SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

TI-89 series

The TI-89 and the TI-89 Titanium are graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments. They are differentiated from most other TI graphing calculators by their computer algebra system, which allows symbolic manipulation of algebraic expressions—equations can be solved in terms of variables, whereas the TI-83/84 series can only give a numeric result; the TI-89 is a graphing calculator developed by Texas Instruments in 1998. The unit features a 160×100 pixel resolution LCD screen and a large amount of flash memory, includes TI's Advanced Mathematics Software; the TI-89 is one of the highest model lines in TI's calculator products, along with the TI-Nspire. In the summer of 2004, the standard TI-89 was replaced by the TI-89 Titanium; the TI-89 runs on a 16-bit microprocessor, the Motorola 68000, which nominally runs at 10, 12 MHz, depending on the calculator's hardware version. Texas Instruments has allocated 256 total kB of RAM for 2 MB of flash memory; the RAM and Flash ROM are used to store expressions, programs, text files, lists.

The TI-89 is a TI-92 Plus with a limited keyboard and smaller screen. It was created in response to the fact that while calculators are allowed on many standardized tests, the TI-92 was considered a computer due to the QWERTY layout of its keyboard. Additionally, some people found the TI-92 overly large; the TI-89 is smaller—about the same size as most other graphing calculators. It has a flash ROM, a feature present on the TI-92 Plus but not on the original TI-92; the major advantage of the TI-89 over lower-model TI calculators is its built-in computer algebra system, or CAS. The calculator can simplify algebraic expressions symbolically. For example, entering x^2-4x+4 returns x 2 − 4 x + 4; the answer is "prettyprinted" by default. The TI-89's abilities include: Algebraic factoring of expressions, including partial fraction decomposition. Algebraic simplification. Evaluation of trigonometric expressions to exact values. For example, sin returns 3 2 instead of 0.86603. Solving equations for a certain variable.

The CAS can solve for one variable in terms of others. For equations such as quadratics where there are multiple solutions, it returns all of them. Equations with infinitely many solutions are solved by introducing arbitrary constants: solve returns x=2. with the @n1 representing any integer. Finding limits of functions, including infinite limits and limits from one direction. Symbolic differentiation and integration. Derivatives and definite integrals are evaluated when possible, otherwise. In addition to the standard two-dimensional function plots, it can produce graphs of parametric equations, polar equations, sequence plots, differential equation fields, three-dimensional functions; the TI-89 is directly programmable in a language called TI-BASIC, TI's derivative of BASIC for calculators. With the use of a PC, it is possible to develop more complex programs in Motorola 68000 assembly language or C, translate them to machine language, copy them to the calculator. Two software development kits for C programming are available.

Since the TI-89's release in 1998, thousands of programs for math, science, or entertainment have been developed. Many available games are generic clones of Tetris and other classic games, but some programs are more advanced: for example, a ZX Spectrum emulator, a chess-playing program, a symbolic circuit simulator, a clone of Link's Awakening. One of the most popular and well-known games is Phoenix. Many calculator games and other useful programs can be found on TI-program sharing sites. Ticalc.org is a major one. There are four hardware versions of the TI-89; these versions are referred to as HW1, HW2, HW3, HW4. Entering the key sequence displays the hardware version. Older OS versions don't display anything about the hardware version unless the calculator is HW2 or later; the differences in the hardware versions are not well documented by Texas Instruments. HW1 and HW2 correspond to the original TI-89; the most significant difference between HW1 and HW2 is in the way the calculator handles the display.

In HW1 calculators there is a video buffer that stores all of the information that should be displayed on the screen, every time the screen is refreshed the calculator accesses this buffer and flushes it to the display. In HW2 and calculators, a region of memory is directly aliased to the display controller; this allows for faster memory access, as the HW1's DMA controller used about 10% of the bus bandwidth. However, it interferes with a trick some programs use to implement grayscale graphics by switching between two or more displays. On the HW1, the DMA controller's base address can be changed and th

Storo, Norway

Storo is a neighborhood in the boroughs of Sagene and Nordre Aker in Oslo, Norway. It is located east of south-west of Grefsen and north of Sandaker. In addition to block housing, it hosts the Storo Storsenter shopping center. There are many car dealerships in the area; the Ring 3 trunk road runs through Storo, the area is served by Storo station on the Oslo T-bane and Oslo Tramway. The neighbourhood is named after the farm Storo; this farm was the big part of the old farm O. The farm O is first mentioned in 1279, the name is identical with the Norse word ó, a sideform of á f'river'; the farm was divided into two parts around 1550 AD: Storo and Lillo

Giovanni Passannante

Giovanni Passannante was an Italian anarchist who attempted to assassinate king Umberto I of Italy, the first attempt against Savoy monarchy since its origins. Condemned to death, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment; the conditions of his imprisonment have been denounced as inhumane. Born in Salvia di Lucania, to Pasquale and Maria Fiore, he was the youngest of ten children, four of whom died in early age. Growing up in a poor family, he was forced to work since a child as a laborer and a guardian of flocks and was able to attend school only for a short time. Passannante moved to Vietri and after to Potenza working as a dishwasher in an osteria, he met a captain of the royal army who, noticing the boy's interest for studies, brought Passannante along with him to Salerno and gave him an annuity to allow a higher schooling. Passannante spent his free time reading the Bible and Giuseppe Mazzini's writings, which brought him closer to republican ideas. Passannante began to have his first troubles with the law.

One night in May 1870, he was discovered and arrested by police guardians of public safety while posting revolutionary proclamations against monarchies and popes, as well as celebrating the Universal Republic and Giuseppe Garibaldi. After two months in jail, he returned to his hometown to Potenza working as a cook. In 1872, he returned to Salerno. In June 1878, Passannante moved to Naples, where he lived from day to day changing various employers. After the death of his father Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I prepared a tour in the major cities of Italy to show himself as the new sovereign, he was accompanied by the prime minister Benedetto Cairoli. The royal entourage planned to visit Naples, although there was a heated argument in the city council about the high cost that would be incurred on its reception. On November 17, 1878 Umberto I and his court were parading in Naples. Passannante was among the crowd. While the king was on Largo della Carriera Grande, he approached his carriage, faking a supplication.

Long live the Universal Republic!"Umberto I managed to deflect the weapon, receiving a slight wound on his arm. Queen Margherita threw a bouquet of flowers in his face and shouted: «Cairoli, save the king!». Cairoli grabbed him by his hair. Passannante was hit in the head with a saber by Stefano De Giovannini, captain of the cuirassiers, was arrested, he tried to kill the king with a knife with a blade of 12 cm. The weapon was wrapped in a red rag on, written, "Death to the King! Long live the Universal Republic! Long live Orsini!" The attempted regicide shocked the entire nation, the government feared an anarchist conspiracy. Passannante's action brought disorders in many cities, with a total of several dead and arrested. On November 18 of the same year, in Florence, a group of anarchists threw a bomb into a crowd, celebrating the king's survival. Two men and one girl were killed, over ten people were injured. Another bomb exploded in Pisa with no casualties, in Pesaro a barrack was assaulted; some republicans such as Alberto Mario condemned his action.

The poet Giovanni Pascoli, during a socialist reunion in Bologna, gave a public reading of his Ode to Passannante of which there is no trace anymore because Pascoli destroyed it after his reading. Only the last verse is known, of which this paraphrase has been handed down: "Con la berretta d'un cuoco faremo una bandiera". After the arrest of some anarchists who protested against Passannante's detention and group of internationalists protested against the verdict, the poet shouted, "If these are evil-doers long life to evil-doers!" Pascoli and the internationalists were arrested. Some newspapers directed baseless charges against Passannante: Verona's L'Arena and Milan's Corriere della Sera portrayed him as a brigand who had killed a woman in the past, while in a lithograph published in Turin it was reported that his father was a camorrista. A few days after the attempted murder, Cairoli's government was accused of inability to maintain public order, after a rejected motion of confidence presented by the minister Guido Baccelli, Cairoli resigned.

Passannante's family was jailed. Giovanni Parrella, mayor of Salvia di Lucania, went to Naples to apologize and ask for a pardon from Umberto I. In a sign of forgiveness, on order of the monarch's counselors, Passannante's hometown was forced to change its name to Savoia di Lucania, by a royal decree on July 3, 1879. During the trial, held on March 6 and 7 1879, Passannante stated, he claimed that the ideas of Risorgimento had been betrayed and that the government was indifferent to the impact on poor people of increases in the flour tax. Passannante was sentenced to death on March 29, 1879, although capital punishment was expected only in instances of actual regicide, his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was imprisoned in Portoferraio on the island of Elba, off the Tuscan coast, in a small and dark cell below sea level, with no toilet facilities and in complete isolation, his mental condition deteriorated in these harsh conditions of solitary confinement and he was brutally tortured.

He became infested with taenia solium and lost body hair. His skin became discolored and his eyes were affected by th