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T. H. White

Terence Hanbury "Tim" White was an English author best known for his Arthurian novels, The Once and Future King, first published together in 1958. One of his most memorable is the first of the series, The Sword in the Stone, published as a stand-alone book in 1938, he was born in Bombay, British India, to English parents Garrick Hanbury White, a superintendent in the Indian police, Constance Edith Southcote Aston. White had a troubled childhood, with an alcoholic father and an cold mother, his parents separated when he was 14. White went to Cheltenham College in Gloucestershire, a public school, Queens' College, where he was tutored by the scholar and occasional author L. J. Potts. Potts became a lifelong friend and correspondent, White referred to him as "the great literary influence in my life." While at Queens' College, White wrote a thesis on Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, graduated in 1928 with a first-class degree in English. White taught at Stowe School in Buckinghamshire for four years.

In 1936 he published England Have My Bones, a well-received memoir about a year spent in England. The same year, he left Stowe School and lived in a workman's cottage nearby, where he wrote and "revert to a feral state", engaging in falconry and fishing. White became interested in aviation to conquer his fear of heights. White's novel Earth Stopped and its sequel Gone to Ground are science fiction novels about a disaster that devastates the world. Gone to Ground contains several fantasy stories told by the survivors that were reprinted in The Maharajah and Other Stories. White wrote to a friend that in autumn 1937, "I got desperate among my books and picked up in lack of anything else. I was thrilled and astonished to find that The thing was a perfect tragedy, with a beginning, a middle and an end implicit in the beginning and the characters were real people with recognizable reactions which could be forecast.... Anyway, I somehow started writing a book."The novel, which White described as "a preface to Malory", was titled The Sword in the Stone.

Published in 1938, it tells the story of the boyhood of King Arthur. White was influenced by Freudian psychology and his lifelong involvement in natural history; the Sword in the Stone was critically well-received and was a Book of the Month Club selection in 1939. In February 1939, White moved to Doolistown in County Meath, where he lived out the Second World War as a de facto conscientious objector. In Ireland, he wrote most of what would become The Once and Future King; the version of The Sword in the Stone included in The Once and Future King differs in several respects from the earlier version. It is darker, some critics prefer the earlier version; the war had a profound effect on these tales of King Arthur, which include commentaries on war and human nature in the form of a heroic narrative. In 1946, White settled in Alderney, the third-largest Channel Island, where he lived for the rest of his life; the same year, White published Mistress Masham's Repose, a children's book in which a young girl discovers a group of Lilliputians living near her house.

Mistress Masham's Repose was influenced by John Masefield's book The Midnight Folk. In 1947, he published The Elephant and the Kangaroo in which a repetition of Noah's Flood occurs in Ireland. In the early 1950s, White published two non-fiction books; the Age of Scandal is a collection of essays about 18th-century England. The Goshawk is an account of White's attempt to train a northern goshawk using traditional, rather than modern, falconry techniques. Written at his cottage in the mid-1930s, it was published only after its chance discovery by and at the insistence of White's agent, David Garnett. In 1954 White translated and edited The Book of Beasts, an English translation of a medieval bestiary written in Latin. In 1958, White completed the fourth book of The Once and Future King sequence, The Candle in the Wind, first published with the other three parts and has never been published separately. White lived to see his work adapted as the Broadway musical Camelot and the animated film The Sword in the Stone, both based on The Once and Future King.

White died of heart failure on 17 January 1964 aboard ship in Piraeus, Greece, en route to Alderney from a lecture tour in the United States. He is buried in First Cemetery of Athens. In 1977 The Book of Merlyn, a conclusion to The Once and Future King, was published posthumously, his papers are held by the University of Texas at Austin. According to Sylvia Townsend Warner's 1967 biography, White was "a homosexual and a sado-masochist." He had no enduring romantic relationships. In his diaries of Zed, a young boy, he wrote: "I have fallen in love with Zed the whole situation is an impossible one. All I can do is behave like a gentleman, it has been my hideous fate to be born with an infinite capacity for love and joy with no hope of using them."Broadcaster Robert Robinson published an account of a conversation with White, in which he claimed to be attracted to small girls. Robinson concluded that this was a cover for homosexuality. Julie Andrews wrote in her autobiography, "I believe Tim may have been an unfulfilled homosexual, he suffered a lot because of it."

However, White's long-time friend and literary agent, David Higham, wrote, "Tim was no homosexual, though I think at one time he had feared he was (a

Ernst Lissner

Ernst-Johann Nicholas Ernestovich Lissner was a Russian painter and graphic artist, owner of a private art studio and the printing press "E. Lissner and J. Roman" in Moscow, he is best known by a series of historical paintings and lithographs devoted to the Polish–Muscovite War and the Seven Years' War. In 1900-1908 he studied at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in Saint Petersburg, his graduate work was a painting named Greetings to you, heroes of labor. From 1909 he participated in Art exhibitions, being an exhibitor and member of various associations of visual artists and art societies, such as the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions, the Society of Artists Free Arts, others. After the October Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War, Lissner continued to work as painter, actively took part in the turbulent social and artistic life of the first decade of the Soviet Union. In the 1920s he became a member of Moscow groups and associations of soviet artists, such as Art to working people and the Repin Society of painters.

The beginning of a battle between the Bolotnikov army and tsarist troops in Lower Kotlov near Moscow Battle of the Nikitsky Gate in the October 1917 The expulsion of Polish invaders from the Kremlin, Moscow The uprising in Moscow in 1648 AttributionThis article is based on the translation of the corresponding article of the Russian Wikipedia. A list of contributors can be found there at the History section

El Dorado (1921 film)

El Dorado is a French silent film directed in 1921 by Marcel L'Herbier. The film was notable for integrating a number of technical innovations into its narrative of a "cinematic melodrama", it achieved considerable success on its release, as a ground-breaking film, distinctively French at a time when the cinema was felt to be dominated by American productions. In his previous five films Marcel L'Herbier had explored a variety of photographic and narrative techniques in the fast-developing medium of film, in 1921 he wanted to draw them together in the context of a story which would have a broad appeal for the public, he was eager to film in the landscapes of Spain which had long been an inspiration for him as filtered through the writings of Maurice Barrès. He submitted an original scenario for a melodrama called El Dorado, set in Andalusia, to his producer Léon Gaumont, rather to his surprise it was accepted. L'Herbier was adamant that the film should carry the subtitle "mélodrame", both to indicate the popular origins of its story, but to point to its more traditional sense of the combination of drama and music.

He was less candid about his intentions for incorporating imaginative and unconventional visual effects into his familiar subject-matter. An initial budget of 92,000 francs was allocated, but in the end the film cost nearly 400,000 francs. In Granada in Spain, Sibilla works as a dancer in a squalid cabaret called El Dorado, struggling to earn enough to care for her sick child; the boy's father Estiria, a prominent citizen, refuses them both help and recognition, fearful of jeopardising the engagement of his adult daughter Iliana to a wealthy nobleman. Iliana however slips away from her engagement party to meet her real lover Hedwick, a Swedish painter. Sibilla, in desperation after a further rejection by Estiria, sees an opportunity to blackmail him by locking the lovers overnight in their meeting-place in the Alhambra. Sibilla confesses her action to Hedwick, who hides Iliana in El Dorado while he appeals to her father. Faced with Estiria's unremitting rage and Iliana decide to take refuge at his mother's remote house on the Sierra Nevada, they propose to Sibilla that they take her son with them so that he can be properly cared for in a healthy climate.

Sibilla reluctantly agrees, but she is distraught as she returns to her empty room at El Dorado where she has to fight off Joao, the cabaret's clown, as he tries to rape her. Knowing that she will not see her son again, she performs a last dance on stage to rapturous applause before going backstage to stab herself. Ève Francis as SibillaJaque Catelain as the young painter HedwickMarcelle Pradot as Hedwick's lover IlianaPhilippe Hériat as the lecherous clown JoaoGeorges Paulais as Estiria, the father of Sibilla's sonClaire Prélia as the Swedish mother of Hedwick A substantial part of the film was to be shot on location in Granada and the Sierra Nevada, filming began in March 1921. For the first time permission had been granted for a film company to shoot inside the Alhambra palace and L'Herbier gave prominent place to its gardens and geometric architectural patterns; these became some of the film's most memorable images. During the approach to Easter, he seized the chance to film the spectacular Holy Week processions which took place in Seville and to incorporate this documentary footage within the fiction of his story.

The interiors were subsequently filmed at the Gaumont studios in Paris at Buttes-Chaumont. With his principal cameraman Georges Lucas, L'Herbier created a number of optical effects during filming; when Sibilla is first introduced among the other dancers on stage, a partial blurring of the image places her out-of-focus while those around her are defined, an effect repeated in her subsequent dance to suggest that she herself is not focussed on her surroundings because her mind is preoccupied with the plight of her son. Distortion of close-up images of customers in the cabaret reflect their lust. A similar technique is used to introduce a note of visual horror into the scene when Joao tries to rape Sibilla. A different use of optical distortion in the scenes of Hedwick at work in the Alhambra shows how the actual settings of his paintings are transformed in the painter's imagination. L'Herbier was at pains to draw a distinction between his approach and that used in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari in which visual distortions are incorporated into the design of the sets - which were photographed normally.

In El Dorado it is the camera itself, used to shape the images seen by the viewer. These uses of semi-subjective camerawork have been one of the most discussed aspects of the film in subsequent criticism. L'Herbier was an ardent advocate of colour tinting of the finished photographic image, he devised an elaborate scheme of colouring to enhance the effect of different scenes and shots, sometimes to clarify the shift between the present and a past flashback. L'Herbier regarded the musical accompaniment of a film as being supremely important, in El Dorado he sought to produce a closer integration between image and music than had been achieved before, he commissioned the young composer Marius-François Gaillard to compose an orchestral score, based upon the final cut of the film. This allowed the music to be synchronised with the action of the film instead of the rather approximate playing of'mood music', common practice. L'Herbier claimed that this was the first time that an synchronised orchestral score had been written for a film, although full scores for fil

Kozjak Castle

Kozjak Castle is a 13th-century castle ruin on a rocky hill above the village of Dolenje Selce near the town of Dobrnič, part of the Municipality of Trebnje in Lower Carniola, Slovenia. Built after 1250, the castle itself was first mentioned only in 1332 as castrum Cozyak, although the historian Johann Weikhard von Valvasor notes that a knight Ulrik of Kosieck must have been the owner of the castle in 1274; the area was part of the lordship of Šumberk. After the death of Ulrik of Kosieck in 1317, Ortolf of Kosieck became the owner of the castle until 1329; the last native lord of Kozjak was - according to Valvasor - Louis of Kosieck, in 1475 captured by the Turks. Though his family ransomed him after a year for the sum of 2000 guilders, he died soon after his return, having been poisoned by his captors. After the extinction of the house, the castle was inherited by the Kosieck's relatives the Sauer family; the first known owner of this house was Pancratius Sauer, owner between 1540 and 1550, followed by his son George Sauer between 1555 and 1556, Jost Sauer in 1576, Jost and George Sauer in 1588, Johann Louis Sauer between 1594 and 1599.

After the tenure of the last Sauer, the castle was in 1611 bought by his brother-in-law Johann Frederik the noble Räuber, who in 1619 handed it over to his brother Johann Louis. Around 1689, the castle was bought by prince Franz Ferdinand Auersperg, who merged its estate with Šumberk; the castle was abandoned at the end of the 17th century, with the uninhabited sections allowed to decay. After World War II, Ivan Komelj described it only as a "completely overgrown pile of rocks." Today, only a few outer walls and a central building survive reasonably intact, though the basic floorplan, including the remains of rooms and the foundations of towers, remains visible. The first known depiction of the castle is an etching in Valvasor's 1689 The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola, which portrays it as a two-story building of rectangular layout and with a sizeable extension on the south side; the east side features a prominent platform on raised piles. The castle was surrounded by external walls fortified with three towers.

Kozjak Castle is a major setting of the book Jurij Kozjak by the Slovene writer Josip Jurčič, which includes descriptions of medieval castle life and its surroundings during the era of Ottoman incursions. Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, Die Ehre deß Hertzogthums Crain, vol. 11, p. 315. Majda Smole, Graščine na nekdanjem Kranjskem, p. 237 Ivan Stopar, Grajske stavbe v osrednji Sloveniji, vol. 2: Dolenjska, part 3.: Porečje Temenice in Mirne - Viharnik, Ljubljana, 2002 ISBN 961-6057-34-0

Adel (name)

Adel is a given name of ancient European origins that evolved from words meaning "noble", "nobility" or "elite". It is derived from the languages of north-western Europe, which include English, Luxembourgish, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. Today, "Adel" is a gender-neutral given name and short form of given names with this combining element. Nordic variants of the name include Ådel, Ädel, Ádel, Ædel. German and Dutch variants of the name include Edel. French variants of the name include Adél. Adelson and Adelaide are notable feminine forms. Adelle is a popular feminine alternative. Although global, Adel remains prominent in north-western European countries, it can be found as a family name with or without an affix. The earliest known woman with the name was Princess Adel of Liege; the earliest known man with the name was King Adel of Sweden. His son's name was Adelson; the legendary king of the Frisians and founder of the kingdom, had a son named Adel born in the 3rd century BC. Adel is an exemplar of a monothematic name.

It is the root of the names Adelais, Adolf and Alice, their variants in other languages. It is not related to the Arabic name Adil spelled Adel, which derives from the root'ādil, meaning just or equitable; the name derives from Old Dutch "ōþil", Old German "adal", Old Norse "aðal", Old French "œ̄ðel", Old English "æðel" by evolution of proto-Germanic "aþalą" and "ōþilą". Today, "adel" is used throughout much of north-western Europe as the word for nobility. Other origins include: Runic alphabet Latin alphabet Adel was found over 4,000 times as a family name and over 15,000 times as a given name in 55 different countries, it is a rare name. Aside from Nordic countries, it is most prominent in the United States, the United Kingdom and Russia. English: Adel I Friso of Friesland, King of Friesland Adel II Atharik of Friesland, King of Friesland Adel III Ubbo of Friesland, King of Friesland Adel IV Asega Askar of Friesland, King of Friesland Adel Rootstein, British mannequin designer Adel Heinrich, American composer and university teacher Adel Souto, American musician Adel Chaveleh, American businessman and CIO of Crane Worldwide Logistics Adel Tamano, Filipino educator and politician Adel Yzquierdo, Cuban politician and engineer Adel Tankova, Ukrainian-born Israeli Olympic figure skater Adel Weir, South African squash player Daniel Adel, American painter and illustrator Sharon den Adel, Dutch singer and composer Ilunga Adell, American television and film producer and actor Joan Elies Adell i Pitarch, Catalan-language poet and essayist Traci Adell, Playboy Playmate of the Month for July 1994 Ted Adel, Canadian politician, member of the Legislative Assembly of Yukon Arthur Adel, American astronomer and astrophysicist Carolyn Adel, Suriname swimmer and Olympian Gun Ädel, Swedish cross-country skier Adell, a major character in the video game Disgaea 2: Cursed Memories Adel Frost, a minor character in the now-discontinued two-dimensional side-scrolling MMORPG Grand Chase Adel, a minor antagonist character in the video game Final Fantasy VIII Adél, a character in GeGeGe no Kitaro Adel Germanic name

Juliet Snowden

Juliet Snowden is an American screenwriter, film director, producer, best known for writing Knowing and Ouija. She is known for co-writing screenplays with her husband Stiles White. In 2014, Snowden wrote the screenplay for the supernatural horror film Ouija along with Stiles White, who directed the film, based on the Hasbro's board game of same name; the film was released on October 24, 2014 by Universal Pictures, grossing more than $102 million with a budget of just $5 million. In June 2015, White and Snowden were hired by Universal to rewrite the untitled Bermuda Triangle film based on the original script by Alfred Gough and Miles Millar. Snowden is married to writer-director Stiles White. Juliet Snowden on IMDb