes and Bergen Airport, established in 1984 as Commuter Operations Department, a business unit of SAS, it initially flew minor services out of Copenhagen using a fleet of nine Fokker F27 Friendships. Twenty-two Fokker 50s were delivered in 1989 and 1990 and they operated out of Copenhagen under the Eurolink brand, as well as taking over regional services in Northern Norway from May 1990 under the Norlink brand. Starting in February 1997, SAS Commuter took delivery of six Saab 2000 and they served domestic and secondary Finnish destinations out of Stockholm. SAS Commuter became the customer of the Bombardier Dash 8-Q400 in January 2000.
The Q400 were initially plagued with technical faults, the Norlink operations were in 2002 abandoned to sister company Widerøe. However, from April 2003 SAS Commuter took over former Braathens routes in Western Norway, SAS Commuter was dissolved on 1 October 2004 and integrated into the three national operating companies. Following the retirement of the Convair Metropolitan in 1976, SAS operated an all-jetliner fleet, although it is the designated flag carrier for the three Scandinavian countries, each country has allowed domestic airlines to operate a significant portion of the domestic services. By the 1980s the smallest aircraft in SAS fleet is the Douglas DC-9, discussions were carried out in 1983 to create a dedicated domestic airline for Sweden, which would see a merger between among others SAS domestic operations and Swedair. SAS therefore decided to subcontract the operation of some of its international and domestic services to Busy Bee and Swedair, most of these were international services out of Copenhagen, as well as domestic routes in Sweden.
The move was met with opposition from the pilots unions. For instance, services from Copenhagen to Kristiansand Airport and Bergen Airport, with smaller aircraft, both could be operated as nonstop services. After pressure from the union, SAS decided on 7 March 1984 to establish the Commuter Operations Department as a business unit. It would operate a series of airliners and have its own crew. The aircraft would otherwise be branded in line with SAS livery, SAS terminated its agreements with Busy Bee and Swedair prematurely in order to insource the operations. Nine Fokker F27s were bought, four from Trans Australia Airlines for $9.5 million, services commenced on 17 December 1984 with the first four aircraft under the subbrand Eurolink—operating shorter hauls out of Copenhagen Airport
Kastrup is a suburb of Copenhagen, situated on the east coast of Amager in Tårnby Municipality. It is best known as the site of Copenhagen Airport, in Danish, the airport is often called Kastrup Lufthavn or Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup. The population of Kastrup is approximately 43000, in 1749 Jacob Fortling obtained a royal license to establish a lime plant in Kastrup. It harbor in Kastrup for the landing of chalk from Saltholm and he soon diversified with a brickyard and a pottery specializing in faience at the same site. This marked the beginning of a development that accelerated after the opening of Kastrup Glassworks in 1847. Local landmarks include the National Aquarium Denmark, Kastrup Værk, scandinavian Airlines has its Denmark offices and the SAS Cargo head office in Kastrup. Transavia Denmark has its office in Kastrup. The airline Jet Time has its office there. When SAS Commuter operated, its office was in Kastrup. When Danair existed, its office was in Kastrup. Kastrup Station serves the M2 line of the Copenhagen Metro, lufthavnen Station is the terminus of the line.
Trains approach the station by a bridge over the Øresund Motorway, the platform area is constructed above the Øresund Railway adjoining a multi-storey car park. The station connects to the airport at the end of Terminal 3 on level 2. Intercity trains operate out of the Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup Station which is located beneath the terminal building. There are several busses that roam through the city of Kastrup, following bus-lines, 2A, 5A and 36
Regions of Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden.
In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE.
The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network