A yacht /ˈjɒt/ is a recreational boat or ship. In modern use of the term, yachts differ from working ships mainly by their leisure purpose, there are two different classes of yachts and power boats. With the rise of the steamboat and other types of powerboat, sailing vessels in general came to be perceived as luxury, the term came to encompass large motor boats for primarily private pleasure purposes as well. Yacht lengths normally range from 10 metres up to dozens of meters, a luxury craft smaller than 12 metres is more commonly called a cabin cruiser or simply a cruiser. A superyacht generally refers to any yacht above 24 m and a megayacht generally refers to any yacht over 50 metres and this size is small in relation to typical cruise liners and oil tankers. A few countries have a special flag worn by recreational boats or ships, although inspired by the national flag, the yacht ensign does not always correspond with the civil or merchant ensign of the state in question. Yacht ensigns differ from merchant ensigns in order to signal that the yacht is not carrying cargo that requires a customs declaration, carrying commercial cargo on a boat with a yacht ensign is deemed to be smuggling in many jurisdictions.
Until the 1950s, almost all yachts were made of wood or steel, although wood hulls are still in production, the most common construction material is fibreglass, followed by aluminium, carbon fibre, and ferrocement. The use of wood has changed and is no longer limited to traditional board-based methods, wood is mostly used by hobbyists or wooden boat purists when building an individual boat. Apart from materials like carbon fibre and aramid fibre, spruce veneers laminated with epoxy resins have the best weight-to-strength ratios of all boatbuilding materials. Sailing yachts can range in length from about 6 metres to well over 30 metres. Most privately owned yachts fall in the range of about 7 metres -14 metres, in the United States, sailors tend to refer to smaller yachts as sailboats, while referring to the general sport of sailing as yachting. Within the limited context of racing, a yacht is any sailing vessel taking part in a race. Many modern racing yachts have efficient sail-plans, most notably the Bermuda rig.
This capability is the result of a sail-plan and hull design oriented towards this capability, day sailing yachts are usually small, at under 6 metres in length. Sometimes called sailing dinghies, they often have a keel, centreboard. Most day sailing yachts do not have a cabin, as they are designed for hourly or daily use and not for overnight journeys. They may have a cabin, where the front part of the hull has a raised solid roof to provide a place to store equipment or to offer shelter from wind or spray
A solar vehicle is an electric vehicle powered completely or significantly by direct solar energy. Usually, photovoltaic cells contained in solar panels convert the energy directly into electric energy. The term solar vehicle usually implies that solar energy is used to all or part of a vehicles propulsion. Solar power may be used to provide power for communications or controls or other auxiliary functions. Solar vehicles are not sold as practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, indirectly solar-charged vehicles are widespread and solar boats are available commercially. Solar cars depend on PV cells to convert sunlight into electricity to electric motors. Unlike solar thermal energy which converts solar energy to heat, PV cells directly convert sunlight into electricity, the design of a solar car is severely limited by the amount of energy input into the car. Solar cars are built for car races and for public use List of prototype solar-powered cars. Even the best solar cells can only collect limited power and energy over the area of a cars surface and this limits solar cars to ultralight composite bodies to save weight.
Solar cars lack the safety and convenience features of conventional vehicles, the first solar family car was built in 2013 by students in the Netherlands. This vehicle is capable of 550 miles on one charge during sunlight and it weighs 850 pounds and has a 1. 5kw solar array. Solar vehicles must be light and efficient,3,000 pound or even 2,000 pound vehicles are less practical. Stella Lux the predecessor to Stella broke a record with a 932 mile single charge range, the Dutch are trying to commercialize this technology. During racing Stella Lux is capable of 700 miles during daylight, at 45 mph Stella Lux has infinite range. This is again due to high efficiency including a Coefficient of drag of.16, the average family who never drive more than 200 miles a day would never need to charge from the mains. They would only plug in if they wanted to return energy to the grid, Solar cars are often fitted with gauges and/or wireless telemetry, to carefully monitor the cars energy consumption, solar energy capture and other parameters.
Wireless telemetry is typically preferred as it frees the driver to concentrate on driving, as an alternative, a battery-powered electric vehicle may use a solar array to recharge, the array may be connected to the general electrical distribution grid. Solar buses are propulsed by solar energy, all or part of which is collected from solar panel installations
2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference
The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, from 29 November to 10 December 2010. In addition, the two permanent subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC — the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, following the non-binding Copenhagen Accord put forth in 2009, international expectations for the COP16 conference were reduced. Four preparatory rounds of negotiations were held during 2010, the first three of these were in Bonn, from 9 to 11 April,1 to 11 June, and 2 to 6 August. The Bonn talks were reported as ending in failure, the fourth round of talks in Tianjin, made minimal progress and was marked by a clash between the US and China. It calls for more and immediate action, and was slated to be presented at COP16, in August 2010, Ban Ki-moon stated that he doubted whether member states would reach a globally agreed, comprehensive deal, suggesting instead that incremental steps might come. This is the greatest societal and economic transformation that the world has ever seen, other commentators spoke of a positive spirit of negotiation and of paving the way for agreement in Cancun.
The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the parties that called for a large Green Climate Fund. It looked forward to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol, the agreement recognizes that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet, which needs to be urgently addressed by all parties. 5°C. The agreement notes that climate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a low-carbon society. The agreement calls on countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions as pledged in the Copenhagen Accord. The committee is due to present a plan for the fund by the next climate conference in South Africa starting in November,2011. The conference established the Cancun Adaptation Framework and the Adaptation Committee, and it invited Parties to strengthen and, developed countries should submit annual greenhouse gas inventories and inventory reports and biennial reports on their progress. Once support has been provided they are called internationally supported mitigation actions and it decides to establish a Green Climate Fund, to be designated as an operating entity of the financial mechanism of the Convention.
The Climate Technology Centre and Network and the Technology Executive Committee shall relate so as to promote coherence, the Technology Executive Committee shall further implement the framework of the Convention and Committee shall comprise 20 expert members. Urges Annex I Parties to raise the level of ambition of the reductions to be achieved. In the second commitment period, the year shall be 1990. The global warming potentials shall be provided by the IPCC. The agreement includes a Green Climate Fund, proposed to be worth $100 billion a year by 2020, to assist poorer countries in financing emission reductions and adaptation
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition, although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing, according to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems.
The overall period is characterized by use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques, tin must be mined and smelted separately, added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of use of metals. The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people, ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC, the Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.
Over 100 years later, it took over the other city-states. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, by that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer + δυναμική, the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. Aerodynamics is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, the term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that gas dynamics applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the sense in the eighteenth century. Most of the efforts in aerodynamics were directed toward achieving heavier-than-air flight. Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to flow, turbulence. Fundamental concepts of continuum and pressure gradients appear in the work of Aristotle, in 1726, Sir Isaac Newton became the first person to develop a theory of air resistance, making him one of the first aerodynamicists. In 1757, Leonhard Euler published the more general Euler equations which could be applied to both compressible and incompressible flows, the Euler equations were extended to incorporate the effects of viscosity in the first half of the 1800s, resulting in the Navier-Stokes equations.
The Navier-Stokes equations are the most general governing equations of fluid flow, in 1871, Francis Herbert Wenham constructed the first wind tunnel, allowing precise measurements of aerodynamic forces. Drag theories were developed by Jean le Rond dAlembert, Gustav Kirchhoff, in 1889, Charles Renard, a French aeronautical engineer, became the first person to reasonably predict the power needed for sustained flight. Otto Lilienthal, the first person to become successful with glider flights, was the first to propose thin, curved airfoils that would produce high lift. Building on these developments as well as carried out in their own wind tunnel. During the time of the first flights, Frederick W. Lanchester, Martin Wilhelm Kutta and Zhukovsky went on to develop a two-dimensional wing theory. Expanding upon the work of Lanchester, Ludwig Prandtl is credited with developing the mathematics behind thin-airfoil, as aircraft speed increased, designers began to encounter challenges associated with air compressibility at speeds near or greater than the speed of sound.
The differences in air flows under such conditions leds to problems in control, increased drag due to shock waves. The ratio of the speed to the speed of sound was named the Mach number after Ernst Mach who was one of the first to investigate the properties of supersonic flow. Theodore von Kármán and Hugh Latimer Dryden introduced the term transonic to describe flow speeds around Mach 1 where drag increases rapidly, by the time the sound barrier was broken, aerodynamicists understanding of the subsonic and low supersonic flow had matured. The Cold War prompted the design of an line of high performance aircraft. Understanding the motion of air around an object enables the calculation of forces, in many aerodynamics problems, the forces of interest are the fundamental forces of flight, drag and weight
A Luxury yacht is a very expensive, privately owned, professionally crewed sailing or motor yacht. There is no standard for the difference between super-yacht and mega-yacht. The only legal distinction is between yachts above 24 metres and below, as in some countries those above 24 meters must have a permanent crew onboard. More examples of luxury motor yachts include the Cox & King yachts, Charles L. Seabury and Companys yachts, M/Y Christina O. Early luxury sailing yachts include Americas Cup classic J class racers such as Endeavour, between 1997 and 2008, there was a massive growth in the number and popularity of large private or super-sized luxury yachts in the 24-to-70-metre size range. Luxury yachts, mega-yachts, or super-yachts typically have no real home port as such, popular flag state registrars for large yachts are Cayman Islands, Marshall Islands, Isle of Man, and the British Virgin Islands, among others. They are particularly bountiful in the Mediterranean Sea in summer and the Caribbean Sea in winter, some can be chartered for sums of up to 1 million Euro per week.
Yachts will dock in a port of choosing while the crew does maintenance work, the vessels will do short cruises with the owners and/or guests aboard. Antigua is one of the ports in the Windward Islands of the Caribbean. While the demand for new luxury yachts has slowed somewhat since 2009,2011 has seen a rebound with launches from many of the top yards. The 163.5 metres M/Y Eclipse, was built by Blohm + Voss for Russian businessman Roman Abramovich and the 180 metres Azzam launched in 2013 are the largest private yachts in the world. Luxury boatbuilding and yacht charter companies are based in Western Europe and the United States but are increasingly found in Australia, New Zealand, Asia. Some yachts are used exclusively by their owners, others are operated all year round as charter businesses. The weekly charter rate of luxury yachts around the ranges from tens of thousands to over a million dollars/euros. Expenses of approximately 25–30%, such as food, the luxury yacht charter industry functions effectively because private yacht owners mitigate their running costs with charter income as well as keeping their yachts and crew in top running order.
Yachts from 24 metres and up qualify for awards, but given the number of yachts exceeding 100 feet. A 45-to-50-metre yacht, the smallest with a generally accepted claim to status, will usually be a three-decker with cabins for 10–12 guests. Upper deck, exterior deck aft, often used for dining, second saloon, sixth stateroom will be amidships if it is not on the lower deck or part of the owners suite, captains cabin
Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway
The process of western intensification causes the Gulf Stream to be a northward accelerating current off the east coast of North America. At about 40°0′N 30°0′W, it splits in two, with the stream, the North Atlantic Drift, crossing to Northern Europe and the southern stream. The Gulf Stream influences the climate of the east coast of North America from Florida to Newfoundland, and it is part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Its presence has led to the development of strong cyclones of all types, the Gulf Stream is a significant potential source of renewable power generation. The Gulf Stream may be slowing down as a result of climate change, the Gulf Stream is typically 100 kilometres wide and 800 metres to 1,200 metres deep. The current velocity is fastest near the surface, with the maximum speed typically about 2.5 metres per second. European discovery of the Gulf Stream dates to the 1512 expedition of Juan Ponce de León and its existence was known to Peter Martyr dAnghiera. Benjamin Franklin became interested in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation patterns, Franklin asked Timothy Folger, his cousin twice removed, a Nantucket Island whaling captain, for an answer.
Franklin worked with Folger and other experienced ship captains, learning enough to chart the Gulf Stream and he offered this information to Anthony Todd, secretary of the British Post Office, but it was ignored by British sea captains. Franklins Gulf Stream chart was published in 1770 in England, where it was mostly ignored, subsequent versions were printed in France in 1778 and the U. S. in 1786. The Gulf Stream proper is a current, driven largely by wind stress. The North Atlantic Drift, in contrast, is largely thermohaline circulation–driven, in 1958 the oceanographer Henry Stommel noted that very little water from the Gulf of Mexico is actually in the Stream. By carrying warm water northeast across the Atlantic, it makes Western, a river of sea water, called the Atlantic North Equatorial Current, flows westward off the coast of Central Africa. When this current interacts with the northeastern coast of South America, one passes into the Caribbean Sea, while a second, the Antilles Current, flows north and east of the West Indies.
These two branches north of the Straits of Florida. The trade winds blow westward in the tropics, and the westerlies blow eastward at mid-latitudes and this wind pattern applies a stress to the subtropical ocean surface with negative curl across the north Atlantic Ocean. The resulting Sverdrup transport is equatorward, the conservation of potential vorticity causes bends along the Gulf Stream, which occasionally break off due to a shift in the Gulf Streams position, forming separate warm and cold eddies. This overall process, known as western intensification, causes currents on the boundary of an ocean basin, such as the Gulf Stream
Solar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the suns rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating. A photovoltaic module is a packaged, connect assembly of typically 6×10 photovoltaic solar cells, photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each module is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, the efficiency of a module determines the area of a module given the same rated output – an 8% efficient 230 watt module will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt module. There are a few commercially available solar modules that exceed 22% efficiency, a single solar module can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple modules. A photovoltaic system typically includes an array of photovoltaic modules, an inverter, a pack for storage, interconnection wiring. The most common application of solar panels is solar heating systems.
The price of power has continued to fall so that in many countries it is cheaper than ordinary fossil fuel electricity from the grid. Photovoltaic modules use light energy from the Sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect, the majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells. The structural member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer, cells must be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells, the cells must be connected electrically in series, one to another. Externally, most of photovoltaic modules use MC4 connectors type to facilitate easy connections to the rest of the system. Modules electrical connections are made in series to achieve an output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. The conducting wires that take the current off the modules may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals, bypass diodes may be incorporated or used externally, in case of partial module shading, to maximize the output of module sections still illuminated.
Some special solar PV modules include concentrators in which light is focused by lenses or mirrors onto smaller cells and this enables the use of cells with a high cost per unit area in a cost-effective way. Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and this has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. Scientists from Spectrolab, a subsidiary of Boeing, have reported development of solar cells with an efficiency of more than 40%. Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate is around 21. 5% in new products typically lower than the efficiencies of their cells in isolation
Franchthi cave or Frankhthi cave is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf opposite the village of Koilada in southeastern Argolis, Greece. The cave was occupied from the Upper Paleolithic circa 38,000 BCE through the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, Professor T. W. Jacobsen, Professor of Classical Archaeology and Classical Studies at Indiana University, began excavations at Franchthi Cave in 1967. The dig was only intended to temporarily occupy Jacobsen, and his fellow researcher, for one short season, while they waited for land use issues to be resolved at a nearby site. But it soon became clear that Franchthi cave was more important than they had anticipated, the excavation, overseen by Jacobsen, would continue for nearly a decade, ending in 1976. Since numerous scholars have examined the extensive finds and its use as a campsite increased considerably after the Last Glacial Maximum, with occasional hiatus in the sequence of occupation. Obsidian from the island of Melos appears at Franchthi as early as 13,000 BCE, offering the earliest evidence of seafaring, the Mesolithic is represented by only a few sites in Greece, like Franchthi, nearly all of them are close to the coast.
The evidence of increased fish bones and increased use of obsidian from Melos at Franchthi during this shows they were accomplished seafarers. There is a notable stretch spanning several hundred years when tuna became a part of the diet at Franchthi cave. It has suggested that the tuna could have been caught by placing nets near the shore. A few graves have been buried in the cave during the Mesolithic that suggest care for the dead. The cave contains some of the earliest evidence for agriculture in Greece, there has been some debate about whether agriculture developed locally in Greece, or was introduced by colonists. The Mesolithic hunter gatherers of Greece rapidly adopted the methods introduced to them by Neolithic colonists, during the Neolithic main occupancy of the cave shifted to an area outside the entrance, called the Paralia, where terracing walls for growing crops were built. It is believed the inhabitants occupied a village below the Paralia, the cave and the Paralia were abandoned around 3,000 BCE.
Depositional History of Franchthi Cave, Sediments and chronology, fascicle 12 in the series Excavations at Franchthi Cave, Greece. OCLC Number 41503459 Galanidou and Perles, the Greek Mesolithic and Perspectives London, The British School at Athens Perles, Catherine
Las Palmas, officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, off the northwestern coast of Africa. It is the co-capital, the most populous city in the community of the Canary Islands. It is the fifth most populous area in Spain. Las Palmas is located in the part of the island of Gran Canaria. It enjoys a mild and pleasant semi-arid climate highly influenced by the Atlantic. According to a study carried out by Thomas Whitmore, director of research on climatology at Syracuse University in the U. S, Las Palmas enjoys the best climate in the world. The city was founded in 1478, and considered the de facto capital of the Canary Islands until the seventeenth century. It is the home of the Canarian Ministry of Presidency, as well as half of the Ministries and Boards of the Canarian Government, and it is the judicial and commercial capital of the Canary Islands, and is home to a large part of the executive power. The city was founded by Juan Rejón on 24 June 1478, Rejón was head of the invading Castilian army, which engaged in war with the locals.
In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the port of Las Palmas and he stopped there on the way back to Spain. The Colon House museum in the Vegueta area of the city is named after him, in 1595 Francis Drake tried to plunder the town, leading to the Battle of Las Palmas. A Dutch raid under vice-admiral Pieter van der Does in 1599 was only slightly successful, some of the town was destroyed. Las Palmas seaport, Puerto de la Luz, benefited greatly from the closure of the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis, many foreign workers migrated to the city at this time. Las Palmas is a city of San Antonio, Texas in the United States. Las Palmas is divided into five districts, which in turn are subdivided into districts. Las Palmas has a hot climate with warm dry summers. Its average annual temperature is 21.2 °C –28 °C during the day and 18 °C at night. In January, the coldest month, the temperature ranges from 19 to 23 °C during the day
Miami is a seaport city at the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Florida and its Atlantic coast. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Miamis metro area is the eighth-most populous, Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, and international trade. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha−World City in the World Cities Study Groups inventory, in 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States in terms of finance, culture, fashion and other sectors. It ranked 33rd among global cities, in 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami Americas Cleanest City, for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, Miami is nicknamed the Capital of Latin America and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the U. S. with over 300 high-rises, Downtown Miami is home to the largest concentration of international banks in the United States, and many large national and international companies.
The Civic Center is a center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the Cruise Capital of the World, has been the number one cruise port in the world. It accommodates some of the worlds largest cruise ships and operations, Metropolitan Miami is the major tourism hub in the American South, number two in the U. S. after New York City and number 13 in the world, including the popular destination of Miami Beach. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes, the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River, in 1566 the explorer, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, claimed it for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567, Spain and Great Britain successively controlled Florida, and Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress, the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.
Miami is noted as the major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle, a local citrus grower. The Miami area was known as Biscayne Bay Country in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness, the area was characterized as one of the finest building sites in Florida. The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miamis growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region