The T2 tanker, or T2, was a class of oil tanker constructed and produced in large quantities in the United States during World War II. Only the T3 tankers were larger "navy oilers" of the period; some 533 T2s were built between 1940 and the end of 1945. They were used to transport fuel oil, diesel fuel and sometimes black oil-crude oil. Post war many T2s remained in use; as was found during the war, the United States Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation in 1952 stated that in cold weather the ships were prone to metal fatigue cracking, so were "belted" with steel straps. This occurred after two T2s, Pendleton and Fort Mercer, split in two off Cape Cod within hours of each other. Pendleton's sinking is memorialized in The Finest Hours. Engineering inquiries into the problem suggested the cause was poor welding techniques, it was found the steel was not well suited for the new wartime welding construction. The high sulfur content made the steel brittle and prone to metal fatigue at lower temperatures.
The T2 design was formalized by the United States Maritime Commission as its medium-sized "National Defense tanker", a ship built for merchant service which could be militarized as a fleet auxiliary in time of war. MarCom subsidized the excess cost of naval features beyond normal commercial standards; the T2 was based on two ships built in 1938–1939 by Bethlehem Steel for Socony-Vacuum Oil Company and Mobilube, differing from the Mobil ships principally in the installation of more powerful engines for higher speed. Standard T2s were 501 ft 6 in in total length, with a beam of 68 ft. Rated at 9,900 tons gross, with 15,850 long tons deadweight, standard T2s displaced about 21,100 tons. Steam turbines driving a single propeller at 12,000 horsepower delivered a top speed of 16 knots. Six were built for commerce by Bethlehem-Sparrows Point Shipyard in Maryland, only to be taken over by the United States Navy following the Attack on Pearl Harbor as the Kennebec-class oiler. Keystone Tankships company ordered five tankers in 1940 from Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock of Chester, based on the T2 but longer and with increased capacity.
Bigger but faster, they were 526 ft in total length, displaced about 22,445 tons, were rated at 10,600 tons gross with 16,300 DWT — yet they attained a top speed approaching 16 1⁄2 knots. All five were requisitioned by the Navy during the war and converted to fleet oilers as the Mattaponi class. By far the most common variety of the T2-type tanker was the T2-SE-A1, another commercial design being built in 1940 by the Sun Shipbuilding Company for Standard Oil Company of New Jersey, they were 523 ft long, 68 ft abeam, with 10,448 gross register tons and 16,613 DWT. Their turbo-electric transmission system delivered 6,000 shaft horsepower, with maximum thrust of 7,240 horsepower, which produced a top-rated speed of about 15 knots with a cruising range of up to 12,600 miles. After Pearl Harbor, the United States Maritime Commission ordered this model built en masse to supply U. S. warships in accelerated production, provide for the fuel needs of US forces in Europe and the Pacific, as well as to replace the tanker tonnage being lost at an alarming rate to German U-boats.
481 were built in short production times by the Alabama Drydock and Shipbuilding Company of Mobile, the Kaiser Company at their Swan Island Yard at Portland, the Marinship Corp. of Sausalito and the Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Company of Chester, Pennsylvania. During that period, average production time from laying of the keel to "fitting out" was 70 days; the record, was held by Marinship, which had Huntington Hills ready for sea trials in just 33 days. The T2-SE-A2 variation, built only by Marinship of Sausalito, was nearly identical to the T2-SE-A1 version, except with 10,000 hp rather than 7,240; the A3 variation was an A2 built as a naval oiler from the start, rather than converted as many A2s were. Despite the confusing T3 designation, the T3-S-A1s built by Bethlehem Sparrows Point for Standard Oil of New Jersey were identical to the original T2s except for having less powerful engines of 7,700 hp. Twenty-five of this design were ordered by the Maritime Commission, of which five became Navy oilers as the Chiwawa class.
T2-A-MC-K had a M. C. deadweight tonnage of 16,300 and a full load tonnage of 22,445. The dimensions were: Length: 526 ft, Beam: 68 ft and max. draft: 30 ft 10 in. Powered by turbine engines rated at 12,000 hp with a top speed of 17.5 knots. The first Navy commissioning was in 1942. Could hold 117,400 Bbls of oil and 595,000 gal of gasoline. Crew of 23 officers and 329 enlisted men. Armament: one single 5'/38 cal dual purpose gun mount, four single 3"/50 cal dual purpose gun mounts, four twin 40 mm AA gun mounts and twelve single 20 mm AA gun mounts. Example was USS Patuxent, a Kennebec-class oiler. In 1966, the US Army reactivated 11 T2 tankers and converted them into floating electrical power generation plants and deployed them to Vietnam; the ships' propulsion systems' electrical turbines were used to generate electricity for on-shore use, drawing on fuel from the ships' 150,000-barrel holds. This allowed the ships to produce electricity for two years without refueling for the Vietnam War. USNS French Creek was the first to arrive in June 1966 next was USS Kennebago, both installed in Cam Ranh Bay.
Shiva Nazar Ahari is a notable Iranian human rights activist and a founding member of the Committee of Human Rights Reporters. She has been jailed several times by the Iranian government, she was jailed on 14 June 2009 and held in the Evin prison until September 23, 2009, when she was released on an equivalent of a $200,000 bail. She had been in solitary confinement for 33 days. On December 21, 2009 she was arrested once again along with several other activists who were on their way to the city of Qom to attend the funeral of Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri; the most recent hearing was held on September 4, 2010, at the 26th branch of the Islamic Revolutionary Court of the Tehran Province, with charges including "attempts to deface the Islamic government", "assembly with intention of conspiring against the Islamic government", "disrupting the public order" and moharebeh or "waging war against God". Since her arrest, the court proceeding has met with strong international criticism, the allegation being that it was an illegal measure taken by the Islamic Republic of Iran to further repress the rights of dissent and freedom of speech in the country, her immediate release has been called for.
After 266 days in prison, she was released on September 12, 2010 on a bail of five billion Iranian rials. Per a summons, Shiva Nazar Ahari appeared at Evin on September 8, 2012, to serve a 4-year prison sentence. A number of organizations call for her immediate release - Reporters without borders, World association of newspapers and news publishers or PEN International. On Sunday, March 13, 2011, it was announced that Shiva Nazar Ahari was the 2011 recipient of the Theodor Haecker Prize for "courageous internet reporting on human rights violations"; the prize is named after Theodor Haecker, a philosopher and anti-Nazi cultural critic
Joseph W. Pace II is an American gospel musician, he started his music career, with Colorado Mass Choir. They have released fourteen albums with eleven of them charting on the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart, he has released albums with a myriad of label imprints, such as the following: Zomba Records, Verity Records, Alliant Records, Word Records, Epic Records, Integrity Music, Columbia Records, NuSpring Music, Sony Music, Tyscot Records. Pace was born on October 20, 1965 in Homestead, Florida, as Joseph W. Pace II, which his father served in the military causing the family to relocate often, his father is a pastor at a church in Alabama. His father serving in the military was the reason the family relocated to Colorado, so this was the impetus for the birth of Joe Pace & the Colorado Mass Choir, he is an ordained Baptist and Church of God in Christ preacher, he got his honorary doctorate from Inman Bible College. His music career began in 1996, with the Colorado Mass Choir that formed in 1995, who were choir members from various churches in Colorado.
He has released fourteen albums, with all but three of those charting on the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart. His albums were the following: 1997's Watch God Move with Zomba Records, 1998's So Good! with Verity Records, 1999's God's Got It with Verity Records, 2001's Joe Pace Presents: Let There Be Praise with Word Records, Epic Records, Integrity Music, 2001's Glad About It with Word and Integrity, 2002's Joe Pace Presents: Shake the Foundation with Integrity, 2002' In the Spirit with Integrity, 2003's Speak Life with Integrity, 2004's Joe Pace Presents: Sunday Morning Service with Integrity and Epic, 2006's Might Long Way with Columbia Records, 2006's Praise'Til You Breakthrough with Alliant Records, 2007's Joe Pace Presents: Worship for the Kingdom with NuSpring Music, 2007's Joe Pace Presents: Worship for the Kids with Sony Music, 2010's Joe Pace Presents: Praise for the Sanctuary with Tyscot Records. These albums charted on the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart, except for Speak Life, Praise'Til You Breakthrough, Joe Pace Presents: Worship for the Kids.
He won the Stellar Award for New Artist of the year in 1997 with The Colorado Mass Choir. Official website
Riadh Sidaoui is a Tunisian writer and political scientist who has a Swiss nationality. He is the director of the Geneva-based Centre Arabe de Recherches et d'Analyses Politiques et Sociales. Taqadoumiya since 2010, he has had articles and studies published in London, in newspapers such as Al-Hayat and Al-Quds Al-Arabi. After studying in Kairouan, he joined the Tunis University and obtained a master's degree in journalism from the Institute of Press and Information Sciences of Tunis in 1992, a DEA in 1995 from the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Tunis, he moved to Switzerland in 1995. After obtaining a Master of Advanced Studies in development studies from the Graduate Institute of Development Studies in 1997, he obtained a Master of Advanced Studies in political sciences from the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences of Geneva in 1998. Sidaoui draws attention to the notion, he explains: "Despite the lack of a comprehensive study on the occupational origin of the leadership of Islamist movements in the Arab world, we can see an total domination of scientific careers.
It seems that the number of engineers, physicists, etc. acting on behalf of Islam, is considerable. This thesis is confirmed by the success of Islamists in the elections of scientific advice in the faculties of sciences; this same success is difficult if not impossible in the faculties of Humanities and Social Sciences.". After the fall of Arab dictators in the Arab Spring, Sidaoui said that the first winners of the revolutions are Islamists in view of their capacity of mobilization and organization. In addition, he noted that the Islamists have the overwhelming support of the Arab countries in the Persian Gulf, the petrodollars, but the United States, that accept a moderate Islam in the Arab world. According to Riadh Sidaoui, habitual use of the term Wahhabism is scientifically false, it should be substituted with the concept of Saudi Wahhabism, an Islamic doctrine, based on the historical alliance between the political and financial power represented by Ibn Saud and the religious authority represented by Abdul Al-Wahhab.
The doctrine continues to exist to this day thanks to this alliance, the financing of several religious channels, the formation of several sheikhs. Sidaoui thinks that the political foundations of Islam lie in the republican democratic and non-Wahhabi monarchy mind. For him Saudi Wahhabism is a threat to Islam and all humanity. "The Inner Weakness of Arab Media", in Natascha Fioretti et Marcello Foa and the Western World: the Role of the Media, éd. European Journalism Observatory, Lugano, 2008. Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, 2009, p. 225–247. ISBN 0-7546-7418-5. Hiwarat nassiriyya éd. Arabesques, Tunis, 1992. ISBN 9973-763-00-9. ISBN 9973-17-315-5. Arab Institute for Research and Publishing, Beyrouth, 2000. Centre arabe de recherches et d'analyses, Beyrouth, 2003. Centre arabe de recherches et d'analyses, Beyrouth, 2003. Université de Genève, Genève, 1998. Publisud, Paris, 2002. Centre arabe de recherches et d'analyses, Paris, 2003
AIESEC in Waikato is a branch of AIESEC New Zealand. AIESEC in Waikato is one of the five committees in New Zealand which includes Auckland, Wellington and Otago, it was first established in 1982 at the University of Waikato in Hamilton, geographically located in the Central North Island, in the Waikato Region. The expansion of AIESEC throughout the world was started in the mid-1960s and continues until the present day. AIESEC USA, was founded in 1956 so the Waikato branch is considered recent amongst AIESECers; the Waikato branch is based in the Waikato Management School on the University of Waikato campus. AIESEC Waikato and the Waikato Management School entered a more formal partnership in late 2009 to help grow membership and to help deliver AIESEC's exchange experiences to the students of the university. AIESEC inWaikato has established relationships with many of the different faculties and schools within the University of Waikato, it became possible for the Waikato Institute of Technology students to join due to a partnership between AIESEC in Waikato and WINTEC, one of New Zealand’s largest Institutes of Technology/Polytechnics.
Over its years in operation AIESEC in Waikato has sent out many University of Waikato students to countries such as China, the Czech Republic, the Philippines and Poland and more on varying types of internships. These internships were done with the purpose of professional internships. AIESEC in Waikato has sent people in such volunteering projects as community development work, environmental projects, teaching English in schools and many more. Through Global Talent, the professional internship exchange programme that AIESEC in Waikato offers and undergrads have the opportunity to go on a professional exchange abroad in the field of their study or on a long term English teaching exchange. Through the Global Citizen program, the students are invited to go overseas for periods of weeks or months. In the Global Talent exchange youth have the opportunity to go on a professional exchange ranging from three to 18 months; the opportunities and training that the Youth Talent AIESEC Waikato offers to its members includes leadership development, professional networking and developmental opportunities and many more developmental areas for students to further succeed in their chosen career.
AIESEC in Waikato brings a new executive board team in every February with their term going through to January the following year. Each executive board team is led by a Local Committee President leading the committee for the year; the most recent Local Committee Presidents include: Abby Fernando 2019 Boramey They 2018 Naveen Singh 2017 Richard Liu 2015/2016 Luke Gibbison 2014/2015 Shanice Sim 2013/2014 Te Aki Moore 2012/2013 Rhys Whiting 2011/2012 Krizia Neal Nibungco 2010/2011 YingFei Yew 2009/2010 Stephane Janson 2008/2009 And more Backed by a Board of Advisors consisting of the CEO of the Waikato Chamber of Commerce, a Senior Partner of Deloitte in Hamilton and John Gallagher the Executive Director of the Gallagher Group Ltd, AIESEC Waikato's external network has partners and sponsors including Dale Carnegie Training, Print House Ltd and Countdown and more
David Hilberman was an American cartoon animator and one of the founders of classic 1940s animation. An innovator in the animation industry, he co-founded United Productions of America; the studio pioneered the modern style of animation. As Animator and Professor Tom Sito noted: "Arguably, no studio since Walt Disney exerted such a great influence on world animation." He and Zack Schwartz went on to start Tempo Productions which became an early leader in television animated commercial production. In short, he played an important role in the new directions the art form took in the'50s. Hilberman studied art in schools in both Cleveland; the great depression began when he was 18, with its huge economic dislocation promoted political activism and consequential legislation: the Social Security Act and the National Labor Relations Act. In 1932 he traveled with friends to Russia, he worked in a theater and studied stagecraft and art. Unable to speak Russian and finding Russians too dogmatic, he returned to Cleveland.
There he resumed his education at Case Western Reserve University, earning a B. S. in Art Education in 1934 and continuing his involvement with theater at the Cleveland Play House securing a job teaching art in high school. He married, became aware of a talent search for artists being held by Walt Disney Productions and submitted a portfolio, he became one of 29 artists hired out of several thousand applicants. Hilberman began in animation as an assistant animator and shortly was asked by Bill Tytla to join his unit working on the dwarf sequences in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the world's first animated feature film; the movie, a major gamble for the Walt Disney studio became a huge artistic and financial success and lead to a series of pioneering animation features. He went on to do layout on six short films and was put in charge of pre-production layout for Bambi. In preparation, he learned how to use the studio's huge new multiplane camera used for the panoramas through the woods, he was proud of the work done at the studio.
Many artists had worked long unpaid hours on Snow White. Instead of overtime pay, the artists were promised bonuses for their efforts which were never paid as Walt Disney chose to use the revenues to build a new studio in Burbank; the Studio's revenues had been cut in nearly half by the WWII in Europe. By early 1941 artists were being let go without explanation when senior and skilled; these layoffs lead directly to the Disney animators' strike in the spring of 1941. In an FBI interview three weeks after the strike began, Disney blamed these staff cuts for the strike. Two weeks Disney placed an ad in Hollywood trade papers stated the strike was caused by Communist agitation! The after effects of the Studio's economic downturn and the strike included a major exodus of talent from Disney. In 1943 David Hilberman, Zack Schwartz and Steve Bosustow, set up a new studio, which became UPA. Notable early films to which he contributed included his most political films: Point Rationing of Foods, shown nationwide as part of the war effort for FDR's 1944 re-election campaign: Hell Bent for Election and Brotherhood of Man.
The pamphlet on which Brotherhood was based, was written by two eminent anthropologists, Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, but was banned by the War Department as subversive due to its assertion that racial differences were superficial. Hilberman was drafted into the army toward the end of World War II and a year after his return to civilian life he sold his interest in UPA; the end of the war and the 1946 elections brought a sharp right turn in American politics. Exploiting fears of the Soviet Union the Second Red Scare began. In 1947 the House Un-American Activities Committee met in Hollywood. Walt Disney blamed the strike on communist agitators rather than acknowledging unexplained layoffs of artists attributed to the studio's financial stress. Disney named several artists, including Hilberman as Communists. Other movie studio executives named many union activists as Communists and the attack on the unions turned into a nasty witch-hunt. Best known for the 10 Screen Writers denounced as Communists, the Hollywood Blacklist began.
The social justice issues which motivated the Hilbermans to attend some Communist Party meetings in the late 1930s and early 1940s -- worker's rights, women's rights, an end to racism – were regarded as subversive. One of the FBI special agents, involved chasing commies found himself thinking “Gee this isn't all that bad, they want equal rights in equal pay for women. What the hell is wrong with this?"In 1947 David Hilberman and Zack Schwartz founded another studio in New York City in 1947. Tempo Productions went on to become the earliest and most successful producer of television animated commercials of high artistic merit. In December 1953 at the height of the red scare Red Channels distributed Counterattack, which in December 1953 listed the companies that had used Tempo and urged a boycott of the firm. Abruptly, orders for commercials were withdrawn and all employees had to be laid off; the business was sold and the family traveled to Europe the next spring as David looked for work in Western Europe.
Their boat trip to Europe overlapped with the Army-McCarthy hearings, which were to mark the beginning of end of the witch-hunt, if not its substantial political and personal after-effects. After talking to film producers and directors in France and