Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
First Canadian Centre
First Canadian Centre is an office tower in Calgary, Canada. Located at 350 7th Avenue SW in the city's downtown core, it stands at 167 metres or 41 storeys tall; the skyscraper has a floor area of 48,275 m2 and was built in the international and late modernist architectural styles. The Bank of Montreal occupies most of the ground floor with a large retail bank branch, it was designed by Bregman + Hamann Architects, was the tallest building in Calgary when it was completed in 1982. Original plans called for a two tower complex, with this tower being the first of the two tower project; the second tower would have had 64 storeys. A downturn in the local economy at that time forced plans for the second tower to be shelved. However, with the recent boom in Calgary, the vacancy rate in the downtown core has dropped to 0.5 per cent, the lowest in North America. This has created a rumoured resurrection of the second tower, as a land use amendment has been submitted to city council for approval; the second tower, at the corner of Seventh Avenue SW and Second Street SW, with a proposed opposite top slope to the first tower, to be 64 stories, was started in 1981, with the pouring of its foundation at street level from both 7th Avenue and 2nd Street.
All traffic was stopped by police during the night to allow concrete trucks to reign non-stop along Seventh Avenue. Ten thousand cubic metres of concrete was placed in 26 hours, making it the largest continuous concrete pour in North America at the time. Concrete was supplied from two ready mix plants eight concrete pump trucks were strategically located along the east and north sides of the construction site. Twenty 1-metre dia. half pipes placed along Seventh Avenue which were used to place the greatest volume of concrete from street level to the foundation 3 stories below. The large foundation and parking levels still remain covered by a park at street level with the hope for the tower to be constructed in the future. Dome Petroleum was slated to move into the second tower using a large portion of it for its Calgary based operation, nicknaming it "The Dome Tower" prior to its construction. With the National Energy Program slowing Alberta's oil and gas industry in the early 1980s, Dome's profits were hit hard and caused the company to withdraw from the tower's acquisition, which may have had a large effect for the tower's demise.
During the construction of the West Tower, it was rumored that the future East Tower had an "open-ended" design plan that could add extra floors to the top of the tower in order to attain title of the tallest building in Calgary, as the Petro-Canada Tower at Fifth Ave and Centre Street was under construction and its total height was to end up being the tallest building in Calgary. The existing East Tower is clad with white-grey marble slabs imported from a quarry in Italy, as was the second tower to be clad identically. List of tallest buildings in Calgary
Calgary Courts Centre
Calgary Courts Centre is the largest court facility in Canada, is located in Calgary, Alberta. It was constructed by the Government of Alberta and provides over 1 million square feet of court and office space. Construction began in late 2004, is now complete. Development of the east block began in the Fall of 2007, it included a 700-stall underground parkade, an urban park, the demolition of the Court of Queen's Bench facility. The prime consultant for the building was Kasian Architecture and Interior Design Ltd working collaboratively with design architect Carlos Ott and is built by the Cana construction company with the security system being installed by Convergint Technologies; the structural engineering was provided by Stantec. On completion, the north tower's 24 floors will stand 129 m high; the project has a budget of 300 million dollars and will host 73 courtrooms, judicial chambers, facilities for 180 security personnel and 360 government and external agencies staff. The complex has incorporated many post-9/11 security measures into its design, such as large steel barriers that can be raised to prevent cars from entering the glass atrium.
One difference between the CCC and conventional buildings is its ability to withstand structural damage. The structure has been designed to remain standing after 2/3s of the exterior columns on the first six floors have experienced failure; this is possible because each tower contains more structural steel than both of the 52 story Bankers Hall towers combined, rendering the building airplane-proof. The courtrooms feature bullet-proof judges' benches, jury boxes, witness stands. In April 2007, Telus was awarded the $16.3 million contract to provide the buildings with high-tech video recording, video conferencing, remote witness facilitation and remote management. The west block of the complex is scheduled to open in August 2007. List of tallest buildings in Calgary
The Calgary Zoo is located in Bridgeland, Alberta, just east of the city's downtown and adjacent to the Inglewood and East Village neighborhoods. It is accessible via Calgary's C-Train light rail system, by car via Memorial Drive, by bicycle and footpath via the Bow River pathway. A large portion of the zoo is located on St. George's Island in the Bow River; the zoo is operated by the Calgary Zoological Society, an independent not-for-profit organization, Alberta's oldest registered charity. The AZA, WAZA, CAZA accredited zoo was among the first in Canada to be accredited by all three associations, it is home to over 1,000 animals, excluding individual fish and insects, 272 different species. The 120-acre zoo is organized by into six distinct zones: Destination Africa, Canadian Wilds, Penguin Plunge, Dorothy Harvie Botanical Gardens and ENMAX Conservatory and Prehistoric Park; the zoo is open every day except for Christmas Day. As Canada's most visited zoo, Calgary Zoo was in 2015 recognized by TripAdvisor with its Travellers' Choice Award.
The zoo has received international recognition as one of the top zoos in the world for conservation research. In 2013, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums said "the Calgary Zoo sets itself apart as one of the top zoos in the world." In 2015 the zoo was named one of the top three most respected organizations in Alberta and one of Alberta's 10 most beloved brands. St. George's Island was Calgary's first park, used by the community for picnics and socializing; the first collection of animals appeared on the island in 1917. The Calgary Zoological Society was established in 1929. Several animals died during floods in June 1929. Destination Africa opened in 2003 to include two new facilities The TransAlta Rain Forest and the African Savannah; the zoo opened Penguin Plunge, an Arctic/Antarctic penguin addition in 2012. In April 2013, the Calgary Zoo announced a master plan for rebuilding the zoo over 20 years; the initial focus on the master plan was preparing for the arrival of two giant pandas in 2018 for a five-year stay.
The Calgary area suffered extensive flooding in June 2013 resulting in over $50 million in damage to the island section of the Calgary Zoo and parts of its Canadian Wild zone. In a 12-hour period, with flood waters rising, zoo staff managed to move 140 animals to higher ground. In the end, the only animals lost were a number of fish, two peacocks, a pot-bellied pig; the zoo was closed for most of July 2013. The zoo reopened in November 2013 with new animals and features unveiled in 2014, including mandrills and Komodo dragons. One third of the zoo's 130 species are cared for within Species Survival Plans, a global initiative to protect at-risk genetic diversity. Twenty-nine species at the zoo are in danger of extinction. Other species are considered "ambassadors" for endangered species; the Calgary Zoo uses a team of educators including animal keepers, interpreters and volunteers to increase awareness among visitors about the beauty of nature and threats to wildlife. Each year the zoo's formal programs connect directly with children.
The Calgary Zoo is home to a team of biologists who have earned international recognition as North America's leaders in the science of species recovery and reintroduction. The prestigious science journal Nature rates the Calgary Zoo as one of the top five zoos in the world for conservation research, alongside New York, San Diego and London. In June 2012, the head of the Calgary Zoo's Centre for Conservation Research, Dr. Axel Moehrenschlager, was awarded the Canadian Wildlife Federation's Roland Michener Conservation Award which recognizes individuals who have shown a commitment to "promote and further the conservation of Canada's natural resources". Dr. Moehrenschlager is chair of the Reintroduction Specialist Group within the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the world's largest conservation network, he is the first North American to hold this position. The zoo focused on saving eight endangered Western Canada species: whooping crane, Vancouver Island marmot, swift fox, black-footed ferret, black-tailed prairie dog, burrowing owl, northern leopard frog and greater sage grouse.
It works on conservation projects around the world, including: Wechiau Community Hippo Sanctuary, Ghana Snow leopards in Central Asia, Gorillas in the Democratic Republic of CongoIn 2008, the zoo's Wechiau Community Hippo Sanctuary project, a collaboration involving 17 Ghana villages, was awarded the United Nations Equator Prize as one of the world's top 25 conservation initiatives. It has become a model for community-based conservation throughout Africa; the Calgary zoo has many different exhibits in its 92 acres of land. Opened in 2003, the Destination Africa project was among the zoo's most ambitious expansions; the complex of four buildings includes the African Savannah. The TransAlta Rainforest occupies 2,900 square metres and features a collection of African rainforest flora and fauna; the African Savannah building is home to hippos, red river hogs, a baobab tree. A 340,000-litre indoor pool for hippos offers view of the creatures underwater. In the warmer months, the doors lift to connect the building with the rest of the Savannah exhibit, home to mountain zebras, grey crowned cranes and ostriches.
Many other animals of the grasslands, including African lions reside in the Savannah exhibit. In the TransAlta Rainforest, there are primates such as gorillas and mandrills, a number of reptiles including Leop
The Bow (skyscraper)
The Bow is a 158,000-square-metre office building for the headquarters of Encana Corporation and Cenovus Energy, in downtown Calgary, Alberta. The 236 metre building is the second tallest office tower in Calgary, since construction of Brookfield Place; the Bow is considered the start of redevelopment in Calgary's Downtown East Village. It was completed in 2012 and was ranked among the top 10 architectural projects in the world of that year according to Azure magazine. Encana Corporation, North America's second largest natural gas producer, announced plans for the high-rise in 2006. Early designs suggested; the tallest of these towers could be 60 stories tall, which would make it taller than the current tallest tower in Western Canada, the Suncor Energy Centre. Conflicting reports suggested that it would be one single tower around 70 stories tall and over 1,000 ft, making it the tallest building in Canada. Other sources suggested a two tower complex spanning the entire surface of two blocks, with a second tower of 40 to 50 stories connected at sixth stories level over 6 Avenue.
Official statements declared. The management company in charge of the project was Texas-based Matthews Southwest, with architectural services furnished by UK-based Foster + Partners & Zeidler Partnership Architects of Calgary; the project filed for development permit application is called The Bow, for its crescent shape and the view of the Bow River. On October 12, 2006, Foster + Partners revealed the first designs for the new tower. Plans called for the project to house two separate companies, both occupying the space: Encana Natural Gas, with over 3,000 Calgary-based employees. Both companies were located at multiple sites throughout the downtown core. With an estimated 158,000-square-metre total office space, the complex was expected to be the city's largest. Construction started in June 2007, the building opened in June 2013 with a final cost of $1.4 billion. The tower was lowered down to 236 m due to shadowing concerns and is the 149th tallest building in the world. On February 9, 2007, EnCana sold The Bow office project assets to H&R Real Estate Investment Trust for $70 million, while signing a 25-year tenant lease agreement, to start after the project's completion.
In late June 2007, the company announced that the Portrait Gallery of Canada would not be moving from Ottawa into the Bow. Groundbreaking took place on June 13, 2007, with work starting on both sides of 6th Avenue South between Centre Street and 1st Street East. Sixth Avenue was excavated, after closure of the block and the six level underground parkade was constructed on a two block area, on both north and south side of 6th Avenue. A neighbouring historic building – The York Hotel, built 1929–1930 in the Edwardian Commercial Architectural style – was demolished to make room for the new building; because of the historical significance of the York Hotel, it was important to save as much as reasonable to incorporate into the new structure. Between 70 and 80 percent of the bricks were saved and used to reconstruct two of the hotel’s exterior walls; the brown brick supplied by Clayburn Brick in Abbotsford and the cast-in-concrete friezes have been removed and graphed to show the original location the brick and friezes were installed on the new building in their original locations.
The remainder of the building was demolished ahead of schedule by Calgary-based demolition and environmental contractor Hazco. The concrete foundation was continuously poured over 36 hours on May 11 and 12, 2008, being the largest of its kind in Canada, third largest in the world after the Howard Hughes Center in Los Angeles and the Sama Tower in Dubai; some 14,000 cubic metres of concrete filled the 3,000-square-metre foundation. Erection of the above-ground steel superstructure began in October 2008 with the installation of the first of two Favelle Favco heavy-lift tower cranes. Construction was halted in December 2008 due to a $400 million shortage of financing needed to finish the job; the project continued to move forward, despite the unresolved financing issues. In April 2009, a secondary tower in the project, the 200,000-square-foot building planned for a block south of the main tower, was put on hold for at least two years; the main tower, was set to continue, having secured the remaining $475 million required for completion of the structure.
On July 8, 2010, the Bow surpassed Suncor Energy Centre as Calgary's highest building. The 215 metres tall Suncor Energy Centre was the highest building in Calgary since 1984; the addition of a steel girder, part of floors 55 to 57, raised the Bow tower to 218 metres. Construction Encana confirmed on June 16, 2008, that Jaume Plensa, an artist most famous for the Crown Fountain in Chicago, had been chosen to complete two major public art installations for the project; the first work, entitled Wonderland, was unveiled on January 2013, on the south plaza. The second work, entitled Alberta's Dream is located on the north side and depicts a bronze casting of the artist embracing a living tree. There is an observation deck on the 54th floor. Floors 55 and 56 are home to the private meeting, conference center and sky high clubs. Height: 236 metres 58 stories 2 retail floors - 200,000 square feet 3 floors - sky gardens, spaced every 18 floors (sky
The Core Shopping Centre (Calgary)
The Core Shopping Centre, which consists of TD Square, the Holt Renfrew building, the former Calgary Eaton Centre, is the dominant shopping complex located in the downtown core of Calgary, Canada. It spans three city blocks and contains 160 retailers on four levels; the property contains four major office towers and the historic Lancaster Building. It is the hub of downtown Calgary's +15 skywalk system, as such is the busiest shopping centre in the City by pedestrian count, with around 250,000 visitors passing through each week; the centre's architectural focal point is a vast suspended glass skylight which spans the length of the complex. As of October 29, 2010, The Core offers free weekend parking at its underground lots; the Core is bounded by 8th Avenue SW on the south, 7th Avenue SW on the north, extends above 3rd Street SW and 4th Street SW. The mall is directly connected to the neighbouring retail complexes of Bankers Hall and Scotia Centre/Hudson's Bay Store via the +15 skywalk system.
It contains the Devonian Gardens, a unique 2.5-acre glass-enclosed indoor botanical park, which reopened to the public on July 27, 2012 after a complete renovation. The T. Eaton Co. opened its original Calgary department store on the site in 1929. In 1977, it was joined by TD Square to the east. TD Square, an office and shopping complex, covered four levels over an entire block and contained the original Devonian Gardens indoor botanical garden. In 1990, Eaton's store was relocated into a new building one block west and a four-level shopping centre, the Calgary Eaton Centre, was built on its original site. Following the closure of the Eaton's chain in 2002, Sears acted as an anchor store until 2008 when it was closed to make way for Holt Renfrew's expansion; the combination of the two centres resulted in the property being rebranded “The Core”, however the property is still referred to as "The Core - TD Square". The centre underwent a three-year, multimillion-dollar redevelopment project, completed in 2011.
The redevelopment unified the complex under a continuous 85-foot-wide, 656-foot-long suspended glass skylight. The skylight, completed in November 2009, is the largest point-supported structural glass skylight in the world, it creates the feel of an outdoor streetscape on the third floor, which incorporates two-storey retail facades with exterior-grade materials. Heavy construction work forced numerous retailers to close or relocate during the renovation, most of which have renovated or expanded; the renovation widened the concourses, replaced all interior finishes and facilities, expanded the food court and added a structural glass bridge on the fourth floor of the complex. It added several'living green walls' near the entrances to the Devonian Gardens space. In 2009, WestNet City Wi-Fi blanketed the centre with Wi-Fi; the Core Shopping Centre is Calgary's destination for apparel. Brooks Brothers contains the only Canadian locations for the'Black Fleece' designer shop and'Fleece' for boys and girls.
List of shopping malls in Canada
National Music Centre
The National Music Centre is a non-profit museum and performance venue located in Calgary, Canada. The centre's permanent building, branded Studio Bell, is located at 850 4th Street S. E. in Downtown East Village. The National Music Centre and its collections origins can be traced to the installation of a pipe organ in Calgary’s Jack Singer Concert Hall in 1987; the installation of this instrument was the genesis of the International Organ Festival and Competition operated by TriumphEnt from 1990 to 2002. It subsequently led to the creation of a new organization known as the Chinook Keyboard Centre, which began developing a collection of keyboard instruments in mid-1996. Chinook Keyboard Centre was soon renamed Cantos Music Museum and expanded the scope of its collection beyond keyboard instruments to include electronic instruments and sound equipment beginning in the year 2000, it began to offer limited programming in the way of gallery tours and concerts. In 2003, TriumphEnt and Cantos Music Museum joined forces to become the Cantos Music Foundation, located at the historic Customs House building, 134-11th Avenue S.
E, expanded its presentation of music programs using the collection and gallery spaces. In 2005, an exhibition commemorating 100 years of music in Alberta to mark the Centennial led to plans to expand the organization’s scope to chronicle and foster a broader vision for music in Canada. In February 2012, Cantos became the National Music Centre; as the centre began to outgrow its space, plans for construction of a 60,000 square-foot facility in Calgary’s East Village with a projected cost of $168 million. With a design by Portland architect Brad Cloepfil, construction began on February 22, 2013; the final steel beam was set into place on December 12, 2014. The building cost $191 million; the National Music Centre held its last public tour at the Customs House on December 28, 2014. After that the location shut down. East Village; the National Music Centre's Studio Bell opened in 2016 on Canada Day, July 1, 2016, with an estimated 5600 people attending. Jim Cuddy of Blue Rodeo and Great Big Sea's Alan Doyle performed at the official opening.
National Music Centre’s new space showcases the collection, which includes over 2,000 rare instruments and artifacts including the Rolling Stones Mobile Studio, the TONTO synthesizer, one of Elton John's pianos, along with the Canadian Music Hall of Fame and Canadian Country Music Hall of Fame collections. Its interior is clad with 226,000 custom glazed terracotta tiles which were made in Germany and fired in the Netherlands. Bell Canada paid $10 million for naming rights for 12 years; the centre organizes interactive education programming, artist incubation and performances daily, as well as an artist-in-residence program. Features of the National Music Centre include broadcast facilities of the CKUA Radio and a 300-seat performance hall that has hosted a variety of events, including the Tragically Hip’s last concert, streamed on CBC. Included as part of the centre is the historic King Edward Hotel, dismantled and rebuilt, operates as a seven nights a week live music venue. List of music museums Official website