The Wiphala is a square emblem, commonly used as a flag, representing some native peoples of all the Andes that include todays Bolivia, Peru and parts of Argentina and Colombia. The suyu wiphalas are composed of a 7-by-7 square patchwork in seven colours, the precise configuration depends on the particular suyu represented by the emblem. The colour of the longest diagonal line determines which of the four suyus the flag represents, white for Qullasuyu, yellow for Kuntisuyu, red for Chinchaysuyu, there is an alternate pattern for the Wiphala for Antinsuyu. Additionally a Wiphala exists for Tupac Katari and the Tupac Katari Guerrilla Army, article 6, section II of the new Bolivian constitution establishes the Wiphala as the dual flag of Bolivia along with the red and green banner. In modern times the Wiphala has been confused with a flag which is wrongly associated with the Tawantinsuyu. There is debate as to whether there was an Inca or Tawantisuyu flag, there are 16th and 17th-century chronicles and references that support the idea of a banner attributable to the Inca.
However, it represented the Inca himself, not the empire, its origins are from symbols and mural designs found in several civilizations of the Andes with thousands of years of history. Francisco López de Jerez wrote in 1534, They all came divided up in squads with their flags and commanding captains, the Museum of World Culture in Gothenburg, holds a Wiphala that is dated through a C-14 test to the 11th century. It originates from the Tiwanaku region, and is part of collection of a Kallawaya medicine man grave, the seven colors of the actual Wiphala originate from the visible spectrum. The flag of CONAIE is a wiphala with a mask in the middle from a pre-Inca Ecuadorian coastal peoples known as La Tolita, the concept of pachakutik, a Quechua word related with the vision and the hope of a better future for Andean people. The MUPP was formed in the 1990s mainly by an alliance of the CONAIE with peasant organizations and it finds sympathy in local LGBT, feminist and Afro-Ecuadorian circles and activists.
The Aimara wiphala is a flag divided into 7x7 squares. The seven rainbow colors are placed in diagonal squares, the exact arrangement and colors varies with the different versions, corresponding to the suyus or Tupac Katari. It is very prominent in marches of indigenous and peasant movements in Bolivia and this rainbow squares flag is used as the pan-indigenous flag of Andean peoples in Bolivia and has recently occasionally been adopted by Amazonian groups in political alliance. Bolivian President Evo Morales established the Qullasuyu wiphala as the dual flag along with the previous red, yellow. The Wiphala has been included into the colours of the Bolivian Air Force such as the executive Dassault Falcon 900EX. The Wiphala is flown on governmental buildings such as the Palacio Quemado. This rainbow flag is associated with and displayed as a symbol of the Inca Empire, despite Peruvian historiography
The Aymara or Aimara people are an indigenous nation in the Andes and Altiplano regions of South America, about 1 million live in Bolivia and Chile. Their ancestors lived in the region for centuries before becoming a subject people of the Inca in the late 15th or early 16th century. With the Spanish American Wars of Independence, the Aymaras became subjects of the new nations of Bolivia, after the War of the Pacific, Chile acquired territory occupied by the Aymaras. Archeologists have found evidence that the Aymaras have occupied the Andes, in what is now western Bolivia, southern Peru and northern Chile and their origin is a matter of scientific dispute. The region where Tiwanaku and the modern Aymaras are located, the Altiplano, was conquered by the Incas under Huayna Capac and it is most likely that the Inca had a strong influence over the Aymara region for some time. Though conquered by the Inca, the Aymaras retained some degree of autonomy under the empire, the Spanish classified a number of ethnic groups as Aymara in their effort to identify the native peoples.
These were identified by chieftainties and included the following, the Charqa, Quillaca, Carangas, SivTaroyos, Pacajes, Soras, at the time of Spanish encounter, these groups were living throughout the territory now included in Bolivia. Linguists have learned that Aymara was once spoken much further north, most Andean linguists believe that it is likely that the Aymara originated or coalesced as a people in this area. The Aymaras overran and displaced the Uru, a population from the Lake Titicaca. The Uru lived in area as recently as the 1930s. Most present-day Aymara-speakers live in the Lake Titicaca basin, a territory from Lake Titicaca through the Desaguadero River and they are concentrated south of the lake. The capital of the ancient Aymara civilization is unknown, according to research by Cornell University anthropologist John Murra, there were at least seven different kingdoms. The capital of the Lupaqa Kingdom may be the city of Chucuito, the present urban center of the Aymara region may be El Alto, a 750, 000-person city near the Bolivian capital, La Paz.
For most of the 20th century, the center of cosmopolitan Aymara culture mightve been Chuquiago Marka, Bolivias capital mightve had moved from Sucre to La Paz during the government of General Pando and during the Bolivian Civil War. The Aymara flag is known as the Wiphala, it consists of seven colors quilted together with diagonal stripes, the native language of the Aymaras is Aymara. Many of Aymaras speak Spanish as a language, when it is the predominant language in the areas where they live. The Aymara language has one surviving relative, spoken by a small and this language, whose two varieties are known as Jaqaru and Kawki, is of the same family as Aymara. Some linguists refer to language as Central Aymara
El Alto is the second-largest city in Bolivia, located adjacent to La Paz in Pedro Domingo Murillo Province on the Altiplano highlands. El Alto is today one of Bolivias fastest-growing urban centers, with a population of 974,754 in 2011, El Alto is the highest major metropolis in the world, with an average elevation of 4,150 m. The El Alto-La Paz metropolitan area, formed by the cities of El Alto, La Paz, in 1925 the airfield was built as base for the new air force, which attracted additional settlement. In 1939 El Altos first elementary school opened, El Alto started to grow tremendously in the 1950s, when the settlement was connected to La Pazs water supply and building land in the canyon became more and more scarce and expensive. In an administrative reform on March 6,1985 the district of El Alto, in 1987 El Alto was formally incorporated as a city. In 1994, the city became the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of El Alto, El Alto, known for its teeming streets and traffic, broke gender barriers by hiring cholitas in December,2013.
These Aymara women dressed in traditional multi-layered Andean skirts and brightly embroidered vests, El Altos autonomous government identifies 14 districts composing the andean city. On the web site of the municipality we find out besides other information the projects in infrastructure projected, El Alto is the largest city in Latin America which has a mostly Amerindian population. About 76% of its inhabitants are Aymara, 9% are Quechua, 15% are Mestizo, El Alto was once known as La Pazs bedroom community, though recent growth of commerce and industry has led some local authorities to claim the title of Bolivias Economic Capital. Along with that industrial growth concern about water pollution by businesses including tanneries and slaughterhouse has become an issue for the city and communities downstream. Rapid population growth means the city struggles to bring water and sewer service to parts of the population. The city contains La Paz’s El Alto International Airport, El Alto is one of the highest major cities in the world, up to 4,150 meters above mean sea level.
It has a climate, with the highest average monthly maximum temperature being 17 °C in November. Some migrants say the difficulty of growing crops in the countryside drove them to move to the city, the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies El Altos climate as an alpine climate bordering on a rare cool summer variety of a subtropical highland climate. Museo de Arte Antonio Paredes Candia opened in 2002, El Alto was - and remains - one of the major centers of the Bolivian gas conflict. There is a large colorful open-air market, El Alto is a municipality within the province of Murillo. The government of the city is divided into the executive and legislative branches, the Mayor of El Alto is the head of the city government, elected for a term of five years by general election. The legislative branch consists of the Municipal Council, which elects a President, Vice President, the current mayor is Soledad Chapetón, who became the citys first female mayor in May 2015
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. The term Amerindian is used in Quebec, the Guianas, Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaska Natives. Application of the term Indian originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, the Americas came to be known as the West Indies, a name still used to refer to the islands of the Caribbean Sea. This led to the blanket term Indies and Indians for the indigenous inhabitants, although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time, although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by peoples, some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Chile, Greenland, Mexico. At least a different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages, many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects, some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world with human habitation. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America.
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist, the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single population, one that developed in isolation. The isolation of these peoples in Beringia might have lasted 10–20,000 years, around 16,500 years ago, the glaciers began melting, allowing people to move south and east into Canada and beyond. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran Ice Sheets. Another route proposed involves migration - either on foot or using primitive boats - along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, archeological evidence of the latter would have been covered by the sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age
Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is geographically the largest landlocked country in the Americas, but remains a small country in economic. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivias mines. After the first call for independence in 1809,16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825.
Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre. The countrys population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, the racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands and it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing such as textiles, refined metals. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin, Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support. The original name was Republic of Bolívar, some days later, congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed, If from Romulus comes Rome, from Bolívar comes Bolivia. The name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825, the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Aymara arrived. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, the capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD600 and AD800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes
Hanged, drawn and quartered
To be hanged and quartered was from 1351 a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of King Henry III. Convicts were fastened to a hurdle, or wooden panel, and drawn by horse to the place of execution and their remains were often displayed in prominent places across the country, such as London Bridge. For reasons of public decency, women convicted of treason were instead burned at the stake. The severity of the sentence was measured against the seriousness of the crime and they included many English Catholic priests executed during the Elizabethan era, and several of the regicides involved in the 1649 execution of Charles I. The death penalty for treason was abolished in 1998, during the High Middle Ages those in England guilty of treason were punished in a variety of ways, including drawing and hanging. In the 13th century other, more brutal penalties were introduced, the 13th-century English chronicler Matthew Paris described how in 1238 a certain man at arms, a man of some education attempted to kill King Henry III.
He was apparently sent by William de Marisco, an outlaw who some years earlier had killed a man under royal protection before fleeing to Lundy Island, de Marisco was captured in 1242 and on Henrys order dragged from Westminster to the Tower of London to be executed. There he was hanged from a gibbet until dead and his corpse was disembowelled, his entrails burned, his body quartered and the parts distributed to cities across the country. The punishment is more frequently recorded during Edward Is reign, welshman Dafydd ap Gruffydd became the first nobleman in England to be hanged and quartered after he turned against the king and proclaimed himself Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdon. Dafydds rebellion infuriated Edward so much that he demanded a novel punishment, following his capture and trial in 1283, for his betrayal he was drawn by horse to his place of execution. For killing English nobles he was hanged alive, for killing those nobles at Easter he was eviscerated and his entrails burned.
For conspiring to kill the king in parts of the realm, his body was quartered. A similar fate was suffered by the Scottish leader Sir William Wallace and tried in 1305, he was forced to wear a crown of laurel leaves and was drawn to Smithfield, where he was hanged and beheaded. His entrails were burned and his corpse quartered and his head was set on London Bridge and the quarters sent to Newcastle, Berwick and Perth. Treason was based on an allegiance to the sovereign from all subjects aged 14 or over and it remained for the king, Edward therefore introduced the Treason Act 1351. It was enacted at a time in English history when a right to rule was indisputable and was therefore written principally to protect the throne. The new law offered a definition of treason than had existed before. Petty treason referred to the killing of a master by his servant, men guilty of petty treason were drawn and hanged, whereas women were burned
Bartolina Sisa was an Aymara woman, an indigenous heroine and the wife of Tupac Katari. Her date of birth is uncertain, some give it as August 24,1753. Katari and Sisa set up court in El Alto and their army maintained the siege for 184 days, from March to June, Sisa was a commander of the siege, and played the crucial role following Kataris capture in April. The siege was broken by troops who advanced from Lima. Bartolina Sisa was captured and executed by the Spanish on September 5,1782 and she was hanged after being publicly humiliated in the Colonial Square and raped. Once dead, the Spanish cut her body into pieces, showed her head in public to intimidate the natives, in her honour, the 5th of September was instituted as the International Day of the Indigenous Women since 1983. Bartolina Sisa — la virreina Aymara que murió por la libertad de los indios, del Valle de Siles, María Eugenia. Bartolina Sisa y Gregoria Apaza — dos heroínas indígenas, La Paz, Biblioteca Popular Boliviana de Ultima Hora.
Bartolina Sisa — La generala aymara y la equidad de género and we alone will rule, Native Andean politics in the age of insurgency. International Day of Indigenous Women Women in Power 1870 -1900 Micaela Bastidas
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the coastal part of the country. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms an urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of almost 10 million, Lima is the most populous area of Peru. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on January 18,1535 and it became the capital and most important city in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru, around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest higher-learning institutions in the New World, the National University of San Marcos, founded on May 12,1551 during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas. In October 2013 Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games and it hosted the December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference and the Miss Universe 1982 pageant.
In October 2015 Lima hosted the 2015 Annual Meetings of the World Bank Group, according to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants. However, even before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century and this oracle was eventually destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted, the chronicles show Límac replacing Ychma as the common name for the area. Modern scholars speculate that the word Lima originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq, linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish consistently rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of lime, the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on January 6, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name quickly fell into disuse and Lima became the name of choice, on the oldest Spanish maps of Peru.
The river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people assume that this is because its original Inca name is Talking River. However, the inhabitants of the valley were not Incas. This name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua, later, as the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed. Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river runs through it. They often assume that the valley is named after the river, historically, the Flag of Lima has been known as the «Banner of Perus Kings City»