Oda Nobunaga was a powerful daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period, gained control over most of Honshu. Nobunaga is regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. During his life, Nobunaga was known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who by principle refused to cooperate or yield to his demands, his reign was noted for innovative military tactics, fostering free trade, encouraging the start of the Momoyama historical art period. He was killed; the goal of national unification and a return to the comparative political stability of the earlier Muromachi period was shared by the multitude of autonomous daimyōs during the Sengoku period. Oda Nobunaga was the first for. Nobunaga had gained control over most of Honshu before his death during the 1582 Honnō-ji incident, a coup attempt executed by Nobunaga's vassal, Akechi Mitsuhide. Nobunaga was betrayed by his own retainers.
The motivation behind Mitsuhide's betrayal was never revealed to anyone who survived the incident, has been a subject of debate and conjecture since the incident. Following the incident, Mitsuhide declared himself master over Nobunaga's domains, but was defeated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who regained control of and expanded the Oda holdings. Nobunaga's successful subjugation of much of Honshu enabled the successes of his allies Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu toward the goal of national unification by subjugating local daimyōs under a hereditary shogunate, accomplished in 1603 when Ieyasu was granted the title of shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei following the successful Sekigahara Campaign of 1600; the nature of the succession of power through the three daimyōs is reflected in a well-known Japanese idiom: "Nobunaga pounds the national rice cake, Hideyoshi kneads it, in the end, Ieyasu sits down and eats it." All three were born within eight years of each other, started their careers as samurai and finished them as statesmen.
Nobunaga inherited his father's domain at the age of 17, gained control of Owari province through gekokujo. Hideyoshi started his career in Nobunaga's army as an ashigaru, but rose up through the ranks as a samurai. Ieyasu fought against Nobunaga, but joined his army. Oda Nobunaga was born on June 23, 1534, in the Owari domain, was given the childhood name of Kippōshi, he was the second son of a deputy shugo with land holdings in Owari Province. He is said to have been born in Nagoya Castle. Through his childhood and early teenage years, he was well known for his bizarre behavior and received the name of Owari no Ōutsuke, he was known to run around with other youths from the area, without any regard to his own rank in society. With the introduction of firearms into Japan, however, he became known for his fondness of tanegashima firearms. In 1551, Oda Nobuhide died unexpectedly. Nobunaga was said to have acted outrageously during his funeral, throwing ceremonial incense at the altar. Hirate Masahide, a valuable mentor and retainer to Nobunaga, performed seppuku to startle Nobunaga into his obligations.
Although Nobunaga was Nobuhide's legitimate heir, some of the Oda clan were divided against him. Collecting about a thousand men, Nobunaga suppressed those members of his family who were hostile to his rule, including his younger brother, Oda Nobuyuki. In 1556, he destroyed a rival branch located in Kiyosu Castle. Although Nobuyuki and his supporters were still at large, Nobunaga took an army to Mino Province to aid Saitō Dōsan after Dōsan's son, Saitō Yoshitatsu, turned against him; the campaign failed, as Dōsan was killed in the Battle of Nagara-gawa, Yoshitatsu became the new master of Mino in 1556. In 1557, Nobunaga's brother, was defeated in the Siege of Suemori by Ikeda Nobuteru. In 1558, he protected Suzuki Shigeteru in the Siege of Terabe. By 1559, Nobunaga had eliminated all opposition within Owari Province. In 1560, Imagawa Yoshimoto gathered an army of 25,000 men and started his march toward Kyoto, with the pretext of aiding the frail Ashikaga shogunate; the Matsudaira clan of Mikawa Province joined Yoshimoto's forces.
Against this, the Oda clan could rally an army of only 2,000 to 3,000. Some of Nobunaga's advisers suggested "to stand a siege at Kiyosu". Nobunaga refused, stating that "only a strong offensive policy could make up for the superior numbers of the enemy", calmly ordered a counterattack. Nobunaga's scouts reported that Yoshimoto was resting at the narrow gorge of Dengaku-hazama, ideal for a surprise attack, that the Imagawa army was celebrating their victories while Yoshimoto viewed the heads. Nobunaga set up a position some distance away. An array of flags and dummy troops made of straw and spare helmets gave the impression of a large host, while the real Oda army hurried round in a rapid march to get behind Yoshimoto's camp; the heat gave way to a terrific thunderstorm. As the Imagawa samurai sheltered from the rain Nobunaga deployed his troops, when the storm ceased they charged down upon the enemy in the gorge, so that Yoshimoto thought a brawl had broken out among his men, only realizing it was an attack when two samurais charged up.
One aimed a spear at him, which Yoshimoto
Date Masamune was a regional ruler of Japan's Azuchi–Momoyama period through early Edo period. Heir to a long line of powerful daimyōs in the Tōhoku region, he went on to found the modern-day city of Sendai. An outstanding tactician, he was made all the more iconic for his missing eye, as Masamune was called dokuganryū, or the "One-Eyed Dragon of Ōshu"; as a legendary warrior and leader, Masamune is a character in a number of Japanese period dramas. He was played by Ken Watanabe in the popular 1987 NHK series Dokuganryū Masamune. Date Masamune was born as Bontemaru Tojiro the eldest son of Date Terumune, born in Yonezawa Castle. At the age of 14 in 1581 Masamune led his first campaign. In 1584, at the age of 17, Masamune succeeded his father, who chose to retire from his position as daimyō. Masamune's army was recognized by its black armor and golden headgear being known as the One-Eyed Dragon of Ōshu. Masamune is known for a few things. In particular, his famous crescent-moon-bearing helmet won him a fearsome reputation.
As a child, smallpox robbed him of sight in his right eye, though it is unclear how he lost the organ entirely. Various theories behind the eye's condition exist; some sources say he plucked out the eye himself when a senior member of the clan pointed out that an enemy could grab it in a fight. Others say that he had his trusted retainer Katakura Kojūrō gouge out the eye for him, making him the'One-Eyed Dragon' of Ōshu; the Date clan had built alliances with neighboring clans through marriages over previous generations, but local disputes remained commonplace. Shortly after Masamune's succession in 1584, a Date retainer named Ōuchi Sadatsuna defected to the Ashina clan of the Aizu region. Masamune declared war on Ōuchi and the Ashina for this betrayal, started a campaign to hunt down Sadatsuna. Amicable alliances were cast aside as he began to attack and conquer the lands of Sadatsuna's allies in pursuit those of his kin in Mutsu and Dewa Provinces. In the winter of 1585, one of these allies, Nihonmatsu Yoshitsugu felt defeat was approaching and chose to surrender to the Date instead.
Masamune agreed to accept the surrender, but on the heavy condition that the Nihonmatsu give up most of their territory to the Date. This resulted in Yoshitsugu kidnapping Masamune's father Terumune during their meeting in Miyamori Castle, where Terumune was staying at during the time; the incident ended with both Yoshitsugu and Terumune killed as the fleeing Nihonmatsu party clashed with the pursuing Date troops near the Abukuma River. Various records of the event exist; the Date fought many battles with their neighbours afterwards, including the Battle of Hitotoribashi in 1585. After defeating the Ashina at the Battle of Suriagehara in 1589, Masamune made the Aizu domain his base of operations. In 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi seized Odawara Castle and compelled the Tōhoku-region daimyōs to participate in the campaign. Although Masamune refused Hideyoshi's demands at first, he had no real choice in the matter since Hideyoshi was the virtual ruler of Japan. Masamune still delayed. Expecting to be executed, wearing his finest clothes and showing no fear, faced his angry overlord.
Not wanting further trouble, Hideyoshi spared his life, saying that "He could be of some use." In 1591, Masamune forfeited the ancestral land of the Date Clan to Hideyoshi, causing widespread riots. He never regained the territory, he was given the surrounding lands as his home domain. Masamune moved there, rebuilt the castle, renamed it Iwadeyama, encouraged the growth of a town at its base. Masamune stayed at Iwadeyama for 13 years and turned the region into a major political and economic center, he and his men served with distinction in the Korean invasions under Hideyoshi and, after Hideyoshi's death, he began to support Tokugawa Ieyasu—apparently at the advice of Katakura Kojūrō. Tokugawa Ieyasu awarded Masamune the lordship of the huge and profitable Sendai Domain, which made Masamune one of Japan's most powerful daimyōs. Tokugawa had promised Masamune a one-million koku domain, but after substantial improvements were made, the land only produced 640,000 koku, most of, used to feed the Edo region.
In 1604, accompanied by 52,000 vassals and their families, moved to what was the small fishing village of Sendai. He left Date Muneyasu, to rule Iwadeyama. Masamune would turn Sendai into a prosperous city. Although Masamune was a patron of the arts and sympathized with foreign causes, he was an aggressive and ambitious daimyō; when he first took over the Date clan, he suffered a few major defeats from powerful and influential clans such as the Ashina. These defeats were arguably caused by recklessness on Masamune's part. Being a major power in northern Japan, Masamune was viewed with suspicion, as any potential rival would be viewed. Toyotomi Hideyoshi reduced the size of his land holdings after his tardiness in coming to the Siege of Odawara against Hōjō Ujimasa. In his life, Tokugawa Ieyasu increased the size of his lands again, but was suspicious of Masamune and his policies. Although Tokugawa Ieyasu and other Date allies were always suspicious of him, Date Masamune for the most part served the Tokugawa and Toyotomi loyally.
He took part in Hideyoshi's campaigns in Korea, in the Osaka campaigns. When Tokugawa Ieyasu was on his deathbed, Masamune read him a piece of Zen poetry. Masamune was respected for
Hasekura Rokuemon Tsunenaga was a Japanese samurai and retainer of Date Masamune, the daimyō of Sendai of Japanese imperial descent with ancestral ties to Emperor Kanmu. In the years 1613 through 1620, Hasekura headed a diplomatic mission to Spain and the Vatican in Rome, traveling through New Spain and visiting various ports-of-call in Europe; this historic mission is called the Keichō Embassy, follows the Tenshō embassy of 1582. On the return trip and his companions re-traced their route across New Spain in 1619, sailing from Acapulco for Manila, sailing north to Japan in 1620, he is conventionally considered the first Japanese ambassador in Spain. Although Hasekura's embassy was cordially received in Spain and Rome, it happened at a time when Japan was moving toward the suppression of Christianity. European monarchs such as the King of Spain thus refused the trade agreements Hasekura had been seeking. Hasekura returned to Japan in 1620 and died of illness a year his embassy ending with few results in an isolationist Japan.
Japan's next embassy to Europe would only occur more than 200 years following two centuries of isolation, with the "First Japanese Embassy to Europe" in 1862. Little is known of the early life of Hasekura Tsunenaga. According to Date Sejin Kafu, he was of Japanese imperial descent, the child of Yamaguchi Tsuneshige who had ancestral ties with Emperor Kanmu, he was a mid-level noble samurai in the Sendai Domain in northern Japan, who had the opportunity to directly serve the daimyō Date Masamune. He spent his young adulthood at the scenic Kamitate Castle, constructed in Hasekura Ward, Kawasaki City, Miyagi Prefecture, by his grandfather Hasekura Tsunemasa; the place of origin of the family name Hasekura was Hasekura Village, now Hasekura Ward in Kawasaki City. Hasekura and Date Masamune were of the same age, it is recorded that several important missions were given to Tsunenaga as his representative, it is recorded that Hasekura served as a samurai during the Japanese invasion of Korea under the Taikō Toyotomi Hideyoshi, for six months in 1597.
In 1612, Hasekura's father, Hasekura Tsunenari, was indicted for corruption, he was put to death in 1613. His fief was confiscated, his son should have been executed as well. Date, gave him the opportunity to redeem his honour by placing him in charge of the Embassy to Europe, soon gave him back his territories as well; the Spanish started trans-Pacific voyages between New Spain and the Philippines in 1565. The famous Manila galleons carried silver from Mexican mines westward to the entrepôt of Manila in the Spanish possession of the Philippines. There, the silver was used to purchase spices and trade goods gathered from throughout Asia, including goods from Japan; the return route of the Manila galleons, first charted by the Spanish navigator Andrés de Urdaneta, took the ships northeast into the Kuroshio Current off the coast of Japan, across the Pacific to the west coast of Mexico, landing in Acapulco. Spanish ships were shipwrecked on the coasts of Japan due to bad weather, initiating contacts with the country.
The Spanish wished to expand the Christian faith in Japan. Efforts to expand influence in Japan were met by stiff resistance from the Jesuits, who had started the evangelizing of the country in 1549, as well as by the opposition of the Portuguese and Dutch who did not wish to see Spain participate in Japanese trade. However, some Japanese, such as Christopher and Cosmas, are known to have crossed the Pacific onboard Spanish galleons as early as 1587, it is known that gifts were exchanged between the governor of the Philippines and Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who thanks him in a 1597 letter, writing "The black elephant in particular I found most unusual."In 1609, the Spanish Manila galleon San Francisco encountered bad weather on its way from Manila to Acapulco, was wrecked on the Japanese coast in Chiba, near Tokyo. The sailors were rescued and welcomed, the ship's captain, Rodrigo de Vivero, former interim governor of the Philippines, met with the retired shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu. Rodrigo de Vivero drafted a treaty, signed on 29 November 1609, whereby the Spaniards could establish a factory in eastern Japan, mining specialists would be imported from New Spain, Spanish ships would be allowed to visit Japan in case of necessity, a Japanese embassy would be sent to the Spanish court.
A Franciscan friar named Luis Sotelo, proselytizing in the area of what is now modern Tokyo, convinced Tokugawa Ieyasu and his son Tokugawa Hidetada to send him as a representative to New Spain on one of their ships, in order to advance the trade treaty. Rodrigo de Vivero offered to sail on the Japanese ship in order to guarantee the safety of their reception in New Spain, but insisted that another Franciscan, named Alonso Muños, be sent instead as the shōgun's representative. In 1610, Rodrigo de Vivero, several Spanish sailors, the Franciscan father, 22 Japanese representatives led by the trader Tanaka Shōsuke sailed to Mexico aboard the San Buena Ventura, a ship built by the English adventurer William Adams for the shōgun. Once in New Spain, Alonso Muños met with the Viceroy Luis de Velasco, who agreed to send an ambassador to Japan in the person of the famous explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno with t
An ironworks or iron works is a building or site where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and steel products are made. The term is both singular and plural, i.e. the singular of ironworks is ironworks. Ironworks succeed bloomeries. An integrated ironworks in the 19th century included one or more blast furnaces and a number of puddling furnaces or a foundry with or without other kinds of ironworks. After the invention of the Bessemer process, converters became widespread, the appellation steelworks replaced ironworks; the processes carried at ironworks are described as ferrous metallurgy, but the term siderurgy is occasionally used. This is derived from the Greek words sideros - ergon or ergos - work; this is an unusual term in English, it is best regarded as an anglicisation of a term used in French and other Romance languages. Ironworks is used as an omnibus term covering works undertaking one or more iron-producing processes; such processes or species of ironworks where they were undertaken include the following: Blast furnaces — which made pig iron from iron ore.
A thin film of metal oxide forms on the anode in the intense heat. The oxide forms a protective layer. Finery forges — which fined pig iron to produce bar iron, using charcoal as fuel in a finery and coal or charcoal in a chafery, it was necessary for there to be a preliminary refining process in a coke refinery. After puddling, the puddled ball needed shingling and to be drawn out into bar iron in a rolling mill. From the 1850s, pig iron might be decarburised to produce mild steel using one of the following: The Bessemer process in a Bessemer converter, improved by the Gilchrist-Thomas process; the mills operating converters of any type are better called steelworks, ironworks referring to former processes, like puddling. After bar iron had been produced in a finery forge or in the forge train of a rolling mill, it might undergo further processes in one of the following: A slitting mill - which cut a flat bar into rod iron suitable for making into nails. A tinplate works - where rolling mills made sheets of iron, which were coated with tin.
A plating forge with a tilt hammer, a lighter hammer with a rapid stroke rate, enabling the production of thinner iron, suitable for the manufacture of knives, other cutlery, so on. A cementation furnace might be used to convert the bar iron into blister steel by the cementation process, either as an end in itself or as the raw material for crucible steel. Most of these processes did not produce finished goods. Further processes were manual, including Manufacturing by blacksmiths or more specialist kind of smith, it might be used in shipbuilding. In the context of the iron industry, the term manufacture is best reserved for this final stage; the notable ironworks of the world are described here by country. See above for the largest producers and the notable ironworks in the alphabetical order. Cape Town Iron and Steel Works in Kuilsrivier, Western Cape American Iron Works in Hyattsville, Maryland Bath Iron Works in Maine Burden Iron Works in Troy, New York Cambria Iron Company in Johnstown, Pennsylvania Falling Creek Ironworks, Virginia.
Saugus Iron Works in Saugus, Massachusetts Toledo Iron Works in Miami, Florida Tredegar Iron Works at Richmond, Virginia U. S. Steel Fairfield Works, near Birmingham, Alabama Gary Works, near Chicago, Illinois Granite City Works, near St. Louis, Missouri Great Lakes Works, near Detroit, Michigan Mon Valley Works, near Pittsubutgh, Pennsylvania Vulcan Iron Works in Pennsylvania and other places Anben Group, Anshan & Benxi, Liaoning Baosteel, Shanghai Baotou Steel, Inner Mongolia Shougang Group, Beijing Wuhan Steel, Hebei Five major steel works of Steel Authority of India, Ltd Kalinganagar Works of Tata Steel in Kalinganagar, Odisha Vijayanagar Works of JSW Steel in Bellary, Karnataka The largest Japanese steel companies' main works are as follows: JFE Steel Chiba Works, Chiba, of JFE Eastern Works Keihin Works, Kanagawa, of JFE Eastern Works Fukuyama Works, Hiroshima, of JFE Western Works Kurashiki Works, Okayama, of JFE Western Works Kobe Steel Kakogawa Steel Works, Hyogo Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Hirohata Works, Hyogo Kimitsu Steel Works, of former Nippon Steel), Chiba Nagoya Works, Aichi Ōita Works, Ōita, Ōita Yawata Steel Works, Chiba Kashima Works, Ibaraki Wakayama Works, Wakayama POSCO Gwangyang Steelworks, south coast Pohang Steelworks, east coast
Miyagi Prefecture is a prefecture in the Tōhoku region of Japan. The capital is Sendai. Miyagi Prefecture was part of the province of Mutsu. Mutsu Province, on northern Honshu, was one of the last provinces to be formed as land was taken from the indigenous Emishi, became the largest as it expanded northward; the ancient capital was at Taga-jō in modern Miyagi Prefecture. In the third month of the second year of the Wadō era, there was an uprising against governmental authority in Mutsu Province and in nearby Echigo Province. Troops were promptly dispatched to subdue the revolt. In Wadō 5, the land of Mutsu Province was administratively separated from Dewa Province. Empress Genmei's Daijō-kan continued to organize other cadastral changes in the provincial map of the Nara period, as in the following year when Mimasaka Province was divided from Bizen Province. During the Sengoku period various clans ruled different parts of the province; the Uesugi clan had a castle town at Wakamatsu in the south, the Nanbu clan at Morioka in the north, Date Masamune, a close ally of the Tokugawa, established Sendai, now the largest town of the Tōhoku region.
In the Meiji period, four new provinces were created from parts of Mutsu: Rikuchū, Rikuzen and Iwashiro. The area, now Aomori Prefecture continued to be part of Mutsu until the abolition of the han system and the nationwide conversion to the prefectural structure of modern Japan. Date Masamune built a castle at Sendai as his seat to rule Mutsu. In 1871, Sendai Prefecture was formed, it was renamed Miyagi prefecture the following year. On March 11, 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and a subsequent major tsunami hit Miyagi Prefecture, causing major damage to the area. The tsunami was estimated to be 10 meters high in Miyagi Prefecture. On April 7, 2011: 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes off the coast of Miyagi, Japan's meteorological agency says. Workers were evacuated from the nearby troubled Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear facility once again, as a tsunami warning was issued for the coastline. Residents were told to flee for inner land at this time. Officials from the U. S. Geological Survey downgraded the magnitude to 7.1 from 7.4.
In 2013, Crown Prince Naruhito and Crown Princess Masako visited the prefecture to see the progress made since the tsunami. Miyagi Prefecture is in the central part of Tōhoku, facing the Pacific Ocean, contains Tōhoku's largest city, Sendai. There are high mountains on the west and along the northeast coast, but the central plain around Sendai is large. Matsushima is known as one of the three most scenic views of Japan, with a bay full of 260 small islands covered in pine groves. Oshika Peninsula projects from the northern coastline of the prefecture; as of 1 April 2012, 23% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Rikuchū Kaigan National Park. Fourteen cities are located in Miyagi Prefecture: Sendai - the largest and the capital city of the prefecture; these are the towns and villages in each district: Although Miyagi has a good deal of fishing and agriculture, producing a great deal of rice and livestock, it is dominated by the manufacturing industries around Sendai electronics and food processing.
As of March 2011, the prefecture produced 4.7% of Japan's rice, 23% of oysters, 15.9% of sauries. In July 2011, the Japanese government decided to ban all shipments of beef cattle from northeast Miyagi Prefecture over fears of radioactive contamination; this has since been rescinded. Miyagi University Miyagi University of Education Miyagi Gakuin Women's University Sendai University Sendai Shirayuri Women's College Tohoku University Tohoku Gakuin University Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University Tohoku Institute of Technology Tohoku Fukushi University Tohoku Seikatsu Bunka College Tohoku Pharmaceutical University Shokei Gakuin University Ishinomaki Senshu University JR East Tōhoku Shinkansen Tohoku Line Jōban Line Senseki Line Senzan Line Ishinomaki Line Rikuu East Line Kesennuma Line Ōfunato Line Sendai Municipal Subway Nanboku Line Tōzai Line Abukuma Express Sendai Airport Line Tōhoku Expressway Yamagata Expressway Sanriku Expressway Sendai East Road Sendai North Road Sendai South Road National Route 4 National Route 6 National Route 45 National Route 47 National Route 48 National Route 108 National Route 113 National Route 286 National Route 342 National Route 346 National Route 347 National Route 349 National Route 398 National Route 399 National Route 456 National Route 457 Sendai Port – Ferry route to Tomakomai and Nagoya, container hub port Ishinomaki Port – Ferry route to Mount Kinka, Tashiro Island and Tashiro Island.
Matsushima Bay Sendai Airport The sports teams listed below are based in Miyagi Prefecture. Baseball Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles Tohoku Reia Football Vegalta Sendai Sony Sendai F. C. Vegalta Sendai Ladies Basketball Sendai 89ERS Volleyball Sendai Bellefille Futsal Voscuore Sendai Professional wrestling Sendai Girls' Pro WrestlingAlso, the Sendai Hi-Land Raceway hosts motorspo
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less