Prunus mume is an Asian tree species classified in the Armeniaca section of the genus Prunus subgenus Prunus. Its common names include Japanese apricot; the flower is called plum blossom. This distinct tree species is related to apricot trees. Although referred to as a sour green plum or just green plum in English, it is more related to the apricot and should not be confused with the greengage European plum cultivar. In Chinese and Korean cooking, the fruit of the tree is used in juices, as a flavouring for alcohol, as a pickle and in sauces, it is used in traditional medicine. The tree's flowering in late winter and early spring is regarded as a seasonal symbol. Prunus mume came from in the south of mainland China around the Yangtze River and was introduced to Japan, Korea and Vietnam, it can be found in sparse forests, stream sides, forested slopes along trails and mountains, sometimes at altitudes up to 1,700–3,100 metres, regions of cultivation. Prunus mume is a deciduous tree that starts to flower in mid-winter around January until late February in East Asia.
It can grow to 4–10 metres tall. The flowers have a strong fragrant scent, they have colors in varying shades of white and red. The leaves appear shortly after the petals fall, are oval-shaped with a pointed tip, are 4–8 cm long and 2.5–5 cm wide. The fruit ripens in early summer, around June and July in East Asia, coincides with the rainy season of East Asia, the meiyu; the drupe is 2–3 centimetres in diameter with a groove running from the stalk to the tip. The skin turns yellow, sometimes with a red blush, as it ripens, the flesh becomes yellow; the tree is cultivated for its fruit and flowers. The plant is known by a number of different names in English, including Chinese plum and Japanese apricot. An alternative name is ume, from Japanese, or mume, from the scientific name. Another alternative name is mei, from the Chinese name; the flower is known as the meihua in Chinese, which came to be translated as "plum blossom" or sometimes as "flowering plum". The term "winter plum" may be used too with regard to the depiction of the flower with its early blooming in Chinese painting.
In Chinese it is called mei and the fruit is called meizi. The Japanese name is ume; the Japanese and Korean terms derive from Middle Chinese, in which the pronunciation is thought to have been muəi. The Vietnamese name is mai or mơ. Ornamental tree varieties and cultivars of P. mume have been cultivated for planting in various gardens throughout East Asia, for cut blossoming branches used in flower arrangements. In China, there are over 300 recorded cultivars of Prunus mume; these are classified by phylogenetics in branches, type of branches in groups, characteristics of flowers in several forms: Zhizhimei Lei, Prunus mume var. typica Pinzimei Xing Jiangmei Xing Gongfen Xing Yudie Xing Huangxiang Xing Lü'e Xing Sajin Xing Zhusha Xing Chuizhimei Lei, Prunus mume var. pendula Fenhua Chuizhi Xing Wubao Chuizhi Xing Canxue Chuizhi Xing Baibi Chuizhi Xing Guhong Chuizhi Xing Longyoumei Lei, Prunus mume var. tortuosa Xingmei Lei, Prunus mume var. bungo Yinglimei Lei, Prunus × Blireiana, Prunus cerasifera'Pissardii' × Prunus mume AlphandiiIt is disputed whether Prunus zhengheensis is a separate species or conspecific with Prunus mume.
It is found in the Fujian province of China. It is only known from Zhenghe, it is a tree 35 to 40 m tall, preferring to grow at 700 to 1000 m above sea level. The yellow fruit is delectable. In Japan, ornamental Prunus mume cultivars are classified into yabai and bungo types; the bungo trees are grown for fruit and are hybrids between Prunus mume and apricot. The hibai trees have red heartwood and most of them have red flowers; the yabai trees are used as grafting stock. In mainland China and Taiwan, suanmeitang is made from called wumei; the plum juice is extracted by boiling smoked plums in water and sweetened with sugar to make suanmeitang. It ranges from light pinkish-orange to purplish black in colour and has a smoky and salty taste, it is traditionally flavoured with sweet osmanthus flowers, is enjoyed chilled in summer. In Korea, both the flowers and the fruits are used to make tea. Maehwa-cha is made by infusing the flowers in hot water. Maesil-cha is served either hot or cold. In Japan, similar drink made from green plums, tastes sweet and tangy, is considered a cold, refreshing drink and is enjoyed in the summer.
A thick, sweet Chinese sauce called meijiang or meizijiang translated as "plum sauce", is made from the plums, along with other ingredients such as sugar, salt, ginger and garlic. Similar to duck sauce, it is used as a
New Year tree
New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to celebrate the New Year. They should not be confused with the practice of leaving up a Christmas tree until after New Year's Day. New Year trees are common in various cultures and nations, chiefly the former Soviet Union, former Yugoslavia, Turkey and Vietnam. Russian and Turkish New Year trees are of the same varieties as those used for Christmas trees, although a spruce tree is the most usual type; the decorations are the same as for Christmas trees. While Russian and Turkish North Americans purchasing a tree after Christmas when prices have plummeted might enjoy notable savings, most do not wait beyond Christmas to buy their trees; the tradition of installing and decorating a Ёлка for Christmas dates back to the 17th century when Peter the Great imported the practice as a result of his travels in Europe. Peter decreed in 1699 that the New Year will be celebrated on January 1 instead of September 1, that "Fir tree and juniper branches and trees shall be used to decorate houses and gateways along main streets".
However, in Imperial Russia, Yolka were banned beginning in 1916 by the Synod as a tradition originating in Germany. After the revolution of 1917, Christmas celebrations—along with other religious holidays—were discouraged and de-facto prohibited as a result of the Soviet antireligious campaign; the League of Militant Atheists encouraged school pupils to campaign against Christmas traditions, among them being the Christmas tree, as well as other Christian holidays, including Easter. With the Christmas tree being prohibited in accordance with Soviet anti-religious legislation, people supplanted the former Christmas custom with New Year's trees; the New Year tree was encouraged in the USSR after the famous letter by Pavel Postyshev, published in Pravda on 28 December 1935, in which he asked for trees to be installed in schools, children's homes, Young Pioneer Palaces, children's clubs, children's theaters and cinemas. In his letter, Postyshev wrote: In the pre-revolutionary era the bourgeoisie and the capitalist officials always put up a tree for their children on New Year.
Children of the working classes looked on with envy through the windows at the gleaming tree adorned with colored lights and the children of the rich playing around it. Why do our schools, nurseries, children’s clubs, Young Pioneer Palaces deprive children of the working class of the Soviet State of this wonderful enjoyment? Because some “left-leaning” exaggerators decried this pastime as a bourgeois children's indulgence, it is time to put an end to this wrongful condemnation of the tree, a joyful diversion for the children. The Young Pioneer scout leaders are called upon to organize holiday celebrations for the children that feature New Year trees. In schools, clubs and theaters – children’s New Year trees should be everywhere! There should not be a single village or community farm where the local board, along with members of the Young Communist League, does not provide a New Year tree for their kids. City councils, chairmen of district executive committees, village councils, education authorities must all work to bring the New Year tree to children of our great socialist motherland.
Our children will be grateful to us for giving them back the New Year tree. I'm sure the Young Communists will take a active part in this enterprise and do away with the silly misconception that the New Year tree is a bourgeois excess. So, let's organize a New Year celebration for kids and arrange a good Soviet New Year tree in all our cities and rural villages!” In 1937, a Novy God Tree was installed in the Moscow House of the Unions. An invitation to the Yolka at the Palace of Unions became a matter of honour for Soviet children. After the dissolution of the USSR, stigma against religion subsided amidst renewed public interest. A Turkish New Year tree, in Turkish Yılbaşı Ağacı, looks the same as a Christmas tree with Christmas ornaments, it is called a New Year tree because it is specific to the New Year and, with about 95% of Turkey's population Muslim, most Turks do not celebrate Christmas. After the modernisation of Turkey, the Islamic calendar and the fiscal calendar were replaced by the Gregorian calendar and New Year celebrations started in the late 1920s.
The celebrations became popular in Turkey and Christmas trees were brought into the country as New Year trees. Since the custom of setting up a tree for the New Year is a traditional event in Turkey, it is put up between the beginning of December and the end of January, the mid date being New Year's Eve. The habit of giving presents at Christmas was changed to the giving of New Year presents; the New Year tree can be considered an example of westernised Turkish culture or Turkified European culture. Planting a New Year tree or cây nêu is a Vietnamese custom, part of the springtime Tết festival. A bamboo pole serves as the "tree". Hoa đào or Hoa mai and kumquat trees are decorated and displayed in Vietnamese homes during Tết. In Cantonese, the new year tree is called Nin Fa. Bamboo is just one of the new year trees for the others being mandarin and peach; the mandarin plant is called Kat, a homophone to Chinese: 吉, standing for good luck. The peach flower stands for good relationships. Christmas tree New Year Ceremonial pole Kadomatsu - in Japanese case.
New Statesman article on Russian New Years trees Symbols of Tết
Culture of Vietnam
The culture of Vietnam originated from an ancient Baiyue Kingdom in East Asia called Nam Việt, which shared both Bách Việt and Han Culture with the ancient Bronze age Đông Sơn culture being considered one of its most important progenitors. Han China annexed Nam Việt in 111 BC leading to the first Chinese domination of Vietnam. Due to a millennium of Chinese rule, Vietnam was and remarkably influenced by Chinese culture in terms of politics, Confucian social and moral ethics, art. Vietnam is considered to be part of the East Asian cultural sphere. Following independence from China in the 10th century, Vietnam began a southward expansion that saw the annexation of territories belonging to the Champa civilization and parts of the Khmer empire, which resulted in minor regional variances in Vietnam's culture due to exposure to these different groups. During the French colonial period, Vietnamese culture absorbed various influences from the Europeans, including the spread of Catholicism and the adoption of the Latin alphabet.
Prior to this, Vietnamese had used both Chinese characters and a script called Chữ nôm, based on Chinese but included newly invented characters meant to represent native Vietnamese words. The processes of cultural evolution in Vietnam have been reflected through the changes and the mix of cultural elements on urban house exterior façades, according to research in 2019. In the socialist era, the Vietnamese cultural life was influenced by government-controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs. For many decades, foreign cultural influences were shunned and emphasis placed on appreciating and sharing the culture of communist nations such as the Soviet Union, China and others. Since the 1990s, Vietnam has been exposed to other Asian and American culture and media; some elements considered to be characteristic of Vietnamese culture include ancestor veneration, ancestor worship, respect for community and family values and manual labour religious belief. Important symbols present in Vietnamese culture include dragons, turtles and bamboo.
In terms of societal levels of organization, the two most important units are nước. The Vietnamese say that "làng goes hand in hand with nước." Intermediate organizational units are quận/huyện, "xã" and tỉnh Main article: Military History of VietnamVietnam has a long history of warfare, which played a big role in shaping the culture and Identity of the people who now live in the region known as Vietnam. Major Events that shaped the nation to become the most militaristic nation in South East Asia are. Trưng Sisters - Two sisters who were generals who ruled for three years after rebelling in AD 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam, they are regarded as national heroines of Vietnam. Lady Triệu - Female Warrior General. Lý Nam Đế - Baiyue who became Emperor and rebelled and created Vạn Xuân after seeing how the Baiyue and Chinese in his realm were mistreated by their northern counterparts. Battle of Bạch Đằng Decisive defeat of Southern Han Chinese forces ending 1000 years of Chinese Domination.
Mongol invasions of Vietnam successively defeating the Mongolians 3 times ending with the battle of Battle of Bạch Đằng being a decisive defeat for the Mongolians with their entire fleet being annihilated. Lam Sơn uprising Le Loi defeats the Ming army. Ming Empire acknowledged Vietnam as an independent state. Lê Lợi was declared Emperor of Đại Việt. March to the South/Nam tiến expansion of the territory of Vietnam from the 11th century to the mid-18th century. Turning Đại Việt from an East Asian state, to a South East Asian state, after annexing South East Asian kingdoms such as. Siege of Tourane a Punitive campaign by the Empire of France, Kingdom of Spain and The Philippines to teach the Vietnamese a lesson ended up as a defeat. What had begun as a minor punitive expedition had turned into a long and costly war; the allied invaders were forced to evacuate leading to a Vietnamese victory. This defeat escalated the situation and lead to the colonization of Vietnam. First Indochina War: Battle of Dien Bien Phu Decisive Vietnamese victory over France, ending the colonialism in Vietnam in 1945.
Second Indochina War: Tet Offensive strategic and political Vietnamese victory was the decisive blow to the American public's morale, leading to Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War to skyrocket leading to withdrawal of U. S troops and involvement ending in the Fall of Saigon on April, 1975 and the Reunification of North and South Vietnam. Third Indochina War: Cambodian–Vietnamese War removal of the Khmer Rouge Regime and Pol Pot, ended the Cambodian Genocide: triggered a Punitive Chinese Invasion; the continued occupation of Cambodia with regular forces and fending off a massive Chinese invasion with militia forces, lead to a Vietnamese victory. Kinship plays an important role in Vietnam. Unlike Western culture's emphasis on individualism, Eastern culture values in the roles of family and clanship. Comparing with Eastern cultures, Chinese culture values family over clan while Vietnamese cultural values clan over family; each clan has a patriarch, clan altar, death commemorations attended by the whole clan.
Most inhabitants are related by blood. That fact is still seen in village names such as Đặng Xá, Châu Xá, Lê Xá
Tagetes is a genus of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the sunflower family. It was described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753; the genus is native to North and South America, but some species have become naturalized around the world. One species, T. minuta, is considered a noxious invasive plant in some areas. Tagetes species vary in size from 0.1 to 2.2 m tall. Most species have pinnate green leaves. Blooms occur in golden, orange and white colors with maroon highlights. Floral heads are to 4–6 cm diameter with both ray florets and disc florets. In horticulture, they tend to be planted as annuals, although the perennial species are gaining popularity, they have fibrous roots. Depending on the species, Tagetes species grow well in any sort of soil. Most horticultural selections grow best in soil with good drainage though some cultivars are known to have good tolerance to drought. Shores, springs, quiet waters in streams, wetlands, wet meadows, waterside swamps and meadows which are prone to flooding, damp hollows in broad-leaved forests, snow-bed sites, sometimes underwater.
The name Tagetes is from the name of the Etruscan Tages, born from the plowing of the earth. It refers to the ease with which plants of this genus come out each year either by the seeds produced in the previous year, or by the stems which regrow from the stump in place; the common name in English, "marigold", is derived from "Mary's gold", a name first applied to a similar plant native to Europe, Calendula officinalis. The most cultivated varieties of Tagetes are known variously as African marigolds, or French marigolds; the so-called signet marigolds are hybrids derived from Tagetes tenuifolia. Depending on the species, marigold foliage has a musky, pungent scent, though some varieties have been bred to be scentless, it is said to deter some common insect pests, as well as nematodes. Tagetes species are hence used in companion planting for tomato, chili pepper and potato. Due to antibacterial thiophenes exuded by the roots, Tagetes should not be planted near any legume crop; some of the perennial species are rodent - and javalina or peccary-resistant.
T. Minuta from South America, has been used as a source of essential oil for the perfume and industry known as tagette or "marigold oil", as a flavourant in the food and tobacco industries, it is cultivated in South Africa, where the species is a useful pioneer plant in the reclamation of disturbed land. The florets of Tagetes erecta are rich in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and are used as a food colour in the European Union for foods such as pasta, vegetable oil, mayonnaise, salad dressing, baked goods, dairy products, ice cream, citrus juice and mustard. In the United States, the powders and extracts are only approved as colorants in poultry feed. Marigolds are recorded as a food plant for some Lepidoptera caterpillars including the dot moth, a nectar source for other butterflies, they are part of butterfly gardening plantings. In the wild, many species are pollinated by beetles; the species Tagetes lucida, known as pericón, is used to prepare a sweetish, anise-flavored medicinal tea in Mexico.
It is used as a culinary herb in many warm climates, as a substitute for tarragon, offered in the nursery as "Texas tarragon" or "Mexican mint marigold". Tagetes minuta, native to southern South America, is a tall, upright marigold plant with small flowers used as a culinary herb in Peru and parts of Chile and Bolivia, where it is called by the Incan term huacatay; the paste is used to make the popular potato dish called ocopa. Having both "green" and "yellow/orange" notes, the taste and odor of fresh T. minuta is like a mixture of sweet basil, tarragon and citrus. It is used as a medicinal tea in some areas; the marigold was regarded as the flower of the dead in pre-Hispanic Mexico, parallel to the lily in Europe, is still used in the Day of the Dead celebrations. The marigold is significant in Nepalese culture, where marigold garlands are used in every household during the Tihar festival, it is always sold in the markets for daily rituals. The marigold is widely cultivated in India and Thailand the species T. erecta, T. patula, T. tenuifolia.
Vast quantities of marigolds are used in garlands and decoration for weddings and religious events. Marigold cultivation is extensively seen in Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh states of India. In Ukraine, chornobryvtsi are regarded as one of the national symbols, are mentioned in songs and tales. Accepted species Marigold Commercial Greenhouse Production Growing African Marigolds
Veneration of the dead
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased. In some cultures, it is related to beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living; some groups venerate their familial ancestors. Certain sects and religions, in particular the Roman Catholic Church, venerate saints as intercessors with God, as well as pray for departed souls in Purgatory. In Europe and Oceania, in some African and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors' continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, sometimes to ask for special favours or assistance; the social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social and technological complexity, it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times.
Ancestor reverence is not the same as the worship of deities. In some Afro-diasporic cultures, ancestors are seen as being able to intercede on behalf of the living as messengers between humans and the gods; as spirits who were once human themselves, they are seen as being better able to understand human needs than would a divine being. In other cultures, the purpose of ancestor veneration is not to ask for favors but to do one's filial duty; some cultures believe that their ancestors need to be provided for by their descendants, their practices include offerings of food and other provisions. Others do not believe that the ancestors are aware of what their descendants do for them, but that the expression of filial piety is what is important. Most cultures who practice ancestor veneration do not call it "ancestor worship". In English, the word worship refers to the reverent love and devotion accorded a deity or God. However, in other cultures, this act of worship does not confer any belief that the departed ancestors have become some kind of deity.
Rather, the act is a way to respect and look after ancestors in their afterlives as well as seek their guidance for their living descendants. In this regard, many cultures and religions have similar practices; some may visit the graves of their parents or other ancestors, leave flowers and pray to them in order to honor and remember them, while asking their ancestors to continue to look after them. However, this would not be considered as worshipping them since the term worship shows no such meaning. In that sense the phrase ancestor veneration may convey a more accurate sense of what practitioners, such as the Chinese and other Buddhist-influenced and Confucian-influenced societies, as well as the African and European cultures see themselves as doing; this is consistent with the meaning of the word veneration in English, great respect or reverence caused by the dignity, wisdom, or dedication of a person. Although there is no accepted theory concerning the origins of ancestor veneration, this social phenomenon appears in some form in all human cultures documented so far.
David-Barrett and Carney claim that ancestor veneration might have served a group coordination role during human evolution, thus it was the mechanism that led to religious representation fostering group cohesion. Although some historians claim that ancient Egyptian society was a "death cult" because of its elaborate tombs and mummification rituals, it was the opposite; the philosophy that "this world is but a vale of tears" and that to die and be with God is a better existence than an earthly one was unknown among the ancient Egyptians. This was not to say; the Egyptian people loved the culture and religion of their daily lives so much that they wanted to continue them in the next—although some might hope for a better station in the Beautiful West. Tombs were housing in the Hereafter and so they were constructed and decorated, just as homes for the living were. Mummification was a way to preserve the corpse so the ka of the deceased could return to receive offerings of the things s/he enjoyed while alive.
If mummification was not affordable, a "ka-statue" in the likeness of the deceased was carved for this purpose. The Blessed Dead were collectively called the akhu, or "shining ones", they were described as "shining as gold in the belly of Nut" and were indeed depicted as golden stars on the roofs of many tombs and temples. The process by which a ka became an akh was not automatic upon death. However, if the ka was not properly prepared, this journey could be fraught with dangerous pitfalls and strange demons. If the heart was in balance with the Feather of Ma'at, the ka passed judgment and was granted access to the Beautiful West as an akh, ma’a heru to dwell among the gods and other akhu. At this point only was the ka deemed worthy to be venerated by the living through rites and offerings; those who became lost in the duat or deliberately tried to avoid judgment became the unfortunate mutu, t
The Pig is the twelfth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in Chinese zodiac, in relation to the Chinese calendar and system of horology, paralleling the system of ten Heavenly Stems and twelve Earthly Branches. Although the term "zodiac" is used in the phrase "Chinese zodiac", there is a major difference between the Chinese usage and Western astrology: the zodiacal animals do not relate to the zodiac as the area of the sky that extends 8° north or south of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun, the Moon, visible planets across the celestial sphere's constellations, over the course of the year. In Chinese astrology, "zodiacal" animals refer to fixed cycles of twelve animals; the same cycle of twelve is used for cycles of cycles of hours. In the case of years, the cycle of twelve corresponds to the twelve-year cycle of Jupiter. In the case of the hours, the twelve hours represent twelve double-hours for each period of night and day. In the continuous sexagenary cycle of sixty years, every twelfth year corresponds to hai, 亥.
There are five types of Pigs, named after the Chinese elements. In order, they are: Metal, Wood and Earth; these correspond to the Heavenly Stems. Thus, there are five pig years in every sexegenary cycle. For example, in the year 2019, the Earthly Branch is the twelfth, hài, the Heavenly Stem is the sixth, jǐ 己; the Chinese New Year in 2019 is February fifth: this corresponds with the beginning of both the sexegenary year of jǐ hài and the zodiac year of the Earth Pig. In the Japanese zodiac and the Tibetan zodiac, the Pig is replaced by the boar. In the Dai zodiac, the Pig is replaced by the elephant. In the Gurung zodiac, the Pig is replaced by the deer. According to the myths, the Pig was the last to arrive when the Jade Emperor called for the great meeting. Other sources said; the Pig came in last. Legend has it that just as the emperor was about to call it a day, an oink and squeal was heard from a little Pig; the term "lazy Pig" is due here as the Pig got hungry during the race, promptly stopped for a feast fell asleep.
After the nap, the Pig continued the race and was named the 12th and last animal of the zodiac cycle. Other sources say that given his stout form, he was just too slow a swimmer, thus he could not do anything against the other animals; the natural element of the Pig is Water. Thus, it is associated with emotions and intuitions. Yet, given that along with the elements, the animal zodiac follows a cycle, each of the elements affect the characteristic of the same Earthly stem. However, the Pig is yin, thus only the negative aspects of the elements can be attached to them, thus only 5 kinds of Pigs are found in the zodiac, they are the following: 乙亥 – The Wood Pig 丁亥 – The Fire Pig 己亥 – The Earth Pig 辛亥 – The Metal Pig 癸亥 – The Water Pig People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Pig", while bearing the following elemental sign:Since the Chinese zodiac follows the Lunar calendar, it does not coincide with the Gregorian calendar years or months. Thus, for example, people born on 9 February 1899 belong to the Dog.
To the usage of the traditional Japanese clock, each hour of a day-night period was divided into 12 double-hours, each of which corresponding with one of the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac, with similar symbolic motif and astrological significance. The first of the twelve double hours encompasses midnight, at the middle of the double hour, corresponding with 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m. with midnight being the midpoint of the first double-hour. The animals in the same order as in the yearly sequence; the Pig is the last in the sequence, corresponding to the double-hour 9:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. known as the hour hai. Given that the day is composed of 24 hours, each sign is given to the different signs of the zodiac; the Pig is assigned to govern the time between 21:00 hrs to 22:59 hrs. According to tradition, this is the time. In terms of astrology, the hours in which people were born are the second most important facet of their astrology. Thus, this alters the characteristics. If people were born in any year governed by another animal will display strong characteristics of the Pig.
Thus, they may be fierce and strong like the Dragon, but at the same time emotional and intuitive like the Pig. The Pig belongs to the fourth Trine of the Chinese zodiac, it is most compatible with the Rabbit. The gentle and sensitive Goat is most compatible with the Pig. Two Pigs can get along well with each other, it is said that the relationship between these three archetypes work best as they strive for aestheticism, a more philosophical, intellectual approach in life. Their calm nature gives them great leadership abilities, they are artistic, intuitive and well-mannered. These souls love the preliminaries in love, are fine artists in their lovemaking; the Rabbit and Pig have been bestowed with calmer natures than the other nine signs. These three are co
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script