Turn- und Sportgemeinschaft 1899 Hoffenheim e. V. or TSG 1899 Hoffenheim is a professional German association football club based in Hoffenheim, a village of Sinsheim municipality, Baden-Württemberg. Founded in 1899 as a gymnastics club, Hoffenheim came into being in its modern form in 1945. A fifth division side in 2000, the club advanced through the German football league system with the financial backing of alumnus and software mogul Dietmar Hopp, in 2008 Hoffenheim was promoted to the top tier Bundesliga. In the 2017–18 season, Hoffenheim finished third in the Bundesliga, qualifying for the UEFA Champions League group stage for the first time. Since 2009, Hoffenheim has played its home games at the Rhein-Neckar-Arena, having played at the Dietmar-Hopp-Stadion from 1999; the modern-day club was formed in 1945, when gymnastics club Turnverein Hoffenheim and football club Fußballverein Hoffenheim merged. At the beginning of the 1990s, the club was an obscure local amateur side playing in the eighth division Baden-Württemberg A-Liga.
They improved and by 1996 were competing in the Verbandsliga Nordbaden. Around 2000, alumnus Dietmar Hopp returned to the club of his youth as a financial backer. Hopp was the co-founder of software firm SAP and he put some of his money into the club, his contributions generated immediate results: in 2000 Hoffenheim finished first in the Verbandsliga and was promoted to the fourth-division Oberliga Baden-Württemberg. Another first-place finish moved the club up to the Regionalliga Süd for the 2001–02 season, they finished 13th in their first season in the Regionalliga, but improved the next year, earning a fifth-place result. Hoffenheim earned fifth and seventh-place finishes in the next two seasons, before improving to fourth in 2005–06 to earn their best result to date; the club made its first DFB-Pokal appearance in the 2003–04 competition and performed well, advancing to the quarter-finals by eliminating 2. Bundesliga sides Eintracht Trier and Karlsruher SC and Bundesliga club Bayer Leverkusen before being put out themselves by another 2.
Bundesliga side, VfB Lübeck. Negotiations to merge TSG Hoffenheim, Astoria Walldorf, SV Sandhausen to create FC Heidelberg 06 in 2005 were abandoned due to the resistance of the latter two clubs, the failure to agree on whether the new side's stadium should be located in Heidelberg or Eppelheim. Team owner Hopp preferred Heidelberg, but could not overcome the resistance of local firm Wild, which had reserved the site of the planned stadium for its new production facilities. In 2006, the club sought to improve its squad and technical staff by bringing in players with several years of Bundesliga experience, most notably Jochen Seitz and Tomislav Marić, young talents like Sejad Salihović, while signing manager Ralf Rangnick, who managed Bundesliga teams such as SSV Ulm 1846, VfB Stuttgart, Hannover 96 and Schalke 04, to a five-year contract; the investment paid off in the 2006–07 season with the club's promotion to the 2. Bundesliga after finishing second in Regionalliga Süd; the 2007–08 season was Hoffenheim's first season in professional football.
After a weak start with three losses and only one draw in the first four games, the team's performance improved remarkably and Hoffenheim climbed from 16th place on matchday four to second place on matchday 23. The team managed to defend their place until the end of the season, having scored 60 points after matchday 34; as a result of their second-place finish they received automatic promotion to the Bundesliga, the highest tier in German football, after just playing in the 2. Bundesliga for one season. Hoffenheim had a successful season in their debut in the Bundesliga, the top German division, as they went on to record a 7th place finish, narrowly missing out on Europa League qualifying by six points; the club's best players of the season were Vedad Ibišević and Demba Ba, who scored 18 and 14 respectively. In the 2009–10 Bundesliga, the club had a less successful season, recording a finish outside of the top 10, finishing 11th; the club went on to finish in 11th place for the next two consecutive seasons.
In the 2012–13 Bundesliga, the club came close to suffering relegation, after they a 16th place finish, meaning they would have to play in the relegation play-offs to survive. In the 2013–14 Bundesliga, the club had a strange statistics; the club's best goalscorer of the season their best assist provider, was Roberto Firmino, scoring 16 goals and providing 12 assists, with the player winning the Bundesliga Breakthrough Player of the Season award. In the 2014–15 Bundesliga, the club came close to qualifying for the Europa League, with just two points separating them from Borussia Dortmund, who were in 7th place, despite the 8th place finish, Hoffenheim still had a goal difference of −6 in the 2014–15 season. In the 2015–16 Bundesliga, the club once again came close to suffering relegation, with just one point separating them from the relegation play-offs. In the 2016–17 season, new coach Julian Nagelsmann took over, beginning to recruit several significant players, including Andrej Kramarić, Kerem Demirbay and Sandro Wagner.
Into the season, the club was in a struggling form, with four draws in the first four games of the season, before a rise in form rose the club to third p
Spellbinder is an adventure game, released for the BBC Micro and Acorn Electron in 1987. The player takes the role of a Magelord, named Eldon the Spellbinder, his task is to find the evil Magelord outcast Zorn, in the castle of Lorraine, defeat him by use of the so-called Ultimate Spell. The game is pseudo-3D, allowing the player to move left, right and backwards in a room, though not up and down, it was presented in a monochrome format, with black and one other colour being used to draw the sprites and backdrops, although the colour varied from room to room, illustrating the environments. A large number of items searched for possible items; the game was open-ended for a game of the time, similar to Exile, allowing the player to move around a large section of the castle right from the start, start to mix various spells. A few of these spells were listed in the manual. Unusually, for a BBC Micro game, it featured continuous background music - a version of Midnight Summer Dream, the 1983 song from British rock group The Stranglers' album Feline.
The game was written by two teenagers from Israel. They were 14½ and 16 when they started coding the game in 1986; the equipment used to write it was a memory monitor chip, a monochrome 14" TV, a cassette tape recorder and their own BASIC-written graphic-design software. The game was named Magelords to be named Spellbinder by Superior Software marketing team. Spellbinder review Electron User January 1988
The parallactic instrument of Kapteyn is a measuring instrument created by the Dutch astronomer Jacobus Kapteyn around 1886. Using this instrument, Kapteyn analyzed over 1,700 glass plate photos of stars seen from the southern hemisphere; this research contributed to the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung, a star catalogue containing 454,875 entries. Together with the measurements of stars seen from the northern hemisphere the measurements of Kapteyn formed a complete star catalogue with a scope and accuracy, impressive for its time; the instrument is located in the collection of the University Museum of Groningen. Since Kapteyn lacked an observatory of his own in Groningen, he used a homemade instrument for the analysis of glass plate photos of stars, made by his colleague David Gill in Cape Town. Kapteyn built the instrument with several parts from other instruments. Although Kapteyn called it a ‘parallactic instrument’, the instrument is not related to the parallax effect; the name may come from the chassis of the instrument, from an instrument with a'parallactic mount'.
Three researchers were needed to perform measurements with the instrument, each with their own task: Aiming the lens at a star, estimating the diameter of the star and reading the declination. Reading the right ascension using a small microscope. Writing down the results, as told to him by the other researchers. To use the instrument, the researcher must look through the ocular, aim the lens at a glass plate photo; the distance between the center point of the instrument and the plate to be measured must be the same distance as the focal length of the telescope, used to take the photos (in the case of Gill's photos: 54 inches. By rotating the right axis; the researcher can read the position of the star on the wheel below the right axis. Parts A and C can be used to determine the right ascension. Part L is no longer on the instrument. Using this smaller telescope the researcher could position the instrument in relation to the glass plate photo. For each position on the sky Kapteyn used two photos.
He placed these photos in sequence, with one being displaced. This allowed him to distinguish stars from dust particles on the glass plate. Kapteyn and his staff members analyzed the first photo on October 28, 1886 and the final photo on June 9, 1887, they used in the instrument in a laboratory of Dirk Huizinga, a professor in physiology who made two of his rooms available to them. Kapteyn and his staff members analyzed the glass plate photos in duplicate and darkened the room to get a better view of details in the photos. Kapteyn and his staff performed some repeat measurements in 1892, 1896, 1897 and 1892. Kapteyn and Gill published their Durchmusterung in three volumes that together formed the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung: declination zones -18° to -37°, -38° to -52° and -53° to -89°. Working with the instrument had private life of Kapteyn. Kapteyn felt pain in his eyes and stomach, became agitated due to the intense labor. After completing one of the last measurements, Kapteyn wrote to Gill: "...- and the truth is that I find my patience nearly exhausted", with which he referred to the analysis for the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.
Additionally, Kapteyn wrote about working on the Durchmusterung: "There is a sort of fate that which makes me do my life long just what I want to do least of all." The British astronomer Arthur Stanley Eddington claimed that prisoners were part of the staff of Kapteyn that worked with his instrument. However, this fact is deemed implausible, since prisoners only performed simple tasks in this time period and because this fact was never brought up in any correspondence with Kapteyn; the publication of the measurements performed with the instrument of Kapteyn marked a major breakthrough for Kapteyn in the field of astronomy. In 1901 Kapteyn was the first Dutchman to receive a golden medal from the British Royal Astronomical Society. Kapteyn had been a member of this organisation since 1892. Furthermore, working with the instrument may have inspired the theories of Kapteyn about the shape of the Milky Way. Kapteyn first discussed these theories in 1891 during a rectorial speech; the American astronomer Simon Newcomb praised Kapteyn and his work: "This work of Kapteyn offers a remarkable example of the spirit which animates the born investigator of the heavens."Jacob Halm remarked that the results of the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung had an accuracy comparable to that of the results of the northern hemisphere.
The astronomer Henry Sawerthal, who visited the laboratory of Kapteyn in 1889, described the results as "...sufficient in the present instance to give results more accurate than those of the Northern Durchmusterung, a remark which not only applies to positions, but to magnitude."The German astronomer Max Wolf had such admiration for the instrument of Kapteyn that he built his own'improved' version of the instrument. Jacobus Kapteyn Kapteyn's Star Durchmusterung David Gill Triquetrum University museum of Groningen van der Kruit, Piet C.. The Legacy of J. C. Kapteyn: Studies on Kapteyn and the Development of Modern Astronomy. Springer. ISBN 9789401098649