In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Sarrebourg is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It lies in on the upper course of the river Saar. In 1895 a Mithraeum was discovered at Sarrebourg at the mouth of the pass leading from the Vosges Mountains
Kehl station is a railway station in Kehl, a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. It is situated on the Appenweier–Strasbourg railway, with trains crossing the Rhine into France to reach the latter destination. Both sides being within the Schengen Area, no passport or border controls apply; the line opened in 1844. Since June 2007 TGV Trains run from Paris Est to Strasbourg and Munich. Therefore, since 10 June 2007 the Ortenau-S-Bahn has operated railcars every hour between Offenburg and Strasbourg; this change extended previous services to Strasbourg including services ending in Kehl. Since 29 April, 2017, Strasbourg’s tram line D has been running to Kehl and used to terminate at Kehl station. Since November 2018, the tram extends into the town centre "Kehl Rathaus"
Herrlisheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The town dates from the 8th century. Herrlisheim was the scene of heavy fighting during Operation Nordwind, an offensive launched by the German Army during World War II that inflicted considerable damage to the town. Herrlisheim is positioned on the rich alluvial farmland to the west of the River Rhine, north of Strasbourg; the town is part of the canton of Bischwiller and the district of Haguenau and is located on the road from Strasbourg to Lauterbourg along the A35 motorway. Herrlisheim is bordered by the towns of Rohrwiller to the northwest, Drusenheim to the northeast, Gambsheim to the southwest and Offendorf to the southeast; the area is crossed by the Zorn and Kleinebach Rivers. The local economy is based on agriculture; the village promotes itself as the local potato capital, a Potato Festival is organised annually. Herrlisheim was first mentioned in a deed dated 15 February 743, gifting a village called Hariolfesvilla to the Weissenburg Abbey, Alsace.
The village may owe its name to Hariolf, an Alsatian who signed as a witness to a document dated 780. Another charter dated 1 March 775 mentioned the land of Hariolueshaim referring to Herlesheim, as being owned by the Abbey. In 1251, the village known now as Herlosvesheim was owned by the Counts of Oettingen, Landgraves of lower Alsace. In 1332, control of the town was passed to the Barony of Lichtenberg in 1480 to the Count of Deux-Ponts; the Lichtenberg line passed to the Hanau family, who became the Counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in 1570. From 1736 until the French Revolution, the town was controlled by the House of Hess-Darmstadt, after 1803 due to territorial reforms following the revolution, the former county of Hanau-Lichtenberg was divided and Herrlisheim was attached to the Bailiwick of Offendorf. In 1871, it was annexed to the German imperial province of Elsass-Lothringen after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War; the earliest mention of a Jewish community in Herrlisheim dates from 1349 when persecutions occurred during the Black Plague.
A 1752 inventory notes thirteen Jewish families living there since 1693. Records mention "the Jew Läwel" who had to pay two florins of tax for protection in 1714. Village census records from 1821 and 1842 showed 198 Jewish residents, in 1890, 202 Jewish residents. By 1936, the Jewish community in Herrlisheim numbered only 80 people. In 1940 under the German occupation, the remaining Jewish population in Herrlisheim were deported to the south of France. At least eleven of them were murdered. A monument with the names of the victims was erected in the Jewish cemetery of the town. After 1945, some of the former Jewish inhabitants returned; the community had a synagogue prior to the 18th century, demolished in 1805 and replaced with another building, replaced with a new building in 1850. This synagogue was vandalized during World War II; the adjacent small prayer house was destroyed. The synagogue and prayer house were rebuilt in the 1950s; the synagogue was closed in 1969. Until 1870, Jewish residents of Herrlisheim were buried in the cemetery of Haguenau, along with Jewish residents of Hattstatt.
After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the towns of Herrlisheim and Offendorf opened a Jewish cemetery in 1886 on the Rue d'Offendorf, directly at the end of the village of Herrlisheim. The cemetery now contains about 250 burials. Several times in the past decades since the end of World War II, the graves were vandalized. In 2004, on the anniversary of Adolf Hitler's birthday, pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic slogans were discovered on 127 graves of the burying ground, cemetery signs were defaced. Herrlisheim was the scene of intense fighting in January 1945 between the 553rd Volksgrenadier Regiment, the 35th, 119th and 2nd Panzer Grenadier Regiments, 10th SS Division and elements of the United States 12th Armored Division of the Seventh Army; the fighting began as part of Operation Nordwind, the last offensive by German troops on the Western front in the war and was focused on the recapture of Strasbourg. The 553rd Volksgrenadier crossed the Rhine River and established a bridgehead around Gambsheim on January 5.
Three days the 12th Armored Division started to attempt the reduction of the bridgehead and attacked Herrlisheim directly on January 16. In the second day of fighting, elements of 10th SS Panzer Division joined in the attack and inflicted heavy casualties wiping out the 714th Tank Battalion and the 56th Armored Infantry Battalion of the 12th Armored Division, who suffered 1,250 casualties and lost 70 combat vehicles; the next day as 10th SS Panzer attempted to exploit its victory to the west of the town, it was their turn to take heavy losses as the US forces withdrew. The badly battered town was liberated on January 31 by the United States Army as the Germans retired after the overall failure of their offensive. 50th Anniversary of World War II Memorial, France Communes of the Bas-Rhin department Operation Nordwind 12th Armored Division INSEE commune file
Gare de Saint-Louis
La Gare de Saint-Louis is the main railway station in the border town of Saint-Louis, France. Timetables TER Alsace
Thann is a commune in the northeastern French department of Haut-Rhin, in Grand Est. It is the sous-préfecture of the arrondissement of Thann-Guebwiller and part of the canton of Cernay, its inhabitants are known as Thannois. Thann is situated at the mouth of the valley of the Thur River; the Thur runs through the middle of the town. In 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, Thann was taken by imperialist forces. A mercenary among those troops described it as a "beautiful city, which lies on a mountain and is fortified." Thann is 21 km from Mulhouse. The town is well situated for the French autoroute network such as the A35 and A36; the RN66 passes through Thann, providing an east-west route between Epinal. Thann and the Thur valley are served by regular TER trains on a branch line running from Mulhouse to Kruth. A new tram-train service of the Mulhouse tramway links Thann to the city centre of Mulhouse. Despite sustaining heavy damage in World War I and World War II, Thann contains several old buildings and monuments of significance.
Situated in the centre of the old town, the church known as the Collégiale is good example of the style of gothic architecture that flourished in the Rhine valley in the late Middle Ages. The Cathedrals of Strasbourg and Freiburg in Germany are built in a similar style; the building owes its name "La collégiale" to the college of monks who moved to Thann from the nearby town of Saint-Amarin in 1442. Construction of the collégiale took more than 200 years, from the end of the 13th Century through the 15th Century, was completed in 1516 with the 78m tall spire. For an extensive study of the Thann collegiate church, circumstances of its erection, issues of patronage, unique sculptural programs, see Assaf Pinkus and Patrons of St. Theobald in Thann; this was a tower in the old town walls, built in 1411. The bulbous roof dates from 1628. Today the interior houses a museum dedicated to winemaking; the ruins of the Engelbourg Castle sit on a hill to the north of the old town. The castle was constructed in the 13th century by the Counts of Ferrette to control the entrance to the valley and ensure the paying of tolls by those wishing to cross the Vosges by way of the Thur valley and the col de Bussang.
The castle was destroyed on the orders of Louis XIV. During demolition, one of towers overturned and cracked into sections, one of which forms a large stone ring known locally today as The Witch's Eye; the town is served by 4 écoles maternelles. Thann is the southern terminus of the route des Vins d'Alsace; the northern side of the town is overlooked by the Rangen vineyard, one of the few vineyards in Alsace to be classed grand cru. Thann is well situated for access to the Parc naturel régional des Ballons des Vosges. Ernst Robert Curtius, literary critic Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel - Gubbio, Italy - Tonneins, France Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE Official site of Thann town council Tourist Office of the Pays de Thann
Basel SBB railway station
Basel SBB railway station is the central railway station in the city of Basel, Switzerland. Opened in 1854, rebuilt in 1900–1907, it is Europe's busiest international border station; as its name suggests, Basel SBB is owned by the Swiss Federal Railways. The other major railway station in Basel is Basel Badischer Bahnhof, on the north side of the Rhine from the city centre. Trains operated by SBB CFF FFS use Basel SBB to link Basel with destinations within Switzerland and Italy, as do Deutsche Bahn Intercity-Express trains to and from Germany, Zürich and Interlaken, most SNCF TGV trains to and from Paris, some regional trains to and from Alsace. Additionally, the station is served by three lines of the Basel S-Bahn; the 1907 neo-baroque station building is a heritage site of national significance. It contains Bâle SNCF, located through a border crossing and is used by other trains to and from France. Directly outside the station building is the Centralbahnplatz, a major hub of the Basel tramway network, the Basel terminus of a direct bus service to the EuroAirport.
The station area is situated at the southern side of the city centre, in an elongated area between the Zoological Garden to the west and the Brüglinger Ebene to the east. The borders of four of Basel's districts come together at the station area. However, the area is, according to the Statistical Office, divided between only two districts: the station itself is located in Gundeldingen, while most of the tracks on the eastern side of the station, along with the Centralbahnplatz in front of the station, are attributed to the St. Alban quarter; the Elisabethenanlage in front of the Centralbahnplatz belongs to Vorstädte, while the Markthalle opposite Basel SNCF is part of the Am Ring district. The first railway to reach Basel, the Chemin de fer Strasbourg Bâle, arrived there in 1844; the following year, 1845, the Elsässerbahn built the first station in the Basel metropolitan area, within the city walls. Basel thereby became the first Swiss city to be connected to the new means of transport. After the arrival of the railway, there was a passionate debate in Basel about the pros and cons of the railway and its possible continuation into the Swiss Plateau and the Gotthard.
Meanwhile, the Rheintalbahn from Mannheim and Karlsruhe approached Basel from the north. In 1853, the Schweizerische Centralbahn railway company was founded in Basel, its purpose was the establishment of a link between the city of Basel and the economic centres of the Mittelland cantons, even the expansion of the transport corridor from Lucerne to the Gotthard. The Viaduktstrasse in Basel – including the Birsig Viaduct, adjacent to the Zoo Basel parking lot – was the formation of the Elsässerbahn until 1902. Today, the viaduct serves tram lines 1 and 8, as well as motor vehicle traffic, a plaque on the bridge railing recalls its earlier role as a rail bridge. In 1854, construction began on the future Hauenstein railway line. Right up until the opening of the first section of the route from Basel to Liestal, the controversial question of the site and design of the Basel railway station remained unresolved. However, to accommodate the commencement of railway operations on 19 December 1854, the Centralbahn built a simple temporary timber structure, according to plans developed by chief architect Ludwig Maring.
By the opening day, all of the temporary station buildings had been completed, including a timber train shed. This modest provisional station, equipped with makeshift facilities, was made up of individual detached buildings and was used only for just under six years; the station site consisted of the station building, a goods shed, a carriage and locomotive shed and a turntable at the railhead. As the station building stood on the northeastern side of the station, alongside the station yard, the station was not configured as a terminus; the provisional station served only as the starting point of the SCB lines, had no connection with either the French station or the Badischer Bahnhof, opened in 1855 as the terminus of the Rheintalbahn. On 29 June 1857, the Grand Council of Basel-Stadt agreed to the construction of a link between the French line and the Centralbahn and the erection of a through station in the field in front of the Elisabethen-Bollwerk; the city bore the cost of the land purchase.
At the start of 1859, the SCB began construction work on the site of the new station, to a design by Maring. In addition to a passenger station, the new station yard featured a goods station relocated to the Gundeldingen district, two new locomotive sheds, one of them for the SCB, the other for the Chemins de fer de l'Est, which had taken over the StB in 1854. On 4 June 1860, railway operations began at the new Basel Centralbahnhof. However, it was not until May 1861; the Centralbahnhof was a joint station, with the northern facade of its station building facing the newly created Centralbahnplatz. On each side of the station building were the boarding halls, each with two tracks – on the eastern side for the Swiss trains and on the western side and for the French trains. To the south of the station building were the goods shed and two large warehouses, with an access road from the Güterstrasse. In subsequent years, modifications were made to the Centralbahnhof to enable it to deal with its increasi