T1 tanker

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USS Mettawee, a 1942, T1-M-A2 tanker
USNS Alatna, 1956 T1 tanker

The T1 tanker or T1 are a class of sea worthy small tanker ships used to transport fuel oil before and during World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War. The T1 tanker classification is still in use today. T1 tankers are about 200 to 250 feet in length and are able to sustain a top speed of about 12 knots, the hull designation AO is used by the US Navy to denote the ship is a T1 oil tanker and AOG that the T1 is a gasoline tanker. The small size allows the T1 to enter just about any sea port or to anchor around a small island, this was very useful during the Pacific War. The T1 tanker can carry about 48,000 to 280,000 BBLs, some T1 tankers were used to transport goods other than oil, a few were used for black oil-crude oil, diesel, chemicals and rarely bulk cargo like grain. T1 tankers are also called liquid cargo carriers, the T1 tanker has about a 6,000 to 35,000 DWT of cargo. The small size also gives the ships short turn around time for repair, cleaning, loading and unloading. A T1 tanker carrying dirty cargo, like crude oil needs a few weeks of labor to clean before carrying clean cargo. Most T1 ships during World War II were named after major oil fields. [1] T1 tanker are operated by the US Navy, War Shipping Administration and United States Maritime Commission. Some T1 were loaned to England in the Lend-Lease program for World War II, after the war most were returned to the USA, after World War II many of the T1 ships were sold to for civilian use. Each T1 had emergency life rafts on the boat deck, the ships had cargo booms and piping to load and unload fuel. During war time the T1 are armed for protection with deck guns. A typical ship may have one single 3"/50 dual purpose gun, two 40 mm guns and three single Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. A T1 at war time normally had a crew of 38 and up to 130. If operating as a United States Merchant Marine ship, the crew would be a mix of civilian Merchant Marines and United States Navy Armed Guards to man the guns. [2][3][4][5][6] [7][8]

US classes[edit]

  • T1-M-A1 tanker: Called a small Coastal tanker, Includes the Mettawee-class gasoline tanker. Diesel powered 800HP, 10 knots max. Tonnage Deadweight: 1,600, Tonnage Full Load: 2,900, Dimensions: 221 feet long, Width 37 ft, First Navy commissioning in 1943. Built by: Barnes-Duluth SB Co. of Duluth, Minnesota. A total of eight T1-M-A1 tankers were completed for WW2. Clearwater/USS Mettawee built in 1943 and USS Tongue River/Pasquotank built in 1943. Spindletop, Cotton Valley, Rouseville, Golden Meadow built by Lancaster Ironworks, Perryville, Maryland. [9]
  • T1-M-A2 tanker: Includes the Mettawee-class gasoline tanker, 221ft, diesel powered 800HP, 10 knots max., Deadweight: 1,453 Full Load: 2,700, dimensions: 220'6" long, Width 37ft, Max. depth 12'10". First Navy commissioning in 1943. Gasoline tanker,AOG, built by East Coast Shipyards Inc. of Bayonne, New Jersey. First ship USS Seekonk (AOG-20).[10][11]
  • T1-MT-BT1 tanker: Klickitat class, Gasoline tankers, first in class USS Klickitat. Diesel powered 1,700 hp, 11 knots max., Deadweight: 4,000, full load: 5,970, dimensions: 325 ft 4 in long, Width 48 ft, Max. depth 19 ft, Diesel 10,465 Bbls, Gasoline 871,332 Gals, Crew: officers 8, enlisted 72. First Navy commissioning in 1945. Built by St.John's River SB Corp. of Jacksonville, Florida. Total T1-M-BT1 gasoline tankers-AOG completed 12. Third ship USS Nanticoke[12][13] [14]
  • T1-M-BT2 tanker: Tonti class and Rincon Class Gasoline Tanker. First in class USNS Tonti and USNS Rincon. Tonti class: Diesel electric 1018 hp, 11 knots max., Deadweight: 4933 Lt, Carry 30,122 BBLS, dimensions: 301.8 long, Width 60.92 ft, Max. depth 22.55. First Navy commissioning in 1945.[15][16][17] Rincon class: Gasoline Diesel engine, 10 knots max., 6,047 long tons (6,144 t) (light) 325 ft long, width 48 ft, Max. depth 19 ft, Crew 38.
  • T1-MT-M1 tanker: Patapsco-class gasoline tanker Diesel electric system, Twin screws, 14 knots max., Capacity 680,000 gallons in 10 tanks about 2,000 tons, dimensions: 310 ft 9 in long, Width 48 ft 7 in, Max. depth 15 ft 0 in. Crew: World War II: 7 officers 120 enlisted, Vietnam: 7 officers 80 enlisted. First in class the USS Patapsco (AOG-1).[18][19]
  • T1-S-C3: Armadillo-class tanker Steam powered 2,500 hp, 11 knots, single propeller, 14,245 LT displacement, 441.5 ft long, 57 ft wide, 27 ft 9 in draft, Capacity: 8,500 t. Oil 63,000 Bbls, crew: 81. Z-ET1-S-C3 tankers were built by California Shipbuilding in Los Angeles, California.[20] The ET1-S-C3 Tankers were built by Delta Shipbuilding in New Orleans, Louisiana. First in class the USS Armadillo (IX-111).[21]
  • T-AOG-81 tanker: The Alatna class small T1 tanker. Alatna-class gasoline tankers. The class is named after the first ship USNS Alatna, launched in 1956. The other ship in the class is the USNS Chattahoochee (T-AOG-82). Alatna class has: diesel electric engines with two shafts, 3,200 hp, 13 knots max., displacements: 2,367 t.(lt) 5,720 t.(fl), Carry 30,000-bbls dimensions: 302ft long, width 61ft, max depth 23 ft. Crew of 51. [22][23] [24] [25][26]
Lead ship of T1 class, T1-MT-M1, USS Patapsco, sister ship of USS Natchaug
USS Chehalis a 1944, T1-MT-M1 tanker

[27]

Other T1 type ships[edit]

Notable incidents[edit]

  • Sulphur Bluff a T1-M-A1, renamed Punta Ciguena sank on 7 Feb 1960 at Rio Uruguay river in Buenos Aires. She was raised, repaired and renamed Dona Isabel,.[28]
  • USS Escatawpa (AOG-27), a T1-M-A2, sank in ran aground in typhoon Louise at [Kyushu]], Japan on 17 September 1945. She was raised, repaired and renamed Gravatai which again sank in 1970.[29]
  • Sebasticook, a T1-M-BT1, renamed Mexia, then Kwang Lung caught fire and sank on 5 April 1961 at Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. The fire-fighting party from USS Prichett (DD-561) help put the fire out, but she still sank, spilled million gallons of gasoline.[34]
  • USS Klickitat, a T1-M-BT1, renamed Capitan was wrecked in 1948, repaired and renamed MV Punta Loyola. She was sold and renamed MV Alkene, but wrecked again in 1974 off the Philippines.[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]