Bank Street (Ottawa)
Bank Street is the major north-south road in Ottawa, Canada. It runs south from Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa, south through the neighbourhoods of Centretown, The Glebe, Old Ottawa South, Alta Vista, Hunt Club, through the villages of Blossom Park, South Gloucester, Metcalfe, Spring Hill, Vernon before exiting the city limits at Belmeade Road. Bank Street made up much of Ontario Highway 31 before it was downloaded in 1998, it is known as Ottawa Road #31. Between Wellington Street and Gladstone Avenue in downtown, Bank Street is a shopping and business development district known as the "Bank Street Promenade" and the street is lined with common signage affixed to streetlights and street-level advertising billboards showing this distinction; the area between Somerset Street West and Gladstone Avenue is considered the centre of Ottawa's burgeoning gay village, characterized by a small concentration of businesses targeted to Ottawa's gay community. In 2011, the city unveiled signs identifying the neighbourhood as Ottawa's gay village, at the intersections of Somerset and Nepean Streets with Bank Street.
Travelling south, there exists a shopping district in The Glebe running along Bank Street from the Queensway to Holmwood Avenue. Bank Street is home to Lansdowne Park where the Ottawa RedBlacks play. Further south, after the road passes over the Rideau Canal on the Bank Street Bridge, Bank Street is home to the Billings Bridge Plaza and the South Keys Shopping Centre. Bank Street north of Billings Bridge is an historic urban arterial road with many more pedestrians than vehicular traffic and significant parking issues, hence the flow is quite slow. South of Billings Bridge to Leitrim Road, the street turns into a more modern four-lane urban arterial, which flows much better despite the 50 km/h speed limit on the northern half and 60 km/h from South Keys southward. South of Leitrim it is a rural two-lane highway with an 80 km/h speed limit until the community of Vernon. Just south of Leitrim Road, Bank Street gives access to a developing neighborhood called Findlay Creek that will become quite significant in the long term, it will provide access to the community of Riverside South.
Bank Street serves in some contexts as an unofficial division between "eastern" and "western" Ottawa. For example, prior to the takeover of Maclean-Hunter by Rogers Cable in 1994, the street marked the division between those cable companies' service areas in Ottawa: cable subscribers west of Bank Street were served by Maclean-Hunter, while cable subscribers east of Bank Street were served by Rogers. Contrary to popular belief, the street is not named after the Bank of Canada headquarters at the corner of Bank Street and Wellington Street; the street name dates back to the 19th century, whereas the bank was founded in 1934. It's believed that the road was named this because it went from the "bank" of the Ottawa River at its northern end to that of the Rideau River to the south. However, the road was called Esther Street in honour of Colonel By's wife. Bank Street ends at Wellington Street and the portion of the street running closest to the actual riverbank is federal Crown land for the Parliamentary Precinct of the Parliament of Canada.
Highway 31 was formed in 1927, started at the junction of Highway 2 in Morrisburg, Ontario. It traveled north through the town of Winchester, into Ottawa; the road was paved in stages, but was paved by 1936. The road's designation of Highway 31 was extended from the Dundas-Stormont-Glengary/Russell-Prescott county line into Ottawa that same year. While maintaining its alignment along Bank Street for its entire history, the road was re-aligned along Canal Drive. From here, it became less clear where the northern terminus of the road was located, as Ottawa posted Highway 31 as a scenic route within its limits along Heron Road and Bronson Avenue before terminating in downtown, while the Ministry of Transportation noted no changes in road length; this is presumed to be a connecting link between Highway 31 and The Queensway, but these scenic routes/connecting links were all decommissioned by 1960. The road was re-aligned along the Winchester Bypass, when it was completed and opened in 1974, but no other changes were made to the road since until being decommissioned as a provincial highway, in 1998.
Portions of Bank Street have undergone major reconstruction each year since 2006. The City of Ottawa held public consultations for a major redevelopment of Bank Street between Wellington Street and the Rideau Canal. Wellington Street Somerset Street Laurier Avenue Gladstone Avenue Highway 417 Riverside Drive Heron Road Alta Vista Drive Walkley Road Hunt Club Road Albion Road Conroy Road Leitrim Road Mitch Owens Road Snake Island Road Dalmeny Road Tiffany Road Downtown Ottawa Centretown The Glebe Ottawa South Billings Bridge South Keys Blossom Park Findlay Creek/Leitrim Greely Metcalfe Vernon Bank St Biz City of Ottawa: Transportation Master Plan Google Maps: route of Bank Street in Ottawa City of Ottawa: Bank Street profile Bank Street Promenade Shopping District Bank Street Rehabilitation Project Highway 31 at OntHighways.com
The Ottawa Auditorium was a 7,500-seat arena located in Ottawa, Ontario. It was located in Downtown Ottawa at the corner of O'Connor and Argyle Streets, today the site of the Taggart Family YMCA. Built for ice hockey, the arena was used for sports events and musical concerts, it was built in 1923 with a 10,000-person capacity to be the home arena of the NHL's Ottawa Senators by the Ottawa Auditorium Limited, a consortium controlled by T. Franklin Ahearn and Senators' owners Edgar Dey and Tommy Gorman, it replaced The Arena, built in 1907. The first NHL game held there was played on December 26, 1923 between Ottawa and the Montreal Canadiens, before 8300 fans, in which Howie Morenz scored his first NHL goal; the building was state-of-the-art for its time. For performances and assemblies, the arena had a concert stage that would be assembled at one end of the rink, facing the length of the rink; the shape of the ice was not quite orthogonal, it is described as being somewhat'egg-shaped' with semi-circular end boards, rather than the straight end boards with rounded corners of today's ice rinks.
This design matched the shape of the rink at The Arena. At the time of construction, the consortium took over the ownership of the hockey club as well. In 1924, Dey sold his share of the consortium and exited the rink business ending the Dey family's ownership of ice rinks in Ottawa dating back to the 1870s. In 1925, Gorman exited hockey in Ottawa. Gorman sold his share to Ahearn, picking up ownership of the Connaught race track in Quebec. By 1930, the Auditorium was losing money; the Auditorium Limited debts to the Ahearn family would lead to the Senators NHL team suspending operations starting up again when capital was raised in 1932. By 1934, the Senators NHL franchise was moved to St. Louis, becoming the St. Louis Eagles; the Senators were continued as a senior amateur hockey team playing out of the Auditorium. The move to St. Louis was not a success; the franchise was still a drain on the Auditorium and was folded by the NHL in 1935. In 1936, the Auditorium went into receivership and was controlled by the Royal Securities Corporation until 1945, when Gorman returned and purchased the building and the Senators.
Gorman would remain an owner until he died in 1962. The arena was replaced at that location by the YMCA-YWCA building, its replacement, the Ottawa Civic Centre opened in 1967. It is located on Bank Street in The Glebe at Lansdowne Park, it was the home arena of the original NHL Senators from 1923 to 1934. In 1923, the Senators were the defending Stanley Cup champions and they opened the Auditorium on December 1, 1923 with an exhibition game against the Edmonton Eskimos, the team Ottawa had defeated to win the Stanley Cup; the game was attended by the Governor General Lord Lady Byng. The Senators won the 1927 Stanley Cup in the Auditorium, the decisive game on April 13, 1927 against the Boston Bruins; the April 13 game at the Auditorium was the last Stanley Cup finals game in Ottawa until the June 2, 2007, game played at Scotiabank Place between the modern Senators and the Anaheim Ducks. It is known that Russell Williams, attended both games, both won by Ottawa, it held the final game of the 1924 Stanley Cup Finals between Montreal and Calgary because of its state-of-the-art artificial ice, the Montreal Forum had not yet been built.
After 1934, the NHL franchise relocated to St. Louis and the Ottawa Senators became a senior amateur team, first playing in the Quebec Amateur Hockey Association's'Montreal Group.' The club won the Allan Cup Canadian amateur championship in 1949. From 1945 until 1954 the team played in the Quebec Senior Hockey League, becoming a professional team again in 1952. After the Senators folded in 1954, attributed to the rise of televised ice hockey matches, the professional Hull-Ottawa Canadiens played in the Auditorium; the arena hosted games of the 1931 and 1958 Memorial Cup Canadian men's junior ice hockey championship finals. The Ottawa Junior Canadiens were the victors of the 1958 series against the Regina Pats; the last hockey game played at the Auditorium was a Junior "B" playoff game in which the Hawkesbury Combines defeated the Ottawa Astros 6-5 in overtime to take a 2-1 lead in games. The ice came out the next day on April 3, 1967; the arena hosted the annual "Minto Follies" displays of figure skating by Ottawa's Minto Skating Club, in years, performances of the Ice Follies.
Sonja Henie and her show both in her professional days performed at the Auditorium. The Auditorium hosted 1931 and 1947 North American Figure Skating Championships. In boxing: Jim Corbett, Jack Sharkey, Max Baer, Joe Louis, Joe Walcott and Rocky Marciano appeared in exhibitions at the Auditorium. In basketball: Harlem Globetrotters played annual gamesAnd: wrestling indoor track meets indoor tennis matches, including Bill Tilden, Don Budge, Pancho Gonzales, Pancho Segura and Bobby Riggs, it was the site of many of the city's major events and concerts. Among the performers known to have performed there: Boston Symphony Orchestra Chicago Symphony Orchestra Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra Gracie Fields John McCormack Ezio Pinza Lily Pons Elvis Presley Frank Sinatra John Philip Sousa Red Army Chorus Moscow Circus Ottawa radio station CFRA's first broadcast was from the auditorium on May 3, 1947 with a concert by Percy Faith and his 40 piece Orchestra, a 60 voice choir to an audience of more than 10,000 people.
Ottawa Mayor J. E. Stanley Lewis proclaimed the station "officially on the air". On April 3, 1957 Elvis Presley performed two shows. Along with a pair of performances in Toronto th
The Aberdeen Pavilion is an exhibition hall in Ottawa, Canada. Overlooking the Rideau Canal, it is located in Ottawa's historic fairgrounds. For many years, the building was known as the "Cattle Castle", due to its use for the Central Canada Exhibition's agricultural exhibits and shows, some people still refer to it by this nickname today, it is the last surviving Canadian example of what was once a common form of Victorian exhibition hall, was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1983. It is one of the oldest surviving indoor ice hockey venues in the world, although it has not hosted a hockey game in many years, it is the oldest surviving venue in which the Stanley Cup was contested, having hosted Stanley Cup challenge matches in 1904 between the Ottawa Hockey Club and challengers. The pavilion was built in 1898 to serve as the central hall for the Central Canada Exhibition. Designed by Moses C. Edey, it was inspired by London's Crystal Palace, it was named after Governor General Lord Aberdeen.
The structure was built by the Dominion Bridge Company, took only two months and $75,000 to complete. The structure consists of a series of large steel arches holding up the roof; this allows for a column-free interior space of some 3,000 square metres. For many years, the main purpose of the structure was for agricultural shows, from this came its "Cattle Castle" nickname. In wartime, the building became an important military structure, it was the home of Strathcona's Horse. In the First World War, it was the mustering point for Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, it served as a general recruiting centre and the home to the Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa and the 4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards during the Second World War. In 1982, the building was designated a heritage structure under the Ontario Heritage Act, but it was showing its age and required significant restoration work that would have cost several million dollars. Given serious structural problems, the pavilion had been closed to the public for a number of years Many of the structure's windows were broken, the exterior paint was peeling, the words "Cattle Castle" had been ignominiously painted on the front of the once elegant structure.
City Council agreed to help finance the pavilion's restoration, but the federal and provincial governments refused to assist financially. In 1991, Ottawa City Council voted to demolish the building rather than pay the full restoration cost; the fate of the Aberdeen Pavilion became a major issue in the 1991 municipal election, in 1992, City Council reversed its earlier decision and approved a basic renovation plan that cost CA$5.3 million. The newly restored structure opened in 1994. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the building as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the pavilion was used for many years to display cattle for the Central Canada Exhibition, which has since been discontinued. The pavilion is used for special events. In December 2017, the pavilion was used for part of the festival around the NHL 100 Classic outdoor hockey game, including a display of the Stanley Cup, it is used for a farmer's market during the winter months and a Christmas market in December.
In 1902, the Ottawa Senators built a hockey arena inside the Pavilion. In 1904, the club played the full 1904 season and Stanley Cup challenges in the Pavilion. In 1918, the Ottawa Senators nearly moved to the Pavilion and investigated refurbishing it as an arena. Ted Dey was not willing to rent time to the Senators; this turned out to be a ploy to gain control of the hockey club. The City of Ottawa was unwilling to restore an ice rink inside the Pavilion, as bleachers had been built inside. Ice hockey in Paul. Win, Tie or Wrangle. Manotick, Ontario: Penumbra Press. ISBN 978-1-897323-46-5. Notes Ottawa.ca - Aberdeen Pavilion Information Website
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada. The NHL is considered to be the premier professional ice hockey league in the world, one of the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada; the Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The National Hockey League was organized on November 26, 1917, at the Windsor Hotel in Montreal after the suspension of operations of its predecessor organization, the National Hockey Association, founded in 1909 in Renfrew, Ontario; the NHL took the NHA's place as one of the leagues that contested for the Stanley Cup in an annual interleague competition before a series of league mergers and folds left the NHL as the only league left competing for the Stanley Cup in 1926. At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name.
The league expanded to the United States in 1924, when the Boston Bruins joined, has since consisted of American and Canadian teams. From 1942 to 1967, the league had only six teams, collectively nicknamed the "Original Six"; the NHL added six new teams to double its size at the 1967 NHL expansion. The league increased to 18 teams by 1974 and 21 teams in 1979. Between 1991 and 2000, the NHL further expanded to 30 teams, it added its 31st team in 2017 and has approved the addition of a 32nd team in 2021. The league's headquarters have been in New York City since 1989 when the head office moved there from Montreal. After a labour-management dispute that led to the cancellation of the entire 2004–05 season, the league resumed play in 2005–06 under a new collective agreement that included a salary cap. In 2009, the NHL enjoyed record highs in terms of sponsorships and television audiences; the International Ice Hockey Federation considers the Stanley Cup to be one of the "most important championships available to the sport".
The NHL draws many skilled players from all over the world and has players from 20 countries. Canadians have constituted the majority of the players in the league, with an increasing percentage of American and European players in recent seasons; the current NHL Champions are the Washington Capitals, who defeated the Vegas Golden Knights four games to one in the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals. The National Hockey League was established in 1917 as the successor to the National Hockey Association. Founded in 1909, the NHA began play one year with seven teams in Ontario and Quebec, was one of the first major leagues in professional ice hockey, but by the NHA's eighth season, a series of disputes with Toronto Blueshirts owner Eddie Livingstone led team owners of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs to hold a meeting to discuss the league's future. Realizing the NHA constitution left them unable to force Livingstone out, the four teams voted instead to suspend the NHA, on November 26, 1917, formed the National Hockey League.
Frank Calder was chosen as its first president, serving until his death in 1943. The Bulldogs were unable to play, the remaining owners created a new team in Toronto, the Arenas, to compete with the Canadiens and Senators; the first games were played on December 19, 1917. The Montreal Arena burned down in January 1918, causing the Wanderers to cease operations, the NHL continued on as a three-team league until the Bulldogs returned in 1919; the NHL replaced the NHA as one of the leagues that competed for the Stanley Cup, an interleague competition back then. Toronto won the first NHL title, defeated the Vancouver Millionaires of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association for the 1918 Stanley Cup; the Canadiens won the league title in 1919. Montreal in 1924 won their first Stanley Cup as a member of the NHL; the Hamilton Tigers, won the regular season title in 1924–25 but refused to play in the championship series unless they were given a C$200 bonus. The league refused and declared the Canadiens the league champion after they defeated the Toronto St. Patricks in the semi-final.
Montreal was defeated by the Victoria Cougars of the Western Canada Hockey League for the 1925 Stanley Cup. It was the last time a non-NHL team won the trophy, as the Stanley Cup became the de facto NHL championship in 1926 after the WCHL ceased operation; the National Hockey League embarked on rapid expansion in the 1920s, adding the Montreal Maroons and Boston Bruins in 1924. The Bruins were the first American team in the league; the New York Americans began play in 1925 after purchasing the assets of the Hamilton Tigers, were joined by the Pittsburgh Pirates. The New York Rangers were added in 1926; the Chicago Black Hawks and Detroit Cougars were added after the league purchased the assets of the defunct WCHL. A group purchased the Toronto St. Patricks in 1927 and renamed them the Maple Leafs; the first NHL All-Star Game was held in 1934 to benefit Ace Bailey, whose career ended on a vicious hit by Eddie Shore. The second was held in 1937 in support of Howie Morenz's family when he died of a coronary embolism after breaking his leg during a game.
The Great Depression and the onset of World War II took a toll on the league. The Pirates became the Philadelphia Quakers in 1930 folded one year later; the Senators became the St. Louis Eagles in 1934 lasting only one
TD Place Stadium
TD Place Stadium is an outdoor stadium in Ottawa, Canada. It is located at Lansdowne Park, on the southern edge of The Glebe neighbourhood, where Bank Street crosses the Rideau Canal, it is the home of the Ottawa Redblacks of the Canadian Football League and the Ottawa Fury FC of the United Soccer League. The playing field has existed since the 1870s, the complete stadium since 1908; the stadium has been host to FIFA tournaments, Summer Olympic Games, seven Grey Cups. The playing field, part of the Ottawa Exposition Grounds, was first cleared in the 1870s, it was used for equestrian events and rugby football. The first permanent grandstand was built on the north side of the playing field in 1908, it was demolished in 1967 to build a new set of stands with an integrated ice hockey arena underneath known as the Ottawa Civic Centre. A small grandstand was built in the 1920s on the south-side of the field, it was replaced in 1960. A second deck for the south-side was added during the 1970s; as of 2008, prior to lower south-side demolition, the overall stadium had a 30,927 capacity for football.
In the late 1990s, the stadium was threatened with demolition when then-city councillor Jim Watson led a drive by the municipal government to allow a private developer to reconfigure Lansdowne Park. The proposals submitted. Massive public opposition and the realization that the end of the stadium would mean the end of hopes to return CFL football to the capital led the regional government to step in to end the scheme. In 2001, one year before the Ottawa Renegades began play, the stadium was the first in the CFL to have a next-generation artificial playing surface installed. For many years, the stadium was known as Lansdowne Park, after the fairgrounds in which it was located, it was renamed in 1993 to honour Frank Clair and general manager for the Ottawa Rough Riders during the 1960s and 1970s. In September 2007, the lower south side stands were closed because of cracks in the concrete structure. After the closure of the stands, then-Ottawa mayor Larry O'Brien was quoted at the time that this was an opportunity to do a review of the usage and the facilities of Lansdowne Park.
Subsequently, a process was started called "Design Lansdowne" to get public consultations on the Park and the stadium. After an engineering study of the north-side and south-side grandstands, the south-side stands were condemned; the lower section of the stands was demolished by controlled implosion on July 2008 at 8:03 am. During the summer of 2008, a consortium of investors was formed to pursue a new CFL team in Ottawa, they bid and received a conditional franchise from the CFL, with the condition that the stadium would need to be upgraded before the franchise could be activated. Jeff Hunt, one of the principal investors and owner of the Ottawa 67's who play in the attached arena, stated that the venue and location are ideal, with over a million people in Ottawa; the organization had already pre-sold 5,000 season tickets. In the fall of 2008, the consortium, known as Ottawa Sports and Entertainment Group, approached the City with a plan to redevelop Lansdowne Park and rebuild the stadium using the proceeds from turning a section of the park into commercial and retail space.
The plan, entitled Lansdowne Live! was ambitious and included plans to redevelop all sections of the park. The City, which had received a competing stadium proposal for Kanata, reviewed the plans and agreed to a conditional agreement with OSEG. OSEG would concentrate on the stadium and commercial/residential precinct, Ottawa would return the rest of Lansdowne Park to green space. Faced with opposition to the plan, the City proceeded with the proposal, seeking out legal opinions, traffic studies, an urban park design competition for Lansdowne. In June 2010 it was announced that Ottawa City Council had approved a redevelopment plan put forward by OSEG to renovate Frank Clair Stadium and build 350,000 sq ft of commercial retail space, 250 housing units and an urban park on the site; the stadium, the catalyst to bring the CFL back to Ottawa is to be rent-free to developers for 30 years. Proceeds from the retail and commercial precinct would be shared, the retail and commercial precinct brought under City control after 30 years.
Completion of the overall development was scheduled for 2015. The OSEG proposal for the stadium envisioned tearing down all of the south-side stands, replacing the stands with a new structure with private boxes and a unique wood-wrapping around the exterior; the north-side stands were to be renovated to current standards, the north-side exterior expanded to include a retail component. In September 2010, the Ottawa Fury joined the plan to redevelop Lansdowne. On June 20, 2011, Ottawa was awarded a professional soccer franchise in the North American Soccer League to start play in 2014. In November 2011, demolition of the rest of the south side stands started; the contract to demolish the stands was awarded for $550,000. Unlike the lower stands, the upper stands structure was demolished piece-by-piece rather than controlled implosion; the concrete and steel from the structure was recycled, the seats re-used at a new rink at Ottawa City Hall. Demolition was completed by January 2012. On January 7, 2014, Frank Clair Stadium and the Civic Centre Arena were renamed TD Place under a new sponsorship deal with the Toronto–Dominion Bank.
The stadium was completed for the first Ottawa Redblacks home game on July 18, 2014. The Ottawa Fury opened their fall season on the same weekend after playing their previous home games that year at Ke
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass and shoot the ball into the goal; the sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men's games, field lacrosse and box lacrosse, are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads; the women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball; the sport is governed by the Federation of International Lacrosse. Lacrosse is part of the cultural tradition of the Iroquois people, inhabiting what is now New York and Pennsylvania. Lacrosse may have been developed as early as 1100 AD among indigenous peoples in North America.
By the seventeenth century, it was well-established and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each team consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field that stretched from about 500 m to 3 km long; these games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, or to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years. Early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken; those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. The game was said to be played "for the Creator" or was referred to as "The Creator's Game." The French Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf saw Huron tribesmen play the game during 1637 in present-day Ontario.
He called it la "the stick" in French. The name seems to be originated from the French term for field hockey, le jeu de la crosse. James Smith described in some detail a game being played in 1757 by Mohawk people "wherein now they used a wooden ball, about 7.6 cm in diameter, the instrument they moved it with was a strong staff about 1.5 m long, with a hoop net on the end of it, large enough to contain the ball."Anglophones from Montreal noticed the game being played by Mohawk people and started playing themselves in the 1830s. In 1856, William George Beers, a Canadian dentist, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1860, Beers codified the game, shortening the length of each game and reducing the number of players to 12 per team; the first game played under Beers' rules was at Upper Canada College in 1867. The new sport proved to be popular and spread across the English-speaking world; the women's game was introduced by Louisa Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women's club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn Mawr School in 1926.
In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport spread outside this region, can be found in most of the United States. According to a survey conducted by US Lacrosse in 2016, there are over 825,000 lacrosse participants nationwide and lacrosse is the fastest-growing team sport among NFHS member schools. Field lacrosse is the men's outdoor version of the sport. There are ten players on each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, one goalie; each player carries a lacrosse stick. A short stick is used by attackmen and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a long stick, between 52 and 72 inches long and is used by the three defensemen and sometimes one defensive midfielder; the goalie uses a stick with a head as wide as 12 inches that can be between 72 inches long. The field of play is 110 by 60 yards.
The goals are 80 yd apart. Each goal sits inside a circular "crease", measuring 18 ft in diameter; the goalie has special privileges within the crease to avoid opponents' stick checks. Offensive players or their sticks may not enter into the crease at any time; the mid-field line separates the field into an defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defensive zone and three players in its offensive zone at all times, it does not matter which positional players satisfy the requirement, although the three attackmen stay in the offensive zone, the three defensemen and the goalie stay in the defensive zone, the three middies play in both zones. A team that violates this rule is offsides and either loses possession of the ball if they have it or incurs a technical foul if they do not; the regulation playing time of a game is 60 minutes, divided into four periods of 15 minutes each. Play is started after each goal with a face-off. During a face-off, two players lay their sticks on the ground parallel to the mid-line, the two heads of their sticks on opposite sides of the ball.
At the whistle, the face-off-men scrap for the ball by "clamping" it under their stick and fl