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Týr, Tíw, Ziu is a god in Germanic mythology. Stemming from the Proto-Germanic deity *Tīwaz and from the Proto-Indo-European chief deity *Dyeus, little information about the god survives beyond Old Norse sources. Due to the etymology of the god's name and the shadowy presence of the god in the extant Germanic corpus, some scholars propose that Týr may have once held a more central place among the deities of early Germanic mythology. Týr is the namesake of the Tiwaz rune, a letter of the runic alphabet corresponding to the Latin letter T. By way of the process of interpretatio germanica, the deity is the namesake of Tuesday in Germanic languages, including English. Interpretatio romana, in which Romans interpreted other gods as forms of their own renders the god as Mars, the ancient Roman war god, it is through that lens that most Latin references to the god occur. For example, the god may be referenced as Mars Thingsus on 3rd century Latin inscription, reflecting a strong association with the Germanic thing, a legislative body among the ancient Germanic peoples.

In Norse mythology, from which most surviving narratives about gods among the Germanic peoples stem, Týr sacrifices his arm to the monstrous wolf Fenrir, who bites off his limb while the gods bind the animal. Týr is foretold to be consumed by the monstrous dog Garmr during the events of Ragnarök. In Old Norse sources, Týr is alternately described as the son of the jötunn Hymir or of the god Odin. Lokasenna makes reference to an unnamed otherwise unknown consort also reflected in the continental Germanic record. Various place names in Scandinavia refer to the god, a variety of objects found in England and Scandinavia may depict the god or invoke him; the Old Norse theonym Týr has cognates including Old English tíw and tíʒ, Old High German Ziu. A cognate form appears in Gothic to represent the T rune. Like Latin Jupiter and Greek Zeus, Proto-Germanic *Tīwaz stems from the Proto-Indo-European theonym *Dyeus. Outside of its application as a theonym, the Old Norse common noun týr means' god'. In turn, the theonym Týr may be understood to mean "the god".

Modern English writers anglicize the god's name by dropping the proper noun's diacritic, rendering Old Norse Týr as Tyr. The modern English weekday name Tuesday means'Tíw's day', referring to the Old English extension of the deity. Tuesday derives from Old English tisdæi, which develops from an earlier tywesdæi, which itself extends from Old English Tīwesdæg; the word has cognates in numerous other Germanic languages, including Old Norse týsdagr, Frisian tīesdi, Old High German zīostag, Middle High German zīestac, Alemannic zīstac. All of these forms derive from a Proto-Germanic weekday name meaning'day of Tīwaz', itself a result of interpretatio germanica of Latin dies Martis; this attests to an early Germanic identification of *Tīwaz with Mars. The god is the namesake of the rune representing /t/ in the runic alphabets, the indigenous alphabets of the ancient Germanic peoples prior to their adaptation of the Latin alphabet; the name of the rune first occurs in the historical record as tyz, a character in the Gothic alphabet.

The name of Týr may occur in runes as ᛏᛁᚢᛦ on the 8th century Ribe skull fragment. Germanic weekday names for'Tuesday' that do not transparently extend from the above lineage may ultimately refer to the deity, including modern German Dienstag, Middle Dutch dinxendach and dingsdag; these forms may refer to the god's association with the thing, a traditional legal assembly common among the ancient Germanic peoples with which the god is associated. This may be either due to another form of the god's name or may be due to the god's strong association with the assembly. A variety of place names in Scandinavia refer to the god. For example, Viby, Denmark was once a stretch of meadow near a stream called Dødeå. Viby contained another theonym and religious practices associated with Odin and Týr may have occurred in these places. A spring dedicated to Holy Niels, a Christianization of prior indigenous pagan practice exists in Viby. Viby may mean "the settlement by the sacred site". Archaeologists have found traces of sacrifices going back 2,500 years in Viby.

While Týr's etymological heritage reaches back to the Proto-Indo-European period few direct references to the god survive prior to the Old Norse period. Like many other non-Roman deities, Týr receives mention in Latin texts by way of the process of interpretatio romana, in which Latin texts refer to the god by way of a perceived counterpart in Roman mythology. Latin inscriptions and texts refer to Týr as Mars; the first example of this occurs on record in Roman senator Tacitus's ethnography Germania: A. R. Birley translation: Among the gods Mercury is the one they principally worship, they regard it as a religious duty to sacrifice to him, on fixed days, human as well as other sacrificial victims. Hercules and Mars they appease by animal offerings of the permitted kind. Part of the Suebi sacrifice to Isis as well; these deities are understood by scholars to refer to *Wōđanaz, *Þunraz, *Tīwaz, respectively. The identity of the "Isis" of the Suebi remains a topics of debate among scholars. In Germania, Tacitus mentions a deity referred to as regnato


The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880. The Duden is updated with new editions appearing every four or five years; as of August 2017, it is in its 27th edition. It is printed as twelve volumes, with each volume covering different aspects of the German language such as loanwords, pronunciation, etc; the first of these volumes, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung, has long been the prescriptive source for German language spelling. The Duden has become the preeminent language resource of the German language, stating the definitive set of rules regarding grammar and use of German language. In 1872, Konrad Duden, headmaster of a Gymnasium in Schleiz, now in Thuringia, published a German dictionary called the Schleizer Duden, the first Duden. In 1880, he published the Vollständiges Orthographisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache; the first edition of the Duden contained 28,000 entries. In 1902, the Bundesrat confirmed the Duden as the official standard for German spelling.

In the ensuing decades, the Duden continued to be the de facto standard for German orthography. After World War II this tradition continued separately in East and West Germany in Leipzig and Mannheim, respectively. In West Germany, some publishing houses began to attack the Duden "monopoly" in the 1950s, publishing dictionaries which contained alternative spellings. In reaction, in November 1955 the ministers of culture of the states of Germany confirmed the spellings given by the Duden would continue to be the official standard. In 1954, the first published Duden appeared in Mannheim, the western counterpart to the traditional Duden printing city of Leipzig; the first East German Duden appeared in Leipzig in 1951 but was ignored as illegitimate by West Germany. The printing continued in both Mannheim and Leipzig until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989; the differences between the two versions of Duden printed during this period appear in the number of entries. As the printing of the two Dudens began, in 1954 and 1951, the number of Stichwörter included was the same.

As the split between the printers versions continued, the East German Duden began diminishing the number of Stichwörter in its volume while the West German Duden printed in Mannheim increased the number of Stichwörter. The major differences between the two Dudens are seen in the lexical entries; the East German Duden included various loan words from Russian in the area of politics, such as Politbüro and Sozialdemokratismus. New to the East German Duden were words stemming from Soviet agricultural and industrial organization and practices. Of note, there are a few semantic changes recorded in the East German Duden that evolved from contact with Russian; the East German Duden records the nominalization of German words by adding the suffix -ist, borrowed from the Russian language suffix. Furthermore, additional words were recorded due to increasing the number of adverbs and adjectives negated with the prefix un-, such as unernst and unkonkret; the few lexical and semantic items recorded in the East German Duden migrated from der große Duden because the printing press in Leipzig did not publish the multiple volume Duden which has become the current standard.

On the cover of the Duden, 25th Edition, Volume 1, these words are printed in red letters: Das umfassende Standardwerk auf der Grundlage der aktuellen amtlichen Regeln. This translates as: "The comprehensive standard reference based on the current official rules." The "current official rules" are the result of the German orthography reform of 1996. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung – The Spelling Dictionary Das Stilwörterbuch – The Dictionary of Style Das Bildwörterbuch – The Pictorial Dictionary Die Grammatik – The Grammar Das Fremdwörterbuch – The Dictionary of Foreign Words Das Aussprachewörterbuch – The Pronouncing Dictionary Das Herkunftswörterbuch – The Etymological Dictionary Das Synonymwörterbuch – The Thesaurus Richtiges und gutes Deutsch – Correct and Good German Das Bedeutungswörterbuch – The Dictionary Redewendungen – Figures of Speech Zitate und Aussprüche – Quotations and Sayings Betz, Werner. Verändert Sprache die Welt: Semantik, Politik und Manipulation. Edition Interfrom AG: Zürich, 1977.

Hellmann, Manfred W. Zum Öffentlichen Sprachgebrauch in Bundesrepublik Deutschland und in der DDR. Düsseldorf: Pädagogischer Verlag Schwann, 1973. Reich, Hans H. Sprache und Politik: Untersuchungen zu Wortschatz und Wortwahl des offiziellen Sprachgebrauchs in der DDR. Munich: Max Hueber Verlag, 1968. Schlosser, Horst Dieter. Kommunikationsbedingungen und Alltagssprache in der ehemaligen DDR. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1991. Siegl, Elke Annalene. Duden-Ost, Duden-West: Zur Sprache in Deutschland seit 1945: ein Vergleich der Leipziger und der Mannheimer Dudenauflagen seit 1947. Düsseldorf: Schwann, 1989. Official website

Story of an Unknown Actor

Story of an Unknown Actor is a Soviet drama film directed by Aleksandr Zarkhi in 1977. Pavel Pavlovich Goryaev, middle-aged actor. For many years, he played in the provincial theater on lead roles; the director of the piece based on the play, written for Goryaev, takes a young actor for his role. Goryaev first leaves the theater, makes an appeal to his friends. After a while, he digests what realizes it's time to leave the scene adequately. Yevgeny Yevstigneyev as Pavel Goryaev Alla Demidova as Olga Svetilnikova Igor Kvasha as Viktor Vereshchagin Angelina Stepanova as Maria Goryaeva Igor Starygin as Vadim Vladislav Strzhelchik as Mikhail Tverskoy Valentin Gaft as director Znamensky Mikhail Kononov as Petya Strizhov Nikolay Trofimov as Pyotr Fomich Pavel Vinnik as Ferapontov Irina Murzaeva as old actress Nikolay Smorchkov as actor Valentina Telegina as episode Winter Evening in Gagra Story of an Unknown Actor on IMDb

Severin Anton Averdonk

Severin Anton Averdonk, real name Anton Clemens Averdonk, was a German Roman Catholic clergyman and poet who represented the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution. He wrote the texts for at least one cantata. Averdonk was a brother of the court singer Johanna Helene Averdonk, he received numerous awards. He attended two philosophical courses at university and began studying theology in 1789. Averdonk was supported by Eulogius Schneider. In 1790 the latter suggested the Bonner Lesegesellschaft should commission a cantata on the deceased emperor Joseph II in order to make the funeral ceremonies worthy. For this an elegy should be used, which Averdonk, at that time "Canon Regular of the Order of the Holy Cross" in Kloster Ehrenstein, candidate at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn by had written, it bore the title Ode auf den Tod Josephs und Elisens. Beethoven, moved by the theme of the Enlightenment composed the Cantata on the Death of Emperor Joseph II; the text of the Kantate auf die Erhebung Leopolds II.

Zur Kaiserwürde was probably written by Averdonk. Averdonk was displeased by the Elector-Archbishop Max Franz, who in 1791 called him a monk qualifying for pastoral care, but who had become a "Minnesinger". Averdonk was among the poets who wrote contributions in 1813 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the reading society. After the French Revolution, whose ideals he shared, Averdonk emigrated to Alsace and was priest in Uffholtz and president of the Société des Amis de la Liberté et de l'Égalité there, he wrote contributions for Eulogius Schneider's Jacobin magazine Argos. The quality of Averdonk's sealing works were not appreciated by many on. Words such as "epigonal poetry" were mentioned, there was talk of a meanwhile comical horror metaphor in the cantata about the death of the emperor

The Voice (American season 10)

The tenth season of the American reality talent show The Voice premiered on February 29, 2016 on NBC. Carson Daly returned as the show's host. Adam Levine, Blake Shelton, Pharrell Williams all returned as coaches, while Christina Aguilera returned after a one-season hiatus. Gwen Stefani did not return as a coach for this season, but was the advisor for Team Blake in the Battle Rounds. Alisan Porter was announced as the winner of the season, Christina Aguilera became the winning coach and the first female coach to win The Voice. Adam Levine and Blake Shelton returned for their tenth season as coaches. Pharrell Williams returned for his fourth season and Christina Aguilera returned for her sixth season, after a season's hiatus; the advisor for this season was next season's coach Miley Cyrus, who served as an advisor for all teams during the Knockouts. The open call auditions were held in the following locations. Color key Color key This episode covered the Best of the Blind Auditions and a sneak peek of the next stage of competition, the Battle Rounds.

The sixth episode included the last of the Blind Auditions as well as the first Battles. All of the coaches performed "I Wish"; the Battles consisted of two 2-hour episodes, one 1-hour and one special episodes each on March 14, 15, 21 and 22, 2016. Season ten's advisors included: Tori Kelly for Team Adam, Sean'Diddy' Combs for Team Pharrell, Patti LaBelle for Team Christina and Gwen Stefani for Team Blake; the coaches can steal two losing artists from another coach. Contestants who won their battle or are stolen by another coach will advance to the Knockout rounds. Color key: For the Knockouts, Miley Cyrus was assigned as a mentor for contestants in all four teams; the coaches can each steal one losing artist. The top 20 contestants, plus four receiving the Coach Comeback from either the Knockouts or the earlier Battles, will move on to the "Live Shows." Color key: 1 Daniel Passino is on Team Pharrell for the Live Shows 2 Nick Hagelin is on Team Christina for the Live Shows The Live Shows are the final phase of the competition.

It consists of five weekly shows and the season finale. Color key: The Live Playoffs comprised episodes 14, 15, 16; the top twenty artists perform, with two artists from each team advancing based on the viewers' vote, each coach completing their respective teams with their own choice. Just like from Season 9, each coach brought back one eliminated artist of their choice to join the top 20 and compete in the Live Playoffs; the Monday night broadcast featured Teams Blake and Christina, the Tuesday night broadcast featured Teams Adam and Pharrell, the Wednesday night broadcast featured the results. The two artists with the fewest votes compete for an Instant Save, with one leaving the competition each week until the semifinals. ITunes bonus multipliers were awarded to Alisan Porter; the least vote for an Instant Save will be eliminated. None of the artists reached the top 10 on iTunes, so no bonuses were awarded. ITunes bonus multiplier was awarded to Alisan Porter; the least vote from the Instant Save will be eliminated.

ITunes bonus multipliers were awarded to Laith Al-Saadi. This week's Instant Save was the second closest in the show's history, with Paxton and Nick tied for most of the voting window. Paxton was saved with a difference of nearly 100 votes; this week, the three artists with the most votes made it straight to the finals, the two artists with the fewest votes were eliminated and the middle three fought for the remaining spot in the finals via Instant Save. iTunes bonus multipliers were awarded to Adam Wakefield, Alisan Porter, Hannah Huston, Mary Sarah, Bryan Bautista and Laith Al-Saadi. In addition to their individual songs, each artist performed a duet with another artist in the competition, though these duets were not available for purchase on iTunes. All four coaches had an artist advance to the finals for the first time since season 2 and season 1, team-based rather than individual, thus making season 10 the first in The Voice history to achieve this feat organically. Pink was assigned as a mentor for the final 8 contestants on all four teams.

The Top 4 performed on Monday, May 23, 2016, with the final results following on Tuesday, May 24, 2016. This week, the four finalists performed a solo song, a duet with their coach, an original song. In a change from the previous seasons, iTunes bonus multipliers were extended to songs performed in the final performance show. ITunes bonus multipliers were awarded to Adam Wakefield, Hannah Huston, Alisan Porter and Laith Al-Saadi. All iTunes votes received for the six weeks leading up to the finale were cumulatively added to online and app finale votes for each finalist. ^ Originally, Owen Danoff was among the artists recruited by Al-Saadi for his performance prior to Danoff's absence. Color key Artist's info Result details Color key Artist's info Result details The show faced controversy when Katherine Ho, a contestant on Team Adam, was the second contestant in the history of the show to make it to the third round of the competition and have all of her performances, including her Blind Audition and Knockout round, montaged.

According to Matt Carter, "It’s not that we write an article on'The Voice', about a contestant being triple-montaged because it is such a rare phenomenon, but here we are with it happening to Katherine Ho. When it a triple-montage does happen, it just makes it all the more frustrating since it eliminates the purpose of the show. We know that there is no guarantee that you are going to get airtime when you audition for the show, but we do th

Arthur Armitage

Professor Sir Arthur Llewellyn Armitage, was a British academic, the President of Queens' College, from 1958 until 1970, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University between 1965–67 and Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University of Manchester between 1969 and 1980. Born in Marsden, West Yorkshire, Armitage was educated at Hulme Grammar School and Queens' College, Cambridge, he went up to Cambridge in 1933. After he spent two years at Yale on a Commonwealth Fund Fellowship and was called to the Bar in Inner Temple 1940, he served for five years in the Army during the Second World War. He became a Fellow and tutor of the college in 1947, he was elected President of Queens' in 1958 upon the death of John Archibald Venn. In 1969 he was appointed Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University of Manchester, the appointment caused student protests at the time, with over 3000 students occupying the main university building in protest over the lack of consultation on the appointment, he served as Chairman of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors.

In his years, Armitage chaired a series of government committees under James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher, including the Social Security Advisory Committee. Armitage was President of Cambridge University Cricket Club between 1965 and 1970, he was knighted in the 1975 New Year Honours List. "Obituaries: Sir Arthur Armitage", The Times, Feb 06, 1984.