MAN Truck & Bus
MAN Truck & Bus AG is the largest subsidiary of the MAN SE corporation, one of the leading international providers of commercial vehicles. Headquartered in Munich, Germany, MAN Truck & Bus produces vans in the range from 3.0 to 5.5 t gvw, trucks in the range from 7.49 to 44 t gvw, heavy goods vehicles up to 250 t road train gvw, bus-chassis, interurban coaches, city buses. MAN Truck & Bus produces diesel and natural-gas engines; the MAN acronym stood for Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG MAN AG. Trucks and buses of the product brand MAN and buses of the product brand Neoplan belong to the MAN Truck & Bus Group. On 1 January 2011, MAN Nutzfahrzeuge was renamed as MAN Truck & Bus to better reflect the company's products on the international market. From 1967 until 1977, MAN collaborated with France's Saviem, selling their light to medium duty trucks with MAN badging in Germany and certain other markets. After the end of this, a deal was struck with Volkswagen which lasted until 1993. Production of a truck using the Volkswagen LT body started in 1979 and ended in 1993 with 72,000 units produced.
It was available with four wheelbases over its lifetime. FAE means "forward control" cab, all-wheel drive, single tyres so the F nomenclature means "forward control" cab; this series is referred to as the G90, from the most common model, but as the "G"-series. In the United Kingdom it was marketed as the "MAN MT" series; the original lineup in the UK consisted of the 6.90 and the 8.90 and the 8.136 and 9.136. MAN AG supplied engines which were available in inline-four and inline-six cylinder engine configurations, with DIN rated motive power outputs of: 67 kilowatts 75 kilowatts 101 kilowatts 112 kilowatts MAN replaced the G series with the L2000 and M2000 ranges. Several models of the MAN-VWCV and the VWCV LT ranges were marketed in Spain by Enasa as Pegaso Ekus, in a typical badge engineering operation. Peterbilt offered this model with their badging, as the 200 or 265 model. VWCV and MAN shared the project development in accordance with the collaboration agreement as follows: Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles took care of: the tilting driver's cab including steering wheel and fixing, hand levers and foot pedals.
NOTE the VW LT Mk 1 cabin was used for the MAN-VW range, the cabins are wider than the standard LT cabins so they can fit the truck chassis the complete interior equipment and heating the manual gearbox with clutch and gear lever, the rear axle with rear-axle transmission and suspension the cardan shafts including bearings the electrical system for the entire concept, the platforms for the standard design. MAN was responsible for: the engine including cooling, exhaust and fuel system the front axle with suspension and steering the frame with all parts for attaching the springs and axles, the steering, the batteries, the power braking system and fuel system the brakes, i.e. for the complete wheel brakes front and rear, the dual-circuit power brakes and parking brake the wheels and tyres the platform for special designs and tipping mechanism. MAN-VWCVs were built in Volkswagen's Hanover factory. MAN-VWCV Range 6.90, 8.90, 6.100, 8.136, 8.100, 8.150, 9.136, 9.150 & 10.136. F & FAE are sometimes on the end of some of these model numbers.
LE / L2000 ME / M2000 FE / F2000 CLA TGL, with hybrid trucks. TGM TGA TGX / TGS - variant of TGS model was used for Dakar Rally MAN TGE - A rebadged Volkswagen Crafter; until 2007, MAN built the badge-engineered ERF Trucks for the UK market. HX LX / FX SX Lion's City, city- and inter-urban buses Lion's Coach, coaches Lion's Intercity, inter-urban buses The first integral buses760 UO, underfloor engine MAN/Krauss-Maffei Metrobus640 HO 750 HO 890 UO, underfloor engine 890 UG, articulated bus, underfloor engine 535 HO, regional bus and coachVöV-Standard buses, 1st generation 750 HO-SL, city bus 750 HO-SÜ, regional bus 890 SG, articulated bus, underfloor engine SL 200, city bus SÜ 240, regional bus SD 200, double-decker bus SG 220, articulated bus, underfloor engine SG 240/280 H, articulated bus, rear engine North-American models: SG 220, articulated bus, underfloor engine SG 310, articulated bus, underfloor engine VöV-Standard buses, 2nd generation SL 202, city bus SG 242/282 H, "puller" articulated bus SG 242/262/292/312/322, "pusher" articulated bus SD 202, double-decker bus SÜ 242/272/292/312/322, regional bus SM 152/182, midibus NL 202, low-floor bus with podium-mounted seats NG 272, low-floor articulated bus with podium-mounted seats NM 152/182, low-floor midibus with podium-mounted seats NL 202/222/262/312, low-floor bus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only MAN NL 262 R, right-hand drive version for Hong Kong NG 262/272/312, low-floor articulated bus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only NM 152/192, low-floor midibus with podium-mounted seats in rear part only ND 202, low-floor double-decker bus EL 202/222/262/272, low-entry bu
Zhytomyr is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Zhytomyr Oblast, as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Zhytomyr Raion; the city of Zhytomyr is not a part of Zhytomyr Raion: the city itself is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. Zhytomyr occupies an area of 65 square kilometres, its population is 266,936. Zhytomyr is a major transportation hub; the city lies on a historic route linking the city of Kiev with the west through Brest. Today it links Warsaw with Kiev, Minsk with Izmail, several major cities of Ukraine. Zhytomyr was the location of Ozerne airbase, a key Cold War strategic aircraft base 11 kilometres southeast of the city. Important economic activities of Zhytomyr include lumber milling, food processing, granite quarrying and the manufacture of musical instruments. Zhytomyr Oblast is the main center of the Polish minority in Ukraine, in the city itself there is a Latin Catholic cathedral and large Roman Catholic Polish cemetery, founded in 1800.
It is regarded as the third biggest Polish cemetery outside Poland, after the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lviv and Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius. Legend holds that Zhytomyr was established about 884 by Zhytomyr, prince of a Slavic tribe of Drevlians; this date, 884, is cut in the large stone of the ice age times, standing on the hill where Zhytomyr was founded. Zhytomyr was one of the prominent cities of Kievan Rus'; the first records of the town date from 1240. In 1320 Zhytomyr was captured by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and received Magdeburg rights in 1444. After the Union of Lublin the city was incorporated into the Crown of the Polish Kingdom and in 1667, following the Treaty of Andrusovo, it became the capital of the Kiev Voivodeship. In the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 it passed to Imperial Russia and became the capital of the Volhynian Governorate. Following the Union of Lublin, Zhytomyr became an important center of local administration, seat of the starosta, capital of Żytomierz County.
Here, sejmiks of Kiev Voivodeship took place. In 1572, the town had a manor house of the starosta and a castle. Following the privilege of King Sigismund III Vasa, Zhytomyr had the right for two fairs a year; the town, which enjoyed royal protection of Polish kings, prospered until the Khmelnytsky Uprising, when it was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks and their allies, Crimean Tatars. Its residents were murdered, Zhytomyr was burned to the ground, all government files were destroyed. In 1667, Zhytomyr became capital of Kiev Voivodeship, in 1724, a Jesuit school and monastery were opened here. By 1765, Zhytomyr had five churches, including 3 Roman Catholic and 2 Orthodox, 285 houses. In 1793 Zhytomyr was annexed by the Russian Empire, in 1804 was named capital of the Volhynian Governorate. In 1798, a Roman Catholic Diocese of Zhytomyr was established. During the January Uprising, the town was a stronghold of Polish rebels. During a brief period of Ukrainian independence in 1918 the city was for a few weeks the national capital.
Nicolas Werth claims that armed units of the Ukrainian People's Republic were responsible for rapes and massacres in Zhytomyr, in which 500–700 Jews lost their lives. From 1920 the city was under Soviet rule. Under Soviet rule a German National District was set up in the area for the German minority, according to Soviet minorities policy before World War II. During World War II Zhytomyr and the surrounding territory came for two and a half years under Nazi German occupation and was Heinrich Himmler's Ukrainian headquarters; the Nazi regime in what they called the "Zhytomyr General District" became what historian Wendy Lower describes asa laboratory for… Himmler's resettlement activists… the elimination of the Jews and German colonization of the East—transformed the landscape and devastated the population to an extent, not experienced in other parts of Nazi-occupied Europe besides Poland. … ltimately, the exigencies of the war effort and mounting partisan warfare behind the lines prevented Nazi leaders from developing and realizing their colonial aims in Ukraine… In addition to the immediate destruction of all Jewish communities, Himmler insisted that the Ukrainian civilian population be brought to a'minimum.'
From 1991, the city has been part of the independent Ukraine. Zhytomyr had been a Latin Catholic bishopric since 1321, until the see was suppressed in 1789 in favor of the Diocese of Lutsk and Zytomierz, until, split up again in 1925, when it was restored as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Zhytomyr; the Zhytomyr cemetery was opened in 1800. At first, it served Polish nobility such as the Czeczel and the Woronicz families. Other Catholics were buried here, including Germans and Russians. In 1840, the Chapel of St. Stanislaus was built, the cemetery was divided into nine districts, named after different saints. In the Soviet Union, the complex was devastated, now it is under th
A low-floor bus is a bus or trolleybus that has no steps between the ground and the floor of the bus at one or more entrances, low floor for part or all of the passenger cabin. A bus with a partial low floor may be referred to as a low-entry bus in some locations. Low floor refers to a bus deck, accessible from the sidewalk with only a single step with a small height difference, caused by the difference between the bus deck and sidewalk; this is distinct from high-floor, a bus deck design that requires climbing one or more steps to access the interior floor, placed at a higher height. Being low-floor improves the accessibility of the bus for the public the elderly and people with disabilities, including those using wheelchairs and walkers. All are rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout with no drive shaft. Low-floor buses are divided into two major types: low-floor buses with a low floor throughout the length of the bus, low-entry buses with step-free access to only a part of the bus, most between the front door and the middle door.
In North America, both types are called low-floor, as the majority of the vehicle has a low floor, without steps at the doors. The main reason for choosing a low-entry configuration is to allow better placement for the powertrain and other technical equipment in the raised floor section, in addition to allowing a more comfortable ride on rough roads; some manufacturers use the initials LF or L in their model designations for low-floor models, in North America buses that are low-floor are also designated LF. In some countries, LE, short for Low Entry, is used by some manufacturers in their model designations for low-entry buses. Most bus manufacturers achieve a low floor height by making rear-engined rear-wheel drive buses with independent front suspension, so that no axle is needed to pass under the floor of the front part of passenger compartment, or a lowered front axle; some full low-floor buses have a lowered rear axle, while the rear axle is not an issue on a low-entry bus. Many low-floor buses, including the Irisbus Citelis, has the engine in a vertical cabinet at the rear of the bus.
Van Hool have a series of "side-engine mid-drive" buses that puts the engine off to one side of the cabin longitudinally between the first and the second axle, to maximize usable cabin space. The same concept was utilized by Volvo on their B9S articulated chassis. For smaller buses, such as midibuses, the low-floor capability is achieved by placing the front wheels ahead of the entrance. One of the last types of buses to gain low-floor accessibility as standard was the minibus, where a similar front-wheel arrangement allows around 12 seats and a wheelchair space to be accommodated in small low-floor minibuses, such as the Optare Alero and Hino Poncho. Accessibility was achieved in paratransit type applications, which use small vehicles with the fitment of special lifts; the inception of small low-floor buses has allowed the development of several accessible demand-responsive transport schemes using standard'off-the-shelf' buses. A disadvantage of the low floor is accommodating the bus's own wheels.
With the low floor, the wheels protrude into the passenger cabin, need to be contained in wheel pockets of waist height, this occupies space which would otherwise be used for seating. To allow space for technical equipment, many low-floor buses have the seats mounted on podiums, making a small step up from the floor, while others are able to mount the seats directly to the floor, avoiding the step. Seating layout for a low-floor bus therefore requires careful design. Low floor configuration is known to have poor side to side dead load distribution within the chassis due to the asymmetrical off-centre placement of driveline components - engine and transmission; as a result, many of such buses require electronically controlled air suspension to compensate the lopsided configuration. Low-floor buses include an area without seating next to at least one of the doors, where wheelchairs, strollers/prams, where allowed bicycles, can be parked; this is sometimes not the only purpose of this area, though, as many operators employ larger standee areas for high occupancy at peak times.
Despite the space existing, operators may insist that only one or two wheelchairs or pushchairs can be accommodated unfolded, due to space/safety concerns. Low floors can be complemented by a hydraulic or pneumatic'kneeling device', which can be used when the bus is not in motion, tilting it or lowering it at the front axle further down to normal curb height. Depending on how close to the curb the bus is parked and wheelchair design, this can allow wheelchair users to board unaided. Though such technology has been available and in use on high-floor buses since the 1970s, it is of significant utility on low-floor vehicles only where it enables less-mobile passengers to board and leave the vehicle without help from others. Many vehicles are equipped with wheel-chair lifts, or ramps which, when combined with a low floor, can provide a nearly level entry. An interesting implementation of the low floor design exists in Australia, where Custom Coaches makes a "Hybrid" variant of its CB60 bodywork.
These buses combine a smaller low floor area with a small underfloor bin for some luggage. Whilst these buses do not provide a full amount of luggage space, they can be used to house more luggage than what can be held inside the bus itself. Another drawback
Natural gas vehicle
A natural gas vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas. Natural gas vehicles should not be confused with vehicles powered by LPG, a fuel with a fundamentally different composition. In a natural gas powered vehicle, energy is released by combustion of Methane gas fuel with Oxygen from the air to carbon dioxide and water vapor in an internal combustion engine. Methane is the cleanest burning hydrocarbon and many contaminants present in natural gas are removed at source. Existing gasoline-powered vehicles may be converted to run on CNG or LNG, can be dedicated or bi-fuel. Diesel engines for heavy trucks and busses can be converted and can be dedicated with the addition of new heads containing spark ignition systems, or can be run on a blend of diesel and natural gas, with the primary fuel being natural gas and a small amount of diesel fuel being used as an ignition source, it is possible to generate energy in a small gas turbine and couple the gas engine or turbine with a small electric battery to create a hybrid electric motor driven vehicle.
Convenient and cost effective gas storage and fuelling is a key challenge compared to petrol and diesel vehicles since the natural gas is pressurized and/or - in the case of LNG - the tank needs to be kept cold. The lower energy density of gases compared to liquid fuels is mitigated to a great extent by high compression or gas liquefaction, but requires a trade-off in terms of size/complexity/weight of the storage container, range of the vehicle between refueling stops, time to refuel. Although similar storage technologies may be used for and similar compromises would apply to a hydrogen vehicle as part of a proposed new hydrogen economy, methane as a gaseous fuel is safer than hydrogen due to its lower flammability, low corrosivity and better leak tightness due to larger molecular weight/ size, resulting in lower price hardware solutions based on proven technology and conversions. Many other factors hold back NGV popularization for individual mobility applications, i.e. private vehicles, including the cost of new vehicles, additional weight, unfamiliarity with the technology, lack of refueling and storage infrastructure, lack of supply due to small demand compared with other petroleum-based fuels such as gasoline and diesel.
Worldwide, there were 24.452 million NGVs by 2016, led by China, India, Argentina and Italy. NGV filling stations can be located anywhere. Compressors or liquifaction plants are built on large scale but with CNG small home refueling stations are possible. A company called FuelMaker pioneered such a system called Phill Home Refueling Appliance, which they developed in partnership with Honda for the American GX model. Phill is now sold by BRC FuelMaker, a division of Fuel Systems Solutions, Inc.. CNG may be generated and used for bulk storage and pipeline transport of renewable energy and be mixed with biomethane, itself derived from biogas from landfills or anaerobic digestion; this would allow the use of CNG for mobility without increasing the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. It would allow continued use of CNG vehicles powered by non-renewable fossil fuels that do not become obsolete when stricter CO2 emissions regulations are mandated to combat global warming. A key advantage of using natural gas is the existence, in principle, of most of the infrastructure and the supply chain, non-interchangeable with hydrogen.
Methane today comes from non-renewable sources but can be supplied or produced from renewable sources, offering net carbon neutral mobility. In many markets the Americas, natural gas may trade at a discount to other fossil fuel products such as petrol, diesel or coal, or indeed be a less valuable by-product associated with their production that has to be disposed. Many countries provide tax incentives for natural gas powered vehicles due to the environmental benefits to society. Lower operating costs and government incentives to reduce pollution from heavy vehicles in urban areas have driven the adoption of NGV for commercial and public uses, i.e. trucks and buses. Despite its advantages, the use of natural gas vehicles faces several limitations, including fuel storage and infrastructure available for delivery and distribution at fueling stations. CNG must be stored in high pressure cylinders, LNG must be stored in cryogenic cylinders; these cylinders take up more space than gasoline or diesel tanks that can be molded in intricate shapes to store more fuel and use less on-vehicle space.
CNG tanks are located in the vehicle's trunk or pickup bed, reducing the space available for other cargo. This problem can be solved by installing the tanks under the body of the vehicle, or on the roof, leaving cargo areas free; as with other alternative fuels, other barriers for widespread use of NGVs are natural gas distribution to and at fueling stations as well as the low number of CNG and LNG stations. The need to keep LNG tanks cold makes. If misused, gas fumes are to build up in the car, which can lead to the inhalation of unsafe fumes and possible explosions in the car engine. Other challenges include: price and environmentally insensitive but convenience seeking private individuals.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Kortrijk is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It is largest city of the judicial and administrative arrondissement of Kortrijk; the wider municipality comprises the city of Kortrijk proper and the villages of Aalbeke, Bissegem, Kooigem and Rollegem. Kortrijk is part of the cross-border Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai metropolitan area; the city is on 42 km southwest of Ghent and 25 km northeast of Lille. Mouscron in Wallonia is just south of Kortrijk. Kortrijk originated from a Gallo-Roman town, Cortoriacum, at a crossroads near the Leie river and two Roman roads. In the Middle Ages, Kortrijk grew thanks to the flax and wool industry with France and England and became one of the biggest and richest cities in Flanders; the city is referred to as City of Groeninge or City of the Golden Spurs, referring to the Battle of Courtrai or the Battle of the Golden Spurs which took place on 11 July 1302 on the Fields of Groeninge in Kortrijk. In 1820, the Treaty of Kortrijk was signed, which laid out the current borders between France and Belgium.
Throughout the 19th and 20th century, the flax industry flourished and remains important within the Belgian textile industry today. Kortrijk is the largest city in southern West Flanders, with several hospitals, colleges and a university. Kortrijk was the first city in Belgium with the Korte Steenstraat; the Roman name Cortoriacum meant in the settlement near the curb in the river. There is mention of Cortoracum in some Litterature, its name evolved to Cortrycke and Kortrijk. The French Called it Courtrai. Findings from an archeological digging in 1950 seem to indicate that the vicus was used as an encampment/base by the romans during their invasion of Britain in 43ad. Cortoriacum was a larger Gallo-Roman vicus of civitas Menapiorum at an important crossroads near the Lys river of the Roman roads linking Tongeren and Cassel and Tournai and Oudenburg, it was first mentioned in a document from the 4th or 5th century called Notitia Dignitatum where the Cortoriacenses Troops were mentioned. In the 9th century, Baldwin II, Count of Flanders established fortifications against the Vikings.
The town gained its city charter in 1190 from Count of Flanders. The population growth required new defensive walls. Several local places still refer to physical parts of the Defensive Structures around Kortrijk. In the 13th century, the battles between Fernando of Portugal, Count of Flanders and his first cousin, King Louis VIII of France, led to the destruction of the city; the Counts of Flanders had it rebuilt soon after. To promote industry and weaving in the town, Countess of Flanders exempted settlers in Kortrijk from property tax. From that time, Kortrijk gained great importance as a centre of linen production. In 1302, the population of Bruges started a successful uprising against the French, who had annexed Flanders a couple of years earlier. On 18 May the French population in that city was massacred, an event; the famous ensuing Battle of Courtrai or the Battle of the Golden Spurs between the Flemish people commoners and farmers, Philip the Fair’s knights took place near Kortrijk on 11 July, resulting in a victory for Flanders.
This date is now remembered as a national holiday by the whole Flemish community. Following a new uprising by the Flemish in 1323, but this time against their own Count Louis I, the French invaded again; these Flemish acquisitions were consolidated by the French at the Battle of Cassel. Louis I’s son, Louis II Philip van Artevelde regained the city in 1381 but lost it again the following year at the Battle of Roosebeke, resulting in a new wave of plundering and destruction. Most of the 15th century was prosperous under the Dukes of Burgundy, until the death of the Burgundian heiress, Mary of Burgundy, in 1482, which ushered in renewed fighting with France; the 16th century was marked by the confrontations engendered by the Reformation and the uprising of the Netherlands against Spain. Louis XIV’s reign saw Kortrijk occupied by the French five times in sixty years and its former fortifications razed; the Treaty of Utrecht assigned the whole area to Austria. After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, the textile industry, based on flax, the general economy of the city could prosper again.
Kortrijk was bombed in the summer of 1917, but was liberated by the British Army the following year. During World War II the city was an important railway hub for the German army, for this reason was the target of several allied air-strikes. On 21 July 1944 around 300 Avro Lancasters dropped over 5,000 bombs on the city centre. Many historical buildings on the central square, as well as the old railway station, were destroyed. See Battle of Courtrai After the 1977 fusion the city is made up of: I Kortrijk II Heule III Bissegem IV Marke V Aalbeke VI Rollegem VII Bellegem VIII Kooigem The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone consists of Kuurne, Wevelgem and Harelbeke. Although these municipalities have strong morphologic ties with Kortrijk, they aren't part of the city. Kortrijk has an oceanic climate (
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr