Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
TASCAM is the professional audio division of TEAC Corporation, headquartered in Montebello, California. Tascam is credited as the inventor of the Portastudio, the first cassette-based multi-track home studio recorders. Tascam introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync designed for recording musicians. Tascam manufactured reel-to-reel tape machines and audio mixers for home recordists from the early 1970s through the mid-1990s. Tascam started out as a research and development group to research how to use TEAC's recording technology in musician and recording studio products; the group was called TASC. The founders included Mr. K. Tani, one of the founders of TEAC-Japan and Dr. Abe, a senior TEAC-Japan engineer. In 1971 TASCAM was founded to distribute TASC products in the U. S, it conducted additional market research in the US for the Japanese parent company. The company's first headquarters was at 5440 McConnell Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90066. In 1974 it moved its headquarters to 7733 Telegraph Road, California.
Tascam's first products were TEAC brand multitrack recorders. In 1972 it introduced the first low-cost mass-produced multitrack recorders with Simul-Sync: The A3340 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A2340 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds w/ manual direction toggle lever The A3340S 4-track recorder with 10.5" tape reels, 7½ and 15 ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid control The A2340S 4-track recorder with 7" tape reels, 3¾ and 7½ ips speeds, the's' designation indicating improved w/ solenoid controlIn 1973 they introduced the first Tascam branded products: M-10 modular 12x4x2 mixer Series 70H-X MTR Series 70H-8 MTROn March 4, 1973 TEAC merged the Tascam Corporation into TEAC Corporation of America. TEAC-Japan retains the exclusive worldwide rights to the TASCAM brand name for their professional audio related products. In 2013 Gibson Brands Inc. bought a majority stake in TEAC Corporation, the parent company of TASCAM.
In October 2017, TASCAM partnered with Philly punk band the Dead Milkmen and philanthropic record label The Giving Groove to sponsor a remix contest. 144 - 1979, World's first 4 track recorder based on a standard cassette tape, 1982 Bruce Springsteen records Nebraska Album 2006 Mix magazine TECnology hall of fame Porta One Ministudio - 1984, First battery operated portable studio. 388 Studio - 1985 World's first 8 track 1/4" multitrack and mixer combination. 564 - 1997 First MiniDisc based digital Portastudio. 788 - 2000 World's first 24 bit 8 track hard disk Portastudio 2488 24 Track Hard Drive based digital portastudio - 2004 Music Trades Magazine Product of the Year, MIPA Desktop Recording Workstation of the Year DP-02 8 track digital recorder - 2008 Music & Sound Retailer Best New Multitrack recorder TASCAM 80-8 1/2" 8 channel analog reel deck, TASCAM offered an external optional 8 channel dedicated DBX interface module. 1975. 2017 TECnology Hall of Fame Inductee DA-50 Pro DAT - 1989, First US-legal DAT tape recorder with SCMS Copy protection.
MSR-24 24 Track 1" Open Reel Tape Deck - 1990 TEC Award Nominee DA-800/24 DASH 1990, 24 channel digital tape Recorder. DA-88 DTRS 8 Channel Digital Audio Recorder - 1994 TEC Award Winner, 1995 Emmy Award Winner, 1995 NAB Professional's Choice Award winner. DA-30mkII DAT - 1995 TEC Award Winner DA-38 DTRS - 1997 TEC Award Winner DA-98 DTRS - 1997 PAR Excellence Award, 1998 NAB Professional's Choice Award, 1998 TEC Award Winner DA-302 DAT - 1997 World's first Dual DAT deck. 1997 PAR Excellence Award Winner. DA-98HR 24 bit DTRS - 1998 Post Magazine Best Multitrack Digital Recorder. DA-45HR 24 bit DAT - World's First 24 bit DAT Recorder. 1998 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 1998 Keyboard Magazine Key Buy. DA-78HR 24 bit DTRS - 1999 Pro Audio Review PAR Excellence Award, 2000 TEC award Winner MMR-8 / MMR-16 8 channel Hard Disk Recorder - 2000 Emmy Award Winner, 2001 Oscar Scientific Award Winner. MX-2424 24 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder - 1999 PAR Excellence Award Winner, 2001 TEC Award winner. DS-D98 2 Channel DSD Recorder Based on DA-98HR - 2002 TEC Award Nominee.
HD-P2 Portable Timecode enabled CF card 2 channel recorder - 2006 PAR Award Winner. DV-RA1000HD DVD and Hard Drive based 2 Channel Master DSD Recorder - 2007 TEC Award Winner. X-48 48 channel 96 kHz Hard Disk Recorder. - 2008 TEC Award Nominee DR-100 2 Channel Hand Held Recorder - 2009 TEC Award Nominee HS-P82 8 Channel Dual CF Media Field Recorder - 2009 PAR Excellence Award, 2010 Good Design Award DR-03 Portable Handheld Recorder - 2010 Music & Sound Retailers Best Multitrack Award DR-680 8 channel portable SD card recorder - 2011 TEC Award Nominee DR-40 Handheld 4-track recorder - 2012 EM Magazine Editors Choice Awards DR-60D 4 track recorder for DSLR Cameras - 2013 NAB Best of Show Award M-5 Analog Mixer - The Model 5 was released in 1975 in conjunction w/ the 80-8 eight channel 1/2 inch reel tape deck. It came as an 8x4x2 board, expandable to 12 channels w/ optional talkback module M-700 Analog Mixer - 1989 dubbed "the Baby SSL" M-3700 Analog Mixer - 1992 TEC Award Nominee M-2600 Analog Mixer - 1995 TEC Award Nominee M-1600 Analog Mixer - 1997 TEC Award Nominee TM-D8000 Digital Audio Mixer - 1996 Blue Ribbon Best of AES Convention, 1998 TEC Award Nominee TM-D4000 Digital Audio Mixer - 2000 TEC Award Nominee X-9 Digital Four Channels DJ Mixer - 2000 DM-24 Digital Audio Mixer - 2002 TEC Award winner DM-4800 64 channel Digital Audio Mixer - 2007 TEC Award Nominee 2007 Good Design Award US-428 - 2001 TEC Award Nominee FW-1884 - FireWire Audio and Control Surface - 2003 PAR Excellence Award US-122 - 2004 Soundcheck magazine Best Audio/MIDI Hardware US-2400 - 24 Fader USB Controller - 2004 Mix Magazine NAMM Show Cer
An amplifier, electronic amplifier or amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal. It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output; the amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit. An amplifier can either be a separate piece of equipment or an electrical circuit contained within another device. Amplification is fundamental to modern electronics, amplifiers are used in all electronic equipment. Amplifiers can be categorized in different ways. One is by the frequency of the electronic signal being amplified. For example, audio amplifiers amplify signals in the audio range of less than 20 kHz, RF amplifiers amplify frequencies in the radio frequency range between 20 kHz and 300 GHz, servo amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers may work with low frequencies down to direct current.
Amplifiers can be categorized by their physical placement in the signal chain. The first practical electrical device which could amplify was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912. Today most amplifiers use transistors; the first practical device that could amplify was the triode vacuum tube, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912. Vacuum tubes were used in all amplifiers until the 1960s–1970s when the transistor, invented in 1947, replaced them. Today, most amplifiers use transistors; the development of audio communication technology in form of the telephone, first patented in 1876, created the need to increase the amplitude of electrical signals to extend the transmission of signals over long distances. In telegraphy, this problem had been solved with intermediate devices at stations that replenished the dissipated energy by operating a signal recorder and transmitter back-to-back, forming a relay, so that a local energy source at each intermediate station powered the next leg of transmission.
For duplex transmission, i.e. sending and receiving in both directions, bi-directional relay repeaters were developed starting with the work of C. F. Varley for telegraphic transmission. Duplex transmission was essential for telephony and the problem was not satisfactorily solved until 1904, when H. E. Shreeve of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company improved existing attempts at constructing a telephone repeater consisting of back-to-back carbon-granule transmitter and electrodynamic receiver pairs; the Shreeve repeater was first tested on a line between Boston and Amesbury, MA, more refined devices remained in service for some time. After the turn of the century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, were tried in repeaters, with little success; the development of thermionic valves starting around 1902, provided an electronic method of amplifying signals. The first practical version of such devices was the Audion triode, invented in 1906 by Lee De Forest, which led to the first amplifiers around 1912.
Since the only previous device, used to strengthen a signal was the relay used in telegraph systems, the amplifying vacuum tube was first called an electron relay. The terms amplifier and amplification, derived from the Latin amplificare, were first used for this new capability around 1915 when triodes became widespread; the amplifying vacuum tube revolutionized electrical technology, creating the new field of electronics, the technology of active electrical devices. It made possible long distance telephone lines, public address systems, radio broadcasting, talking motion pictures, practical audio recording, radar and the first computers. For 50 years all consumer electronic devices used vacuum tubes. Early tube amplifiers had positive feedback, which could increase gain but make the amplifier unstable and prone to oscillation. Much of the mathematical theory of amplifiers was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories during the 1920s to 1940s. Distortion levels in early amplifiers were high around 5%, until 1934, when Harold Black developed negative feedback.
Other advances in the theory of amplification were made by Hendrik Wade Bode. The vacuum tube was the only amplifying device, other than specialized power devices such as the magnetic amplifier and amplidyne, for 40 years. Power control circuitry used magnetic amplifiers until the latter half of the twentieth century when power semiconductor devices became more economical, with higher operating speeds; the old Shreeve electroacoustic carbon repeaters were used in adjustable amplifiers in telephone subscriber sets for the hearing impaired until the transistor provided smaller and higher quality amplifiers in the 1950s. The replacement of bulky electron tubes with transistors during the 1960s and 1970s created another revolution in electronics, making possible a large class of portable electronic devices, such as the transistor radio developed in 1954. Today, use of vacuum tubes is limited for some high power applications, such as radio transmitters. Beginning in the 1970s, more and more transistors were connected on a single chip thereby creating higher scales of integration (small-scale, medium-scale, large-s
Tama is a city located in the western portion of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. As of 1 February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 147,953, a population density of 7040 persons per km², its total area is 21.01 square kilometres. Tama is located in the foothills of the Okutama Mountains of southwestern Tokyo, known as Tama Hills, which spans Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture; the entire region is referred to as Tama. The Tama River marks the city's northern boundary, Kanagawa Prefecture is to the south, its southern half forms part of the Tama New Town project, Japan's largest residential development, constructed in the 1970s. Tokyo Metropolis Inagi Fuchū Hachiōji Machida Hino Kanagawa Prefecture Kawasaki The area of present-day Tama was part of ancient Musashi Province. In the post-Meiji Restoration cadastral reform of July 22, 1878, the area became part of Minamitama District in Kanagawa Prefecture; the village of Tama was created on April 1889 with the establishment of municipalities law. Minamitama District was transferred to the administrative control of Tokyo Metropolis on April 1, 1893.
Tama was elevated to town status on April 1, 1964. Construction of Tama New Town began in 1966, the first occupants started moving in 1971. On November 1, 1971, Tama Town was reclassified as dissolving Minamitama District. Tama was the last town in the former Minamitama District Several companies have their headquarters in the city: Keio Corporation Mitsumi Electric JUKI Keisen University Tama Campus Kokushikan University Tama Campus Otsuma Women's University Tama Campus Tama University Tama Campus Teikyo University Hachioji Campus University of Tokyo Health Sciences National Farmer's Academy The Tama city government operates 18 public elementary and nine public middle schools. There is one private elementary school and one private middle school; the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Board of Education operates Nagayama High School, the one public high school. There are three private combined middle/high schools. Keio Corporation - Keiō Line Seiseki-Sakuragaoka Keio Corporation - Keiō Sagamihara Line Keiō-Nagayama - Keiō-Tama-Center Odakyu Electric Railway - Odakyū Tama Line Odakyū-Nagayama - Odakyū-Tama-Center - Karakida Tama Toshi Monorail Line Tama Center Tama is not served by any national expressways or national highways Tama Hills, a recreational facility of the U.
S. Air Force, intended for use by United States service members and their families, as well as Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force service members and their families. Sanrio Puroland Amusement Park Thirteen Buddhas of Tama Japan - Fujimi, Nagano in Japan. Tama City Official Website
Aiwa, is a consumer electronics company. Since 2015, American brand rights are owned by Chicago-based Joe Born. In 2017, Towada Audio began to manufacture Aiwa-branded products. Aiwa was founded in 1951, was once a globally well-regarded brand known for making quality audio products, such as speakers and stereo systems, it was the market leader in several product categories. Aiwa created the first Japanese cassette tape recorder in 1964; the company was listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange from October 1961 until September 2002. The company went into the red in the late 1990s, was bought by Sony in 2002. Aiwa was rebranded as a new youth-focused division of Sony, but it was unsuccessful and the brand was discontinued by 2006. In 2015, an American audio company known as Hale Devices, Inc. was granted the rights to the brand name, with the company renaming itself to Aiwa Corporation and starting to produce audio equipment. The company was founded on June 20, 1951 as AIKO Denki Sangyo Co. Ltd. manufacturing microphones, changed its name to Aiwa Co. Ltd. in March 10, 1959.
Mitsuo Ikejiri served as president until 1969. The company was a leading manufacturer of audio products, including headphone stereos, minicomponent stereo systems, portable stereo systems, minidisc players, CD and cassette players, car stereo systems throughout the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s. Nearly 86 percent of company revenues were derived from such audio products. 12 percent came from products such as televisions and VCRs, the remaining two percent from computer peripherals and other life products. Aiwa marketed Japan's first boombox, the TPR-101 in 1968, as well as the first cassette deck, TP-1009. In 1980, Aiwa created the world's first personal stereo recorder, TP-S30. Despite Sony being the major shareholder, healthy competition between the two brands was believed to be profitable. In 1990, Aiwa created the HP-J7 earbuds, designed to be vertically inserted into the ear. In 1993, the first CD+G-compatible portable CD player was made, the XP-80G. Apart from audio products, Aiwa has been present in other industries.
The company made and sold video products, such as VCRs, color televisions, DVD players, digital satellite television tuners. Aiwa was involved in the production of computer peripheral devices, such as modems, terminal adapters, speakers, what the company termed "life amenity products," such as air cleaners and humidifiers. In 1995, they released a PHS mobile phone, called the PT-H50, made for the DDI Pocket network in Japan; that same year, an electric toothbrush, the HA-C10, was released. Aiwa manufactured more than 89 percent of its output outside Japan, with a heavy emphasis on the lower-cost southeast Asian nations of Singapore and Indonesia; the company was heavily dependent on overseas sales, with more than 80 percent of total revenues being generated outside Japan, with 43 percent in North and South America, 25 percent in Europe, 13 percent in areas of Asia outside Japan and in other regions. Although not officially an affiliated company of consumer electronics giant Sony Corporation, by 1982, Sony had a 54.6% stake in the company giving it a majority control.
With growing competition throughout the late 1990s, the company slid towards bankruptcy. In March 2001, the company's president, Masayoshi Morimoto, announced the halving of its workforce, following a second consecutive loss-making year; the troubled company was fully purchased by Sony Corporation. As of December 1, 2002, Aiwa ceased to be a separate company and became a wholly owned division of Sony. In January 2003, Sony announced the rebranding and relaunch of Aiwa as a "youth focused, PC-centric" electronics brand. A new logo was presented to the world's media along with a statement of Sony's intention to invest in and "revitalize" the Aiwa brand; the direction proposed was to capitalize on the growing trend among personal-computer-literate teenagers and young adults to use their PCs for all forms of entertainment. It was used to expand in markets where Sony is not as strong; however the new direction of Aiwa under Sony did not meet consumer and sales expectations. On January 21, 2005, new product development ended, by 2006, Aiwa products were discontinued and no longer sold in the market.
Sony announced the termination of the brand on May 14, 2008. As of January 2014, the Aiwa website still existed to provide customer-support telephone numbers for some territories and regions, but it contained many broken links and blank pages. In other regions, such as Europe, it redirected to a page on the Sony website stating that the Aiwa website had closed. In 2015, Dormitus Brands, a Chicago-based brand acquisition company run by Mark Thomann, acquired the trademark right in the U. S. Thomann looked to pair the brand with a company, innovating in the audio industry leading to a deal with Hale Devices, Inc. headed by Joe Born. Hale Devices renamed itself into Aiwa; the Aiwa brand was formally relaunched in March 2015, releasing its first product, the Exos-9, a wireless Bluetooth speaker. On April 11, 2017, Japanese audio equipment manufactuer Towada Audio announced that Towada acquired Aiwa brand rights from Sony and would produce Aiwa-branded audio and record player products; the first logo of the company contained AIWA in capital letters, in use until 1991.
The second logo changed the font as aiwa. In 2003, after the acquisition by Sony, the logo was rebranded as part of Sony's efforts to'revitalize' the brand, was in use until the brand's retirement in 2006. Since the brand's resurrection in 2015, the second logo is back in use. All logos were colored red. List of companies of Japan List of defu