An oscillating turret is a form of turret for armoured fighting vehicles, both tanks and armoured cars. The turret is unusual in being made of two hinged parts. Elevation of the gun relies on the upper part of the turret moving relative to the lower part. Oscillating turrets have only been used, their only widespread use was on two French designs: the AMX-13 light tank and the Panhard EBR armoured car. The turret consists of lower parts, joined by a trunnion; the gap between these two parts is covered by a distinctively visible rubber or canvas bellows. The gun itself is fixed to the upper part of the turret. Elevation of the gun is achieved by tilting the entire upper part of the turret. In conventional designs, the gun is tilted by running on its own trunnion, while the turret remains fixed to the fuselage. Traverse is achieved conventionally, by rotating the turret. In oscillating turrets where the oscillating part of the turret is enclosed gives the advantage that the gunner and loader always is in line with the gun allowing easier aiming and loading.
There are three major advantages: high gun placement, smaller turret size and simpler fitment of an autoloader. In a conventional design, the turret has to have room above the breech to allow it to rise to tilt the gun down. An oscillating design moves the turret with the gun, so no extra room is needed; this allows the gun to be at the top of the turret. This reduces the amount of the turret, exposed when the tank is in a hull-down position, as well as improving the possible depression angles. Additionally, the breech of the gun falls into the tank when it elevates, which requires the turret ring to be large enough to allow this motion. In an oscillating design, the breech is always above the turret ring; this allows it to be smaller allowing the hull to be smaller as well. However, in this case, the maximum elevation angle is defined by the space between the rear of the turret and the deck of the hull, which may be less than the angle possible in a conventional design where the breech can fall into the hull.
For this reason, oscillating designs have the gun mounted higher above the deck in order to improve the possible elevation angles. This makes the turret taller than on conventional designs, which may make it more difficult to find protective cover as well as making it more visible on the battlefield. However, this is offset by the fact that the lower hull position relative to the gun may allow better protection in the hull-down position. Other improvements include the fact that the gun sights are more in-line with the gun, that it is easier to fit an autoloader mechanism as the breech remains in the same position relative to the loader; the initial claimed advantage of oscillating turrets was that of reducing the turret size for a large main battle tank gun. In the 1950s, tanks were growing more armed and heavier. Western armed forces were trying to catch up with the formidable Soviet tanks, such as the T-55. Weight was the main problem where this required extra engine power and stronger transmission.
As the thickest armour is on the turret, reducing turret size appeared to be a worthwhile goal. Size may be reduced because the non-elevating gun breech does not need to move up and down inside the upper turret. Working space thus does not need to be allowed for it above or below the breech, space, wasted in conventional turret designs. In particular, the oscillating turret design is shallow above the breech, allowing for a low turret silhouette, a considerable advantage; this was the justification for the first oscillating turret, that of the French AMX-50 medium or heavy tank in the 50 tonnes class. This used first a 90 mm 100 mm, gun in an oscillating turret to save weight; the final 120 mm version first reverted to a conventional turret, but used another oscillating design, the Tourelle D. However the need to elevate the gun still requires room for the breech to be lowered into the lower turret; this has tended to produce oscillating turret designs with a high gun axis relative to a conventional turret where the turret height is otherwise shallow.
One problem was that the armour of a turret is in the front face of the turret and this was not made any smaller in the AMX-50 design, the turret of the 120 mm version being so tall as to be reminiscent of the WW2 Challenger, the turret being a whole foot taller than the contemporary and comparably armoured Conqueror. The AMX-50 grew progressively heavier and although it might have proved a capable heavy tank by 1950s standards, this whole class of slow-moving AFV was becoming outdated by the development of lightweight anti-tank guided missiles in the 1960s and so the project was abandoned. Whilst the oscillating turret was unsuccessful for the heavy tank, it proved more successful in allowing light tanks and armored cars to carry an unusually heavy main gun of 90 mm. In French doctrine, light reconnaissance vehicles were armed and expected to fulfill a role in defending the flanks of a main force, they were not expected to act as tank destroyers though, so a high-caliber but low velocity gun with high-explosive shells was effective in their role.
As the gun remains fixed relative to the upper turret, it is easier to install an autoloader than for a conventional turret, where the gun must return to a fixed elevation for reloading. The French design used two six-round rotating magazines, allowing a high rate of fire and a selection of two ammunition types; the disadvantage was that once the magazine ready capacity was used, reloading of the magazines was a slow process requirin
The Continental AV1790 is an American V12 engine used in tanks. Produced by Continental Motors, the AV1790 was used in a variety of limited production and pilot heavy tanks, including the M53 and M55 howitzers, the T30 and M103 tanks. There were diesel versions for the M47, M48, M60 Patton tanks, the Swedish Stridsvagn 104; the engine prefixes are: AV-Armored Vehicle D-Diesel S-Supercharged I-Injection 1790-Displacement in Cubic Inches Hunnicutt, R. P. Firepower: A History of the American Heavy Tank. Novato, California: Presidio Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89141-304-9 Air Cooled Diesel Tank Engines by Teledyne Continental Motors
The M48 Patton was a main battle tank, designed in the United States. It was the third tank to be named after General George S. Patton, commander of the U. S. Third Army during World War II and one of the earliest American advocates for the use of tanks in battle, it was a further development of the M47 Patton tank. The M48 Patton was in U. S. service until replaced by the M60 and served as the U. S. Army and Marine Corps' primary battle tank during the Vietnam War, it was used by U. S. Cold War allies other NATO countries; the M48 Patton tank was designed to replace the previous M47 M4 Shermans. Although bearing some semblance to the M47, the M48 was a new design, featuring a complete new turret as well as modified hull, it was the last U. S. tank to mount the 90 mm tank gun, with the last model, the M48A5, being upgraded to carry the new standard weapon of the M60, the 105mm gun. Some M48A5 models served well into the 1980s with U. S. Army National Guard units, many M48s remain in service in other countries.
The Turkish Army has the largest number of modernized M48 MBTs, with more than 1,400 in its inventory. Of these, around 1,000 have been placed in storage, or modified as ARVs. In February 1951, the Army initiated the design of the new tank, designated the 90mm Gun Tank T-48. By January 1952 Army officials were considering whether the lighter T42 medium tank was better suited to the doctrine preferred by the Ordnance Department that called for lighter, more agile tanks. A deeper modernization than the M46 and the M47, the M48 featured a new hemispherical turret, a redesigned hull similar to the T43 heavy tank, an improved suspension; the hull machine gunner position was removed. In April 1953, the Army standardized the last of the Patton series tanks as the 90mm Gun Tank M48 Patton. In April 1952 Chrysler Corporation began production of the M48 at its Newark, plant; the tank was christened after the late General George S. Patton at its public debut at the Chrysler plant in July. General Motors and Ford Motor Company produced the tank in Michigan.
In July the Army awarded American Locomotive Company a $200 million contract to produce the tank. In December Chrysler took on orders intended for the American Locomotive after the Army ordered production cutbacks to its tank program. Under the "single, efficient producer" model of Defense Secretary Charles Erwin Wilson the Army was directed to reduce the number of contractors producing each model of tank. General Motors underbid Chrysler, in September 1953 Army Secretary Robert T. Stevens awarded GM's Fisher Body division a $200 million contract to become the sole producer of the M48; the decision raised skepticism in lawmakers. Senator Estes Kefauver noted the move would leave GM as the only producer of light and medium tanks when Chrysler wrapped up M48 production by April 1954; the Defense Department was called to the Senate Armed Services Committee in January 1954 to defend the single-producer decision. During hearings Army Under-Secretary John Slezak said the move reduced costs, that multiple producers were unnecessary to fulfill the Army's diminishing needs for new tanks.
Months Chrysler underbid GM in the new round of proposals. In September 1954 the Army awarded Chrysler an exclusive $160.6 million contract to restart production. In November 1955 the Army awarded Alco Products a $73 million contract to begin producing 600 M48A2s the next year. Alco opted to wrap up its tank business when its contract ended in July 1957. In May 1957 the Army awarded Chrysler, the only bidder, a $119 million contract to continue production of the M48A2 in Delaware and Muskegon, Michigan. In 1960 the Government Accounting Office, investigating performance of Army and Marine tanks, found that the M48 and M48A1 were "seriously defective vehicles." In November a House Armed Services investigation corroborated the GAO report, disputed by Army Secretary Wilber M. Brucker. Nearly 12,000 M48s were built from 1952 to 1959; the early designs, up to the M48A2C, were powered by a gasoline 12-cylinder engine and a 1-cylinder auxiliary generator. The gasoline engine versions gave the tank a shorter operating range and were more prone to catching fire when hit.
Although considered less reliable than diesel-powered versions, numerous examples saw combat use in various Arab–Israeli conflicts. The low flashpoint of hydraulic fluid used in the recoil mechanisms and hydraulic systems for rotating weapons or aiming devices was less than 212 °F and could result in a fireball in the crew compartment when the lines were ruptured; the fluid was not peculiar to the M48 and is no longer used in combat armored vehicles, having been replaced by fire resistant hydraulic fluid. Beginning in 1959, most American M48s were upgraded to the M48A3 model, which featured a more reliable and longer-range diesel power plant. M48s with gasoline engines, were still in use in the US Army through 1968, through 1975 by many West German Army units. In February 1963, the US Army accepted the first of 600 M48 Patton tanks, converted to M48A3s, by 1964 the US Marine Corps had received 419 Patton tanks; the A3 model introduced the diesel engine, countering the earlier versions' characteristic of catching fire.
These Pattons were to be deployed to battle in Vietnam. Because all M48A3 tanks were conversions from earlier models, many characteristics varied among individual examples of this type. M48A3 tanks could have either three or five support rollers on each side and might have either the early or type headlight assemblies. In the mid-1970s, the vehicle was modifi
T95 Medium Tank
The T95 was an American prototype medium tank developed from 1955 to 1959. These tanks used many advanced or unusual features, such as siliceous-cored armor, a new transmission, the OPTAC fire-control system; the OPTAC incorporated an electro-optical rangefinder and was mounted on the right side of the turret, was used in conjunction with the APFSDS-firing 90 mm T208 smoothbore gun, which had a rigid mount without a recoil system. In addition, although the tanks were designed with a torsion beam suspension, a hydropneumatic suspension was fitted, one of the tanks was fitted with a Solar Saturn gas turbine for demonstration purposes; the siliceous cored armor consisted of fused silica, which has a mass efficiency of three versus copper-lined shaped charges, embedded in cast steel armor for an overall mass efficiency of 1.4. The early APFSDS penetrators fired by the T208 had a low length-to-diameter ratio, this being limited by their brittle tungsten carbide construction, with a diameter of 37 mm, although they had a high muzzle velocity of 1,525 m/s.
The rangefinder, the "T53 Optical Tracking and Ranging" system, emitted pulsed beams of intense but incoherent infrared light. These incoherent beams scattered reducing effectiveness in mist and rain and causing multiple returns, requiring the gunner to identify the correct return after estimating the range by sight. This, combined with the large and vulnerable design of the transmitter and receiver assembly, led to the abandonment of the OPTAR system in 1957. In the early 1950s, work began in the US to develop an eventual replacement to the M48 tank, the operational medium tank at the time. A series of simple upgrades to the T48 were considered as part of the T54 project, but these were considered to offer too little advantage to be worth it. Examples of more radical upgrades were called for. In September 1954, out of many submitted plans, two main examples were chosen – one of them, the T95. Both tanks used smooth-bore barrels with no recoil system. In November 1956, it was decided that nine tanks would be produced.
Four of them would be original T95s. One would be a T95 with a 90 mm gun on a mount with a recoil system, receiving the designation T95E1; the remaining four would use the T95 chassis and the T96 turret, were designated the T95E4. Because the T96 turrets were not yet constructed, it was decided that of the four T95E4s, two would be fitted with the M48A2 turret, the other two were fitted with T54E2 turret and with 105-mm T140 cannon; the first T95 variant to go into production was the T95E2, in May 1957. The T95E3 was produced in July of the same year, the first original T95s were ready in February 1958; the T95 tank was created using a traditional design with a driver in the front, the fighting compartment in the center, the engine compartment in the rear. The tank had a four-man crew, consisting of a commander, a gunner, a loader, a driver; the driver’s work area is in the forward compartment. The driver's hatch is located in the glacis above his head. With the hatch sealed the driver operates using three periscopic visual devices, the middle of, equipped with a night-vision infrared camera from the T161.
Ammunition stores are located on either side of the driver’s chair. The majority of the hull is welded; the upper part of the forward armor, or glacis, has a thickness of 95 mm and is at an angle of 65 degrees from vertical. The thickness of the roof and floor of the hull around the driver's compartment is 51 and 19 mm respectively; the thickness of the main side plates vary from 102 mm up front down to 32 mm around the engine. The cast turret has a ring diameter of 85 inches; the frontal turret armor is 178 mm, the sides are 78 mm. The shape of the turret is elongated compared to the M48; the gunner’s seat is situated to the right of the main gun in the front of the turret. The commander’s seat is in the turret with a built-in 12.7 mm M2 machine gun, with an M28 periscopic sight for aiming. For 360-degree vision, 5 armored viewports are installed in the turret. Primary shells are stored beneath the ring; the T95 and the T95E1 are equipped with a T208 90 mm smooth-bore gun. The T95 equipment was stabilized in two axes.
The T95E1 equipment lacked stabilization systems. All T95 models were equipped with T320 armor-piercing rounds, which had a tungsten core, a diameter of 40 mm, a muzzle velocity of 1520 meters per second; these rounds could penetrate a 127 mm armor plate when fired at a 60-degree angle from 2000 yards. A standard T95 was equipped with 50 rounds; the T95E2 retained the armament of its predecessor, the M48A2. With a 90 mm gun, it could fire a 74 mm anti-armor shell at 915 meters per second for a range of 2000 yards, it was equipped with 64 rounds. The T95E3 was armed with a T140 105 mm rifled gun. With a muzzle velocity of 1079 m/s, the armor piecing capability at 2000 yards is 122 mm at a 60-degree firing angle. Standard equipment was 64 rounds; the T95E4 was planned to have a T210 105 mm smoothbore gun. In order to accommodate the extra length of the rounds, the gun was moved forward, preventing stabilization; the muzzle velocity of the round was 1740 m/s, with an armor penetration of 152 mm at 60 degrees at 2000 yards Standard equipment was 40 rounds.
With the appearance of the T123 120 mm rifled gun, it was decided that it should be installed on two of the four planned T9
Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
Detroit Arsenal Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant was the first manufacturing plant built for the mass production of tanks in the United States. Established in 1940 under Chrysler, this plant was owned and managed by the U. S. government until 1952 when management of the facility was turned over to the Chrysler Corporation. This plant was owned by the U. S. government until 1996. It was designed by architect Albert Kahn; the building was designed as a "dual production facility, so that it could make armaments and be turned into peaceful production at war's end. Notwithstanding its name, the 113-acre site was located in Warren, Detroit's largest suburb. Chrysler's construction effort at the plant in 1941 was one of the fastest on record; the first tanks rumbled out of the plant before its complete construction. During World War II, the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant built a quarter of the 89,568 tanks produced in the U. S. overall. The Korean War boosted production for the first time. In May 1952, Chrysler resumed control from the army, unable to ramp up production.
As a Government-Owned, Contractor Operated facility, Chrysler retained operational control of the production facility until March 1982, when Chrysler sold its Chrysler Defense division to General Dynamics Land Systems. General Dynamics produced the M1 Abrams tank at the facility until 1996, when the plant was closed and tank assembly and maintenance operations were consolidated at the Lima plant; the plant and some of the adjoining property were transferred to the City of Warren in 2001. The site of the original tank plant is now dedicated to civilian uses; this important production site of the Arsenal of Democracy is memorialized by a Michigan Historical Marker. The structure of the plant was designed to survive bombardment by the weapons of the day, it included 3-foot-thick concrete walls in some areas and a reinforced roof with slats to direct bombs away from vulnerable windows and exhaust fans. The portion of the property not sold to the city remains an active Army facility with many agencies present.
The installation is managed by Installation Management Command and hosts the headquarters of the United States Army Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center and the United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command. TACOM continues to function at the location, is in fact in a major building boom as of 2010. United States Army Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command TACOM LCMC M3 Lee, 1941-1942 M4 Sherman, 1941-1945 M26 Pershing, 1945 M46 Patton, 1949 M47 Patton, 1951-1953 M67 "Zippo", 1955-1956 M60 Patton, 1960-1987 M1 Abrams, 1980-1996 Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, Local Legacies. Library of Congress Bos, Ann M. and Talbot, Enough and On Time, The Story of the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, Michigan History Magazine. June, 2001. Meredith, Vast Plant for Tanks Has Closed. 21 December 1996. The New York Times. Detroit Arsenal of Democracy Museum, Veterans' Memorial Park, 27400 Campbell Road, Michigan 48093 "Tanks Are Mighty Fine Things," a booklet about the WW2 History of the Detroit Tank Arsenal.
Congressional Record, remarks on the dedication of the Michigan Historical Marker concerning the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant by U. S. Senator Carl Levin. Description of Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant at Globalsecurity.org. Detroit Tank Arsenal in Warren Township, 1941. U. S. Army Tank Automotive Command history. Wikimapia, Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant. "Tanks are mighty fine things" at the Internet Archive A film clip "Assembly Lines of Defense" is available at the Internet Archive
Military vehicles are armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire. Such vehicles include armoured fighting vehicles like tanks and ships. Civilian vehicles may be armoured; these vehicles include cars used by officials and others in conflict zones or where violent crime is common. Civilian armoured cars are routinely used by security firms to carry money or valuables to reduce the risk of highway robbery or the hijacking of the cargo. Armour may be used in vehicles to protect from threats other than a deliberate attack; some spacecraft are equipped with specialised armour to protect them against impacts from micrometeoroids or fragments of space junk. Modern aircraft powered by jet engines have them fitted with a sort of armour in the form of an aramid composite kevlar bandage around the fan casing or debris containment walls built into the casing of their gas turbine engines to prevent injuries or airframe damage should the fan, compressor, or turbine blades break free.
The design and purpose of the vehicle determines the amount of armour plating carried, as the plating is very heavy and excessive amounts of armour restrict mobility. In order to decrease this problem, some new materials and material compositions are being researched which include buckypaper, aluminium foam armour plates. Rolled homogeneous armour is strong and tough. Steel with these characteristics are produced by processing cast steel billets of appropriate size and rolling them into plates of required thickness. Rolling and forging irons out the grain structure in the steel, removing imperfections which would reduce the strength of the steel. Rolling elongates the grain structure in the steel to form long lines, which enable the stress the steel is placed under when loaded to flow throughout the metal, not be concentrated in one area. Aluminium is used, it is most used on APCs and armoured cars. Wrought iron was used on ironclad warships. Early European iron armour consisted of 10 to 13 cm of wrought iron backed by up to one meter of solid wood.
Titanium has twice the density of aluminium, but is as strong as iron. So, despite being more expensive, it finds an application in areas where weight is a concern, such as personal armour and military aviation; some notable examples of its use include the USAF A-10 Thunderbolt II and the Soviet/Russian-built Sukhoi Su-25 ground-attack aircraft, utilising a bathtub-shaped titanium enclosure for the pilot, as well as the Soviet/Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter. Because of its high density, depleted uranium can be used in tank armour, sandwiched between sheets of steel armour plate. For instance, some late-production M1A1HA and M1A2 Abrams tanks built after 1998 have DU reinforcement as part of the armour plating in the front of the hull and the front of the turret, there is a program to upgrade the rest. Plastic metal was a type of vehicle armour developed for merchant ships by the British Admiralty in 1940; the original composition was described as 50% clean granite of half-inch size, 43% of limestone mineral, 7% of bitumen.
It was applied in a layer two inches thick and backed by half an inch of steel. Plastic armour was effective at stopping armour piercing bullets because the hard granite particles would deflect the bullet, which would lodge between plastic armour and the steel backing plate. Plastic armour could be applied by pouring it into a cavity formed by the steel backing plate and a temporary wooden form. Bulletproof glass is a colloquial term for glass, resistant to being penetrated when struck by bullets; the industry refers to it as bullet-resistant glass or transparent armour. Bullet-resistant glass is constructed using a strong but transparent material such as polycarbonate thermoplastic or by using layers of laminated glass; the desired result is a material with the appearance and light-transmitting behaviour of standard glass, which offers varying degrees of protection from small arms fire. The polycarbonate layer consisting of products such as Armormax, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak, is sandwiched between layers of regular glass.
The use of plastic in the laminate provides impact-resistance, such as physical assault with a hammer, an axe, etc. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance; the glass, much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet and thereby prevents penetration. This type of bullet-resistant glass is 70–75 mm thick. Bullet-resistant glass constructed of laminated glass layers is built from glass sheets bonded together with polyvinyl butyral, polyurethane or ethylene-vinyl acetate; this type of bullet-resistant glass has been in regular use on combat vehicles since World War II. Newer materials are being developed. One such, aluminium oxynitride, is much lighter but at US$10–15 per square inch is much more costly. Ceramic's precise mechanism for defeating HEAT was uncovered in the 1980s. High speed photography showed that the ceramic material shatters as the HEAT round penetrates, the energetic fragments destroying the geometry of the metal jet generated by the hollow charge diminishing the penetration.
Ceramic layers can be used as part of composite armour solutions. The high hardness of some ceramic materials serves as a disruptor that shatters and spreads the kinetic energy of pr
T54 is a disability sport classification for disability athletics in the track and jump events. The class includes people with spinal cord injuries, they have paraplegia, but have normal hand and arm function, normal or limited trunk function, no leg function. This class includes CP-ISRA classes CP3 and CP4, some athletes in ISOD classes A1, A2 and A3; this classification is for jump events in disability athletics. This classification is one of several classifications for athletes with spinal cord injuries. Similar classifications are T51, T52 and T53; the International Paralympic Committee defined this class in 2011 as, "These athletes will have normal arm muscle power with a range of trunk muscle power extending from partial trunk control to normal trunk control. Athletes who compete in this group may have significant leg muscle power; these athletes have reasonable to normal trunk control which allows them to hold their trunk down when the propulsion force is applied to the push rim. Do not interrupt the pushing cycle to adjust the compensator.
Can shift direction of the chair by sitting up and applying a trunk rotational force to the chair. Equivalent activity limitation to person with complete cord injury at cord level T8-S4." The International Paralympic Committee defined this classification on their website in July 2016 as, "Athletes have full upper muscle power in the arms and some to full muscle power in the trunk. Athletes may have some function in the legs.". Wheelchairs used by this class have three wheels, with a maximum rear height of 70 centimetres and maximum front height of 50 centimetres. Chairs can not have any gears, they are not allowed to have anything protruding from the back of the chair. As opposed to wearing hip numbers, racers in this class wear them on the helmet. Instead of wearing bibs, these numbers are put on the back of the racing chair and the racer."On your marks" is used to indicate that the athlete should approach or be at the starting line. "Set" means the athlete should take their final starting position, with the front wheel touching the ground behind the starting line.
At this stage, no further movement is allowed until the starting gun is fired or a "Go" command given. Because this is a wheelchair class, different rules apply for overtaking with the responsibility lying with the racer coming from behind, they must be clear of the front wheel of the racer they are overtaking before cutting in front of them. The racer being overtaken can not deliberately impede the racer doing the overtaking. If a crash occurs within the first 50 meters of a race, 800 meters or longer, the starting official has the option of recalling the race. In relay events involve this class, each team has two lanes. Racers don't use a baton, but instead transfer via touch of the body in the exchange zone; the incoming racer can not use their momentum to give the ongoing racer any acceleration. The acceleration zone is 20 meters, with the take over zone being 20 meters. In wheelchair races, the winner and time is determined by when the center of the front axle goes across the finish line. There are a number of different events open to people in this class internationally.
Many competitions have their own minimum qualifying standards. This classification was created by the International Paralympic Committee and has roots in a 2003 attempt to address "the overall objective to support and co-ordinate the ongoing development of accurate, reliable and credible sport focused classification systems and their implementation." For this class, classification has four phases. The first stage of classification is a health examination. For amputees in this class, this is done on site at a sports training facility or competition; the second stage is observation in practice, the third stage is observation in competition and the last stage is assigning the sportsperson to a relevant class. For wheelchair athletes in this class with spinal cord injuries, they both undergo a medical assessment of muscle strength, range of movement or amputations. During the observation phase involving training or practice, all athletes in this class may be asked to demonstrate their skills in athletics, such as pushing a racing wheelchair.
A determination is made as to what classification an athlete should compete in. Classifications may be Review status. For athletes who do not have access to a full classification panel, Provisional classification is available. While some people in this class may be ambulatory, they go through the classification process while using a wheelchair; this is because they compete from a seated position. Failure to do so could result in them being classified as an ambulatory class competitor. For people in this class with amputations, classification is based on the anatomical nature of the amputation; the classification system takes several things into account. Notable athletics competitors in this class include multiple Paralympic medal winners Chantal Petitclerc, Kurt Fearnley, David Weir and Tatyana McFadden. Leo-Pekka Tahti is the current world record holder in Men's T54 100m and has won four Paralympic gold medals in this class