In Māori mythology, Matuku-tangotango is an ogre who kills Wahieroa the son of Tāwhaki. In some versions, Matuku lives in a cave called Putawarenuku. Rātā, the son of Wahieroa, sets off to avenge his murdered father, arrives at last at Matuku's village, he hears from Matuku's servant that at the new moon his master can be killed at the pool where he washes his face and hair. When the new moon has come, Rātā waits until the ogre comes out of his cave and is leaning over with his head in the pool, he kills him. Rātā sets off to rescue his father's bones from the Ponaturi. A South Island version names the islands where Matuku lives as Puorunuku and Puororangi and states that Rātā nooses Matuku as he comes out of his lair to perform certain rituals; the expedition into the realm of Matuku-tangotango conducted by Wahie-roa was for the sake of plumes of kake-rangi birds, was led by Manu-korihi. "Wahieroa was murdered in his sleep by his own slave". Having gained the sought-for plumes, the expedition returned safely through the country of the Ngati-Toko-rakau, who were governed by Ko-waiwai.
After Rata had arrived in Haohao-nui, located in the fortress Awa-rua, Rata's disguised voice was mistaken by Matuku-tangotango for that of Matuku-tangotango's own brother Tahuaroa. The neck of Mataku-tangotango was strangled. Matuku Matuku-tangotango Matuku-takotako. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. John White: The Ancient History of the Maori. Wellington, 1887. Vol. 1, pp. 68–69, 90.
Rotorua is a city on the southern shores of Lake Rotorua from which the city takes its name, located in the Bay of Plenty Region of New Zealand's North Island. It is the seat of the Rotorua District, a territorial authority encompassing Rotorua and several other nearby towns; the majority of the Rotorua District is in the Bay of Plenty Region, but a sizeable southern section and a small western section are in the Waikato Region. Rotorua is in the heart of the North Island, 60 kilometres south of Tauranga, 80 km north of Taupo, 105 km east of Hamilton, 230 km southeast of the nation's most populous city, Auckland. Rotorua has an estimated permanent population of 59,500, making it the country's 10th largest urban area, the Bay of Plenty's second largest urban area behind Tauranga; the Rotorua District has a total estimated population of 72,500, of which 3,600 live in the Waikato section. Rotorua is a major destination for both international tourists, it is known for its geothermal activity, features geysers – notably the Pohutu Geyser at Whakarewarewa – and hot mud pools.
This thermal activity is sourced to the Rotorua caldera. Rotorua is home to the Toi Ohomai Institute of Technology; the Lakes of Rotorua are a collection of many lakes surrounding Rotorua. The name Rotorua comes from Māori, the full name for the city and lake is Te Rotorua-nui-a-Kahumatamomoe. Roto means'lake' and rua means'two' or in this case'second' – Rotorua thus meaning'Second lake'. Kahumatamomoe was the uncle of the ancestral explorer of the Te Arawa, it was the second major lake the chief discovered, he dedicated it to his uncle. It is the largest of a multitude of lakes found to the northeast, all connected with the Rotorua Caldera and nearby Mount Tarawera; the name can mean the appropriate'Crater lake'. The area was settled by Māori of the Te Arawa Iwi in the 14th century. During the early 1820s Ngapuhi led by chief Hongi Hika launced a series of raids into the Bay of Plenty as a part of the Musket Wars, in 1823 a Ngapuhi raiding party led by Hongi Hika attacked Te Arawa at their Pa on Mokoia Island defeating them.
The first European in the area was Phillip Tapsell, trading from the Bay of Plenty coast at Maketu from 1828. He married into Te Arawa and became regarded by them. Missionaries Henry Williams and Thomas Chapman visited in 1831 and Chapman and his wife established a mission at Te Koutu in 1835; this was abandoned within a year but Chapman returned in 1838 and established a second mission at Mokoia Island. The lakeshore was a prominent site of skirmishes during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s. A "special town district" was created in the 1883, to promote Rotorua's potential as a spa destination; the town was connected to Auckland with the opening of the Rotorua Branch railway and commencement of the Rotorua Express train in 1894, resulting in the rapid growth of the town and tourism from this time forward. Rotorua was established as a borough in 1922, elected its first mayor in 1923, declared a city in 1962 before becoming a District in 1979; the Rotorua region enjoys a mild temperate climate.
Rotorua is situated inland from the coast and is sheltered by high country to the south and east of the city, resulting in less wind than many other places in New Zealand. During the winter months June – August temperatures can drop below 0 °C. Frost is common in Rotorua during its winter months, with an average of 57 ground frosts annually, 20 nights per year below 0 °C. Snowfall in Rotorua is rare. On 15 August 2011 and 13 July 2017 snowflakes fell in the town centre, during the July 2017 snowfall, snow accumulated in the nearby Mamaku ranges and in the outer reaches of the district, where snowfall occurs on average once every three years. Inner suburbs Outer suburbs Thermal activity is at the heart of much of Rotorua's tourist appeal. Geysers and bubbling mud pools, hot thermal springs and Te Wairoa — so named after it was buried by the 1886 Mount Tarawera eruption— are within easy reach of Rotorua. In Kuirau Park, to the west end of Rotorua, hot bubbling mud pools dot the park. Visitors can soak their feet in hot pools.
A common nickname for Rotorua is "Sulphur City" due to the hydrogen sulphide emissions, which gives the city a smell similar to "rotten eggs", as well as "Rotten-rua" combining its legitimate name and the rotten smell prevalent. Another common nickname is "Roto-Vegas", likening the city's own strip of road flanked by businesses and restaurants to that of Las Vegas; the pungent smell in the central-east'Te Ngae' area is due to the dense sulphur deposits located next to the southern boundary of the Government Gardens, in the area known as'Sulphur Point'. The Rotorua region has 17 lakes, known collectively as the Lakes of Rotorua. Fishing, waterskiing and other water activities are popular in summer; the lakes are used for event venues. Lake Rotorua is used as a departure and landing point for float planes. Rotorua is home to botanical gardens and historic architecture. Known as a spa town and major tourist resort since the 1800s, many of its buildings hint at this history. Government Gardens, close to the lake-shore at the eastern edge of the town, are a particular point of pride.
The Rotorua Museum of Art and History is housed in the large Tudor-style bath house building while the Art Deco
Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown for its edible corms, the root vegetables most known as taro. It is the most cultivated species of several plants in the Araceae family which are used as vegetables for their corms and petioles. Taro corms are a food staple in African and South Asian cultures, taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants; this plant and its root is called taro, but it has different names in different countries like for instance eddoe or malanga. The plant is called tales in Java, oah in Hokkien,cocoyam in Ghana, taro in Tahiti, ndalo in Fiji, talo in Samoa, gabi in the Philippines, colcas in Arabic, kolokasi or kolokas in Cyprus, kalo in Hawaii and amateke in Rwanda. Taro is referred to as "elephant ears" when grown as an ornamental plant. Linnaeus described two species, Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum, but many botanists consider them both to be members of a single variable species, the correct name for, Colocasia esculenta; the specific epithet, means "edible" in Latin.
Taro is related to Xanthosoma and Caladium, plants grown ornamentally, like them it is sometimes loosely called elephant ear. Similar taro varieties include giant taro, swamp taro, arrowleaf elephant's ear. Colocasia esculenta is a perennial, tropical plant grown as a root vegetable for its edible, starchy corm; the plant has rhizomes of different sizes. Leaves sprout from the rhizome, they are light green beneath. They are triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at the apex, with the tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded; the petiole is 0.8–1.2 m high. The path can be up to 25 cm long; the spadix is about three fifths as long as the spathe, with flowering parts up to 8 mm in diameter. The female portion is at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Neuters grow above the females, are rhomboid or irregular orium lobed, with six or eight cells; the appendage is shorter than the male portion. Colocasia esculenta is thought to be native to Southern India and Southeast Asia, but is naturalised.
Colocasia is thought to have originated in the Indomalaya ecozone in East India and Bangladesh. It spread by cultivation eastward into East Asia and the Pacific Islands. Taro was first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia, where it is called taloes. In Australia, Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis is native to the Kimberley region of Western Australia. In Turkey, Colocasia esculenta is locally known as gölevez and grown on the Mediterranean coast, such as the Alanya district of Antalya Province and the Anamur district of Mersin Province. In the southeastern United States, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. Many populations can be found growing near drain ditches and bayous in Houston, Texas. Taro is one of the most ancient cultivated crops. Taro is found in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, northern Australia and is polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult, it is believed that they were domesticated independently multiple times, with authors giving possible locations as New Guinea, Mainland Southeast Asia, northeastern India, based on the assumed native range of the wild plants.
However, more recent studies have pointed out that wild taro may have a much larger native distribution than believed, wild breeding types may likely be indigenous to other parts of Island Southeast Asia. Archaeological traces of taro exploitation have been recovered from numerous sites, though whether these were cultivated or wild types can not be ascertained, they include the Niah Caves of Borneo, dated to <40,000 BP. It should be noted that in the case of Kuk Swamp, there is evidence of formalized agriculture emerging by about c. 10,000 BP, with evidence of cultivated plots, though which plant was cultivated remains unknown. Taro were carried into the Pacific Islands by Austronesian peoples from around 1300 BC, where they became a staple crop of Polynesians, along with other types of "taros", like Alocasia macrorrhizos, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, Cyrtosperma merkusii, they are the most important and the most preferred among the four, because they were less to contain the irritating raphides present in the other plants.
Taro is identified as one of the staples of Micronesia, from archaeological evidence dating back to the pre-colonial Latte Period, indicating that it was carried by Micronesians when they colonized the islands. Taro pollen and starch residue have been identified in Lapita sites, dated to around c. 3,050 - 2,500 cal BP. At around 3.3 million metric tons per year, Nigeria is the largest producer of taro in the world. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Taro is one of the few crops; this is d
Māui (Māori mythology)
In Māori mythology, as in other Polynesian traditions, Māui is a culture hero and a trickster, famous for his exploits and cleverness. Māui is credited with catching a giant fish using a fishhook taken from his grandmother's jaw-bone. In some traditions, his waka became the South Island, known as Te Waka a Māui, his last trick, which led to his death, involved the Goddess Hine-nui-te-pō. While attempting to make mankind immortal, Māui changed into a worm and entered her vagina, intent on leaving through her mouth while she slept. However, he was crushed by the obsidian teeth in her vagina. Māui-tikitiki Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga Māui-pōtiki. Maui te whare kino; the offspring of Tū increased and multiplied and did not know death until the generation of Māui-tikitiki. Māui is the son of the wife of Makeatutara, he has a miraculous birth – his mother threw her premature infant into the sea wrapped in a tress of hair from her topknot – hence Māui is known as Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Ocean spirits wrap the child in seaweed.
His divine ancestor, Tama-nui-te-rā takes the child and nourishes him to adolescence. Māui emerged from the sea and traveled to his mother's house, finding his four brothers, Māui-taha, Māui-roto, Māui-pae, Māui-waho. Māui's brothers are at first wary of the newcomer, but after he performed feats such as transforming himself into different kinds of birds, they acknowledged his power and admired him. At first, Taranga does not recognise Māui as her child; when he became old enough, he came to his relatives while they were gathered in the marae and being merry. Maui sat down behind his brothers. Soon his mother called the children and found a strange child, who proved to be her son, was taken in as one of the family; some of the brothers were jealous. In the days of peace remember the proverb,'When you are on friendly terms, settle your disputes in a friendly way, it is better for brothers, to be kind to other people. These are the ways by which men gain influence – by laboring for an abundance of food to feed others, by collecting property to give to others, by similar means by which you promote the good of others.
Thus Maui was received in his home. Māui's older brothers always refused to let him come fishing with them. One night, he wove for himself a flax fishing line and enchanted it with a karakia to give it strength, he stowed away in the hull of his brothers' waka. The next morning, when the waka was too far from land to return, he emerged from his hiding-place, his brothers would not lend him any bait, so he struck himself on the nose and baited the hook with his blood. Māui hauled a great fish, thus the North Island of New Zealand is known as Te Ika-a-Māui. When it emerged from the water, Māui left to find a tohunga to perform the appropriate ceremonies and prayers, leaving his brothers in charge. They, did not wait for Māui to return but began to cut up the fish, which writhed in agony, causing it to break up into mountains and valleys. If the brothers had listened to Māui, the island would have been a level plain, people would have been able to travel with ease on its surface. In Northern Māori traditions of New Zealand, Māui's waka became the South Island, with Banks Peninsula marking the place supporting his foot as he pulled up that heavy fish.
Besides the official name of Te Waipounamu, another Māori name for the South Island is Te Waka-a-Māui, the canoe of Māui. In southern traditions, the South Island is known instead as Te Waka o Aoraki and predates Māui's expedition. Māui sailed a canoe called Maahanui and after he had pulled up the North Island he left Maahanui on top of a mountain in the foothills behind what is now Ashburton; that mountain now bears the name Maahanui, the coastline between Banks Peninsula and the Waitaki River is called Te tai o Maahanui. Māui wanted to know where fire came from, so one night he went among the villages of his people and put all the fires out. Māui's mother Taranga, their rangatira, said that someone would have to ask Mahuika, the goddess of fire, for more. So Māui offered to find her. Mahuika lived in a cave in a burning mountain at the end of the earth, she gave Māui one of her burning fingernails to relight the fires, but Māui extinguished fingernail after fingernail until Mahuika became angry and sent fire to pursue Māui.
Māui transformed himself into a hawk to escape, but to no avail, for Mahuika set both land and sea on fire. Māui prayed to his great ancestors Tāwhirimātea, god of weather, Whaitiri-matakataka, goddess of thunder, who answered by pouring rain to extinguish the fire. Mahuika threw her last nail at Māui, but it missed him and flew into some trees including the māhoe and the kaikōmako. Māui brought back dry sticks of these trees to his village and showed his people how to rub the sticks together and make fire. Māui went fishing with the husband of his sister Hina. During the expedition, he became annoyed with Irawaru. In some, Māui was jealous of Irawaru's success at fishing.
Lightning is a violent and sudden electrostatic discharge where two electrically charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves during a thunderstorm. Lightning creates a wide range of electromagnetic radiations from the hot plasma created by the electron flow, including visible light in the form of black-body radiation. Thunder is the sound formed by the shock wave formed as gaseous molecules experience a rapid pressure increase; the three main kinds of lightning are: created either inside one thundercloud, or between two clouds, or between a cloud and the ground. The 15 recognized observational variants include "heat lightning", seen but not heard, dry lightning, which causes many forest fires, ball lightning, observed scientifically. Humans have deified lightning for millennia, lightning inspired expressions like "Bolt from the blue", "Lightning never strikes twice", "blitzkrieg" are common. In some languages, "Love at first sight" translates as "lightning strike"; the details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification.
The main charging area in a thunderstorm occurs in the central part of the storm where air is moving upward and temperatures range from −15 to −25 °C, see figure to the right. At that place, the combination of temperature and rapid upward air movement produces a mixture of super-cooled cloud droplets, small ice crystals, graupel; the updraft carries the super-cooled cloud droplets and small ice crystals upward. At the same time, the graupel, larger and denser, tends to fall or be suspended in the rising air; the differences in the movement of the precipitation cause collisions to occur. When the rising ice crystals collide with graupel, the ice crystals become positively charged and the graupel becomes negatively charged. See figure to the left; the updraft carries. The larger and denser graupel is either suspended in the middle of the thunderstorm cloud or falls toward the lower part of the storm; the result is that the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes positively charged while the middle to lower part of the thunderstorm cloud becomes negatively charged.
The upward motions within the storm and winds at higher levels in the atmosphere tend to cause the small ice crystals in the upper part of the thunderstorm cloud to spread out horizontally some distance from thunderstorm cloud base. This part of the thunderstorm cloud is called the anvil. While this is the main charging process for the thunderstorm cloud, some of these charges can be redistributed by air movements within the storm. In addition, there is a small but important positive charge buildup near the bottom of the thunderstorm cloud due to the precipitation and warmer temperatures. A typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash culminates in the formation of an electrically conducting plasma channel through the air in excess of 5 km tall, from within the cloud to the ground's surface; the actual discharge is the final stage of a complex process. At its peak, a typical thunderstorm produces three or more strikes to the Earth per minute. Lightning occurs when warm air is mixed with colder air masses, resulting in atmospheric disturbances necessary for polarizing the atmosphere.
However, it can occur during dust storms, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, in the cold of winter, where the lightning is known as thundersnow. Hurricanes generate some lightning in the rainbands as much as 160 km from the center; the science of lightning is called fulminology, the fear of lightning is called astraphobia. Lightning is not distributed evenly around the planet. On Earth, the lightning frequency is 44 times per second, or nearly 1.4 billion flashes per year and the average duration is 0.2 seconds made up from a number of much shorter flashes of around 60 to 70 microseconds. Many factors affect the frequency, distribution and physical properties of a typical lightning flash in a particular region of the world; these factors include ground elevation, prevailing wind currents, relative humidity, proximity to warm and cold bodies of water, etc. To a certain degree, the ratio between IC, CC and CG lightning may vary by season in middle latitudes; because human beings are terrestrial and most of their possessions are on the Earth where lightning can damage or destroy them, CG lightning is the most studied and best understood of the three types though IC and CC are more common types of lightning.
Lightning's relative unpredictability limits a complete explanation of how or why it occurs after hundreds of years of scientific investigation. About 70 % of lightning occurs over land in the tropics; this occurs from both the mixture of warmer and colder air masses, as well as differences in moisture concentrations, it happens at the boundaries between them. The flow of warm ocean currents past drier land masses, such as the Gulf Stream explains the elevated frequency of lightning in the Southeast United States; because the influence of small or absent land masses in the vast stretches of the world's oceans limits the differences between these variants in the atmosphere, lightning is notably less frequent there than over larger landforms. The North and South Poles are limited in their coverage of thunderstorms and theref
In Māori mythology, Punga is a supernatural being, the ancestor of sharks, lizards and all deformed, ugly things. All ugly and strange animals are Punga's children. Hence the saying Te aitanga a Punga used to describe an ugly person. Punga is a son of Tangaroa, the god of the sea, when Tāwhirimātea made war against his brothers after they separated Rangi and Papa, the two sons of Punga, Ikatere and Tū-te-wehiwehi, had to flee for their lives. Ikatere fled to the sea, became the ancestor of certain fish, while Tū-te-wehiwehi took refuge in the forest, became the ancestor of lizards; as is appropriate for a son of Tangaroa, Punga's name has a maritime origin - in the Māori language,'punga' means'anchor stone' - in tropical Polynesia, related words refer to coral stone used as an anchor. According to some versions, Punga is the son of Rangi-potiki and Papatūānuku and a twin brother to Here. In a version of the epic of Tāwhaki attributed by White to the Ngāti Hau tribe, Punga is named as a brother of Karihi and Hemā.
In some Hawaiian stories and Punga are sons of Aikanaka and Hinahanaiakamalama. R. D. Craig, Dictionary of Polynesian Mythology, 1989. E. R. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, 1891. J. White, The Ancient History of the Maori, Volume I, 1887
Ngāti Porou is a Māori iwi traditionally located in the East Cape and Gisborne regions of the North Island of New Zealand. Ngāti Porou is affiliated with the 28th Maori Battalion and has the second-largest affiliation of any iwi in New Zealand, with 71,910 registered members in 2006; the traditional rohe or tribal area of Ngāti Porou extends from Pōtikirua and Lottin Point in the north to Te Toka-a-Taiau in the south. Mt Hikurangi features prominently in Ngāti Porou traditions as a symbol of endurance and strength, holds tapu status. In these traditions, Hikurangi is personified. Ngāti Porou traditions indicate that Hikurangi was the first point to surface when Māui fished up the North Island from beneath the ocean, his canoe, the Nuku-tai-memeha, is said to have been wrecked there. The Waiapu River features in Ngāti Porou traditions. Ngāti Porou takes its name from the ancestor Porourangi known as Porou Ariki, he was a direct descendant of Toi-kai-rākau. Other ancestors include Māui, accredited in oral tradition with raising the North Island from the sea, Paikea, the whale rider.
Although Ngāti Porou claim the Nukutaimemeha as their foundation canoe, many Ngāti Porou ancestors arrived on different canoes, including Horouta, Tākitimu and Tereanini. The descendants of Porourangi and Toi formed groups that spread across the East Cape through conquest and through strategic marriage alliances. Associations with other iwi arise through direct descent from Ngāti Porou ancestors: Kahungunu, descending from Ueroa, second son of Porourangi, is the founding ancestor of Ngāti Kahungunu, who occupy the region south of the Ngāti Porou tribal boundaries. Taua, descended from Kahungunu, is a prominent ancestor in Te Whānau-ā-Apanui genealogy. Ngāti Raukawa and the Tainui iwi have association through Rongomaianiwaniwa, daughter of Porourangi, the marriage of the ancestress Māhinaarangi to Tūrongo. Ngai Tahu traditions indicate descent from both Porourangi and from Tahupōtiki, younger-brother to the former; the early 19th century saw Ngāti Porou in conflict with Ngā Puhi during the latter's campaign of warfare throughout the North Island.
This period saw the introduction of Christianity to the region, which led to a period of relative calm and cultural development. Ngāti Porou chiefs were signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Ngāti Porou experienced substantial economic growth during the 1850s. During the 1860s, the Pai Mārire religious movement spread through the North Island, came into conflict with the New Zealand Government. From 1865–1870, a civil war emerged within Ngāti Porou, between Pai Mārire converts seeking the creation of an independent Māori state and other Ngāti Porou advocating tribal sovereignty and independence; this conflict is viewed as part of the East Cape War. Ngāti Porou once again enjoyed peace and economic prosperity during the late 19th century; the 1890s saw the emergence of Sir Āpirana Ngata, who contributed to the revitalisation of the Māori people. During the early 20th century, the population of Ngāti Porou increased substantially, they were active in their participation in both World Wars.
After World War II, large numbers of Ngāti Porou began emigrating from traditional tribal lands and moving into larger urban areas, in a trend reflected throughout New Zealand. A large portion of the tribal population now lives in Wellington; the Potikirua ki Waiapu rohe includes these hapū: Ngāi Tamakoro, of Tutua marae in Te Araroa Ngāi Tāne, of Hinepare marae in Rangitukia, Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Ngāti Hokopū, of Hinepare marae in Rangitukia, Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Ngāti Kahu, of Punaruku marae in Hicks Bay Ngāti Nua, of Hinepare maraein Rangitukia, Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Ngāti Putaanga of Kaiwaka marae in Tikitiki, Putaanga marae in Tikitiki Ngāti Tuere of Hinemaurea ki Wharekahika marae in Hicks Bay, Hinerupe marae in Te Araroa, Tutua marae in Te Araroa Te Whānau a Hinepare, of Hinepare marae in Rangitukia, Awatere marae in Te Araroa, Hinerupe marae in Te Araroa, Hurae marae in Te Araroa, Kaiwaka marae in Tikitiki, Rāhui marae in North Tikitiki Te Whānau a Hunaara, of Matahī o Te Tau marae in Horoera, Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Te Whānau a Karuai, of Hinerupe marae in Te Araroa, Karuai marae in Tikitiki, Waiomatatini marae in Ruatōria Te Whānau a Rākaimataura, of Rāhui marae in North Tikitiki Te Whānau a Rerewa, of Hinepare marae in Rangitukia, Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Te Whānau a Takimoana, of Ōhinewaiapu marae in Rangitukia Te Whānau a Tapuaeururangi, of Pōtaka marae in Pōtaka Te Whānau a Tapuhi, of Taumata o Tapuhi in Rangitukia Te Whānau a Te Aotakī Hinemaurea ki Wharekahika, of Tūwhakairiora in Hicks Bay Te Whānau a Te Uruahi Tinatoka, of Te Poho o Tinatoka in Tikitiki Te Whanau a Tinatoka Tinatoka, of Te Poho o Tinatoka in Tikitiki Te Whānau a Tuwhakairiora, of Hinemaurea ki Wharekahika marae in Hicks Bay, Hinerupe marae in Te Araroa The Waiapu ki Tawhiti rohe includes these hapū: Ngāi Taharora Taharora, of Taharora marae in Waipiro Bay Ngāi Tangihaere, of Kariaka marae in Ruatōria, Ruataupare marae in Ruatōria, Whareponga marae in Ruatōria Ngāti Horowai, of Te Horo marae in Port Awanui Ngāti Rangi, of Reporua marae in Ruatōria Ngāti Uepōhatu, of Mangahanea marae in Ruatōria, Uepōhatu marae in Ruatōria, Umuariki marae in Tūpāroa Te Aitanga a Matem, of Hiruhārama marae, Penu marae in Makarika, Rongohaere marae in Ruatōria, Whareponga marae in Ruatōria Te Aowera, of Hiruhārama marae, Te Aowera marae in Ruatōria Te Whānau a Hineauta, of Tikapa marae Te Whānau a Hinekehu, of Kariaka marae and Rauru marae in Ruatōria Te Whānau a Hinetapora, of Mangahanea marae in Ruatōria, Te Heapera