Herman Potočnik was a Slovene rocket engineer and pioneer of astronautics. He is chiefly remembered for his work addressing the long-term human habitation of space. Potočnik was born in the port of Pula, Istria part of the Austria-Hungarian monarchy, his family was originated from Lower Styria in Austria-Hungary. Both of Potočnik's parents were Slovene, his father Jožef was born in 1841 in Zgornji Razbor near Slovenj Gradec and at the time of Herman's birth he served as a doctor and high navy officer in the Austro-Hungarian Navy harbour of Pula. His mother Minka was born February 7, 1854. In 1866, Herman's father Jožef participated in the second Battle of Vis, where the Austrian Navy under command of von Tegetthoff defeated the Royal Italian Navy. Jožef was a general in the Austro-Hungarian Army; when Herman's father died in 1894, his mother moved the family to Maribor. Herman had two brothers and Gustav, a sister Frančiška, he spent most of his childhood years in Maribor and, according to oral sources, in Vitanje.
The meaning of his German-like pseudonym Noordung is still a mystery, but some suggest that he used it to show the problems of chaos. Assuming that the initial "N" may have been intended to stand as a negation, the name would mean "without order" or "no order". In Maribor, Potočnik attended primary school. Afterward he went to the military secondary schools in Hranice in Moravia, his uncle Heinrich was a major-general in the army, enabled his study at Austrian military schools. From 1910 to 1913 he studied at the technical military academy in Mödling in Lower Austria near Vienna and graduated as an engineers second lieutenant, his specialization was building of bridges. During the First World War he served in Galicia and Bosnia and in 1915 he was promoted to the rank of First Lieutenant, he was assigned to the southwestern front of the Soča battlefield and there he experienced a breakthrough of the Austrian army to the river Piava and its retreat. In 1919 he was pensioned off from the Austrian military with the rank of captain because of tuberculosis that he contracted during the war.
He started to study electrical engineering in the mechanical engineering department of the University of Technology in Vienna and was awarded a doctorate in engineering. From 1925 onward, he devoted himself to the problems of rocket science and space technology. Owing to chronic illness, he did not find a job or marry, but lived with his brother Adolf in Vienna, Austria. At the end of 1928, he published his sole book, Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-Motor in Berlin; the publisher, Richard Carl Schmidt, printed the year 1929 as a publishing date from a purely business motive and this date is mistakenly given as the actual date of publication. In 188 pages and 100 handmade illustrations, Potočnik set out a plan for a breakthrough into space and the establishment of a permanent human presence there, he conceived a detailed design for a space station, regarded by Russian and American historians of spaceflight to be the first architecture in space. He described the use of orbiting spacecraft for detailed observation of the ground for peaceful and military purposes, described how the special conditions of space could be useful for scientific experiments.
Potočnik expressed strong doubts of the destructive military use of these fresh discoveries. The book was translated into Russian in early 1935, Slovene in 1986, English in 1999 and Croatian in 2004. A partial translation to English, containing most of the essential chapters, was made as early as 1929 for the American magazine Science Wonder Stories and was issued in three parts. With his many ideas he became one of the founders of astronautics, his concepts were first taken only by the amateur rocketry movement in Germany, the Verein für Raumschiffahrt, centered on Hermann Oberth and his co-workers. In its Russian edition, the book may have influenced Sergey Korolev's circle. More locally, Viennese engineers dismissed his work as fantasy. Potočnik's book described geostationary satellites and discussed communication between them and the ground using radio, but fell short of the idea of using satellites for mass broadcasting and as telecommunications relays; the wheel-shaped space station served as an inspiration for further development by Wernher von Braun in 1952.
Von Braun saw orbiting space stations as a stepping stone to travel to other planets. In 1968, Stanley Kubrick's ground-breaking film, 2001: A Space Odyssey, depicted such a role for "Space Station V". Potočnik died of pneumonia at the age of 36 in great poverty in Vienna and was buried there. An obituary notice about his death was printed in one Maribor daily newspaper, mentioning his ranks, his illness, but nothing about his work regarding space. Streets in Graz and Ljubljana and Pula now bear his name. A proposal was made in the late 1990s to nam
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
Graz University of Technology
Graz University of Technology is one of five universities in Styria, Austria. It was founded in 1811 by Archduke John of Austria and comprises seven faculties; the university is a public university. It offers 18 bachelors and 33 masters study programmes across all technology and natural science disciplines. Doctoral training is organised in 14 English-speaking doctoral schools; the university has more than 13,000 students, 2,000 students graduate every year. Science study programmes are offered in the framework of NAWI Graz together with the University of Graz; the university has a staff of 3,324. Research areas are combined in five fields of expertise. TU Graz, the University of Leoben and TU Wien form the network Austrian Universities of Technology with 47,000 students and 9,000 staff; the university has multiple campuses, as it is situated on three sites in the city, two in the centre of Graz and one in the southeast of the city. Alte Technik Neue Technik InffeldgasseCampus buildings at the Graz University of Technology 1811: The Joanneum is founded by Archduke John of Austria.
The first subjects taught were physics, astronomy, mineralogy and technology. 1864: The Styrian government makes it a Technische Hochschule. 1874: The Technische Hochschule is taken over by the state. 1888: Opening of the Main Building by Franz Joseph I of Austria. 1901: The Technische Hochschule is granted the right to award doctorates. 1955: It is divided into three faculties. 1975: It is divided into five faculties and renamed Technische Universität Graz, Erzherzog-Johann Universität. 2004: The new Austrian university law is implemented – the university is divided into seven faculties. The university consists of seven faculties: Faculty of Architecture Faculty of Civil Engineering Faculty of Computer Science and Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Electrical and Information Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Economic Sciences Faculty of Mathematics and Geodesy Faculty of Technical Chemistry and Process Engineering, Biotechnology Students at TU Graz have a choice of 18 bachelor programmes and 33 master programmes.
Graduates receive MSc or Diplom-Ingenieur / - in. The doctoral programmes are offered as postgraduate programmes. Beginners: 2,033 Graduates: 1,909 Federal budget 2017: €153.5 millions Income from third-party funds 2017: €70.5 millions Floor space: 241,000 Non-academic staff: 987 Academic staff: 1,576 Mandated instructors/student assistants: 763Data from: 2017/18 In the 2018 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Graz University of Technology can be found in the 401–500 bracket. In the 2018 Shanghai ranking of universities/Global Ranking of Academic Subjects, it is in the 76-100 range in Computer Science & Engineering, in the 101–150 range in Electrical & Electronic Engineering and in the 151–200 range in Biomedical Engineering. In the subjects Materials Science & Engineering and Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, it is in the 201-300 range. In the subjects Biotechnology, Chemical Engineering, Earth Sciences as well as Energy Science & Engineering, Graz University of Technology can be found in the 301-400 range.
In Mathematics it is in the group 401-500. In the 2018 Leiden Ranking, the PPtop10% analysis puts it on position 359, the PPindustry ranks Graz University of Technology on place 6. Raimund Abraham, architect Günther Domenig, architect Friedrich Emich, chemist Dietmar Feichtinger, architect Karl Kordesch, fuel cell and battery designer Hans List, technical scientist and inventor, entrepreneur Hanns Malissa, chemist Hubert Petschnigg, architect Hanns Albin Rauter, Executed Austrian Nazi SS war criminal Alois Riedler, mechanical engineer Rudolf Sanzin, locomotive designer Nikola Tesla, physicist, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, futurist Karl von Terzaghi, civil engineer and founder of soil mechanics TU Austria International Conference of Physics Students Graz University of Technology TUGRAZonline Alumni Union of TU Graz Library of the TU Graz Technology Exploitation Office of TU Graz Study in Austria: A Guide
Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist. He is celebrated for his principle — known as the Doppler effect — that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer, he used this concept to explain the color of binary stars. Doppler was born in Salzburg in 1803. After completing high school, Doppler studied philosophy in Salzburg and mathematics and physics at the Imperial–Royal Polytechnic Institute, where he became an assistant in 1829. In 1835 he began work at the Prague Polytechnic, where he received an appointment in 1841. One year at the age of 38, Doppler gave a lecture to the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences and subsequently published his most notable work, "Über das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels". There is a facsimile edition with an English translation by Alec Eden. In this work, Doppler postulated his principle that the observed frequency of a wave depends on the relative speed of the source and the observer, he tried to use this concept for explaining the colour of binary stars.
This was independently at the same time when physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau became involved in aspects of the discovery of the Doppler effect, known by the French as the Doppler-Fizeau Effect. Fizeau contributed towards understanding its effect with light rather than sound, in doing so, corrected many of Doppler's persistent errors, he developed the formal mathematical theorem underlying the principles of this effect. In 1848, he discovered the frequency shift of a wave when the source and receiver are moving relative to each other, therefore being the first to predict blue shifts and red shifts of light waves. Doppler continued working as a professor at the Prague Polytechnic, publishing over 50 articles on mathematics and astronomy, but in 1847 he left Prague for the professorship of mathematics and mechanics at the Academy of Mines and Forests in Selmecbánya, in 1849 he moved to Vienna. Doppler's research was interrupted by the revolutionary incidents of 1848. During the Hungarian Revolution, he fled to Vienna.
There he was appointed head of the Institute for Experimental Physics at the University of Vienna in 1850. While there, along with Franz Unger, influenced the development of young Gregor Mendel, the founding father of genetics, a student at the University of Vienna from 1851 to 1853. Doppler died on 17 March 1853 at age 49 from a pulmonary disease in Venice, his tomb, found by Dr. Peter M. Schuster, is just inside the entrance of the Venetian island cemetery of San Michele; some confusion exists about Doppler's full name. Doppler referred to himself as Christian Doppler; the records of his birth and baptism stated Christian Andreas Doppler. Forty years after Doppler's death the misnomer Johann Christian Doppler was introduced by the astronomer Julius Scheiner. Scheiner's mistake has since been copied by many. Christian Doppler. Wien: Böhlau, 1992. Bd. 1: ISBN 3-205-05483-0 1. Teil: Helmuth Grössing: Wissenschaft, Umwelt, Gesellschaft. Teil: Karl Kadletz Quellenanhang. Bd. 2: ISBN 3-205-05508-X 3. Teil: Peter Schuster: Das Werk.
List of Austrian scientists List of Austrians List of minor planets named after people Alec Eden: Christian Doppler: Leben und Werk. Salzburg: Landespressebureau, 1988. ISBN 3-85015-069-0 Hoffmann, Robert; the Life of an Unknown Person. Christian Doppler's Youth in Vienna. In: Ewald Hiebl, Maurizio Musso, Christian Doppler – Life and Work. Principle an Applications. Proceedings of the Commemorative Symposia in Salzburg, Prague, Venice. Pöllauberg/Austria, Hainault/UK, Atascadero/US, pages 33 – 46. Christian Doppler at Find a Grave O'Connor, John J..
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators. Since 2009, ARWU has been published and copyrighted annually by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, an independent organization focusing on higher education. In 2011, a board of international advisory consisting of scholars and policy researchers was established to provide suggestions; the publication includes global league tables for institutions and a whole and for a selection of individual subjects, alongside independent regional Greater China Ranking and Macedonian HEIs Ranking. ARWU is regarded as one of the three most influential and observed university rankings, alongside QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it is praised for the objectivity and transparency of its methodology, but draws some criticism as it does not adequately adjust for the size of the institution, thus larger institutions would tend to rank above smaller ones.
ARWU is praised by several institutions for its methodology and influence. A survey on higher education published by The Economist in 2005 commented ARWU as "the most used annual ranking of the world's research universities." In 2010, The Chronicle of Higher Education called ARWU "the best-known and most influential global ranking of universities". EU Research Headlines reported the ARWU's work on 31 December 2003: "The universities were evaluated using several indicators of research performance." Chancellor of University of Oxford, Chris Patten and former Vice-Chancellor of Australian National University, Ian Chubb, said: "the methodology looks solid... it looks like a pretty good stab at a fair comparison." And "The SJTU rankings were reported and around the world... offer an important comparative view of research performance and reputation." Respectively. Philip G. Altbach named ARWU's'consistency, clarity of purpose, transparency' as significant strengths. While ARWU has originated in China, the ranking have been praised for being unbiased towards Asian institutions.
The ranking is condemned for "relying too much on award factors" thus undermining the importance of quality of instruction and humanities. A 2007 paper published in the journal Scientometrics found that the results from the Shanghai rankings could not be reproduced from raw data using the method described by Liu and Cheng. A 2013 paper in the same journal showed how the Shanghai ranking results could be reproduced. In a report from April 2009, J-C. Billaut, D. Bouyssou and Ph. Vincke analyse how the ARWU works, using their insights as specialists of Multiple Criteria Decision Making, their main conclusions are. The ARWU researchers themselves, N. C Liu and Y Cheng, think that the quality of universities cannot be measured by mere numbers and any ranking must be controversial, they suggest that university and college rankings should be used with caution and their methodologies must be understood before reporting or using the results. ARWU has been criticised by the European Commission as well as some EU member states for "favour Anglo-Saxon higher education institutions".
For instance, ARWU is criticised in France, where it triggers an annual controversy, focusing on its ill-adapted character to the French academic system and the unreasonable weight given to research performed decades ago. It is criticised in France for its use as a motivation for fusing universities into larger ones. Indeed, a further criticism has been that the metrics used are not independent of university size, e.g. number of publications or award winners will mechanically add as universities are grouped, independently of research quality. As it may take much time for rising universities to produce Nobel laureates and Fields Medalists with numbers comparable to those of older institutions, the Institute created alternative rankings excluding such award factors so as to provide another way of comparisons of academic performance; the weighting of all the other factors remains unchanged, thus the grand total of 70%. There are two categories in ARWU's disciplinary rankings, broad subject fields and specific subjects.
The methodology is similar to that adopted in the overall table, including award factors, paper citation, the number of cited scholars. Considering the development of specific areas, two independent regional league tables with different methodologies were launched. Academic Ranking of World Universities Website Jambor, Paul Z.'The Changing Dynamics of PhDs and the Future of Higher Educational Development in Asia and the Rest of the World' Department of Education – The United States of America: Educational Resources Information Center, September 26, 2009 Csizmazia Roland A. Jambor, Paul Z. "Korean Higher Education on the Rise: Time to Learn From the Success – Comparative Research at the Tertiary Education Level", Human Resource Management Academic Research Society: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development,Volume 3, Issue 2
The Kaplan turbine is a propeller-type water turbine which has adjustable blades. It was developed in 1913 by Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan, who combined automatically adjusted propeller blades with automatically adjusted wicket gates to achieve efficiency over a wide range of flow and water level; the Kaplan turbine was an evolution of the Francis turbine. Its invention allowed efficient power production in low-head applications, not possible with Francis turbines; the head ranges from 10–70 metres and the output ranges from 5 to 200 MW. Runner diameters are between 11 metres. Turbines rotate at a constant rate; that rate ranges from as low as 54.5 rpm to 450 rpm. Kaplan turbines are now used throughout the world in high-flow, low-head power production. Viktor Kaplan living in Brno, Austria-Hungary, obtained his first patent for an adjustable blade propeller turbine in 1912, but the development of a commercially successful machine would take another decade. Kaplan struggled with cavitation problems, in 1922 abandoned his research for health reasons.
In 1919 Kaplan installed a demonstration unit at Czechoslovakia. In 1922 Voith introduced an 1100 HP Kaplan turbine for use on rivers. In 1924 an 8 MW unit went on line at Sweden; this marked the commercial success and widespread acceptance of Kaplan turbines. The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. Power is recovered from the kinetic energy of the flowing water; the design combines features of axial turbines. The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube. Water is directed tangentially through the wicket gate and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin; the outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy. The turbine does not need to be at the lowest point of water flow as long as the draft tube remains full of water. A higher turbine location, increases the suction, imparted on the turbine blades by the draft tube.
The resulting pressure drop may lead to cavitation. Variable geometry of the wicket gate and turbine blades allow efficient operation for a range of flow conditions. Kaplan turbine efficiencies are over 90%, but may be lower in low head applications. Current areas of research include CFD driven efficiency improvements and new designs that raise survival rates of fish passing through; because the propeller blades are rotated on high-pressure hydraulic oil bearings, a critical element of Kaplan design is to maintain a positive seal to prevent emission of oil into the waterway. Discharge of oil into rivers is not desirable because of the waste of resources and resulting ecological damage. Kaplan turbines are used throughout the world for electrical power production, they cover the lowest head hydro sites and are suited for high flow conditions. Inexpensive micro turbines on the Kaplan turbine model are manufactured for individual power production designed for 3 m of head which can work with as little as 0.3 m of head at a reduced performance provided sufficient water flow.
Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency over 90%. They are expensive to design and install, but operate for decades, they have found a new home in offshore wave energy generation, see Wave Dragon. The Kaplan turbine is the most used of the propeller-type turbines, but several other variations exist: Propeller turbines have non-adjustable propeller vanes, they are used. Commercial products exist for producing several hundred watts from only a few feet of head. Larger propeller turbines produce more than 100 MW. At the La Grande-1 generating station in northern Quebec, 12 propeller turbines generate 1368 MW. Bulb or tubular turbines are designed into the water delivery tube. A large bulb is centered in the water pipe which holds wicket gate and runner. Tubular turbines are a axial design, whereas Kaplan turbines have a radial wicket gate. Pit turbines are bulb turbines with a gear box; this allows for bulb. Straflo turbines are axial turbines with the generator outside of the water channel, connected to the periphery of the runner.
S-turbines eliminate the need for a bulb housing by placing the generator outside of the water channel. This is accomplished with a jog in the water channel and a shaft connecting the runner and generator; the VLH turbine is an open flow low head "kaplan" turbine slanted at an angle to the water flow. It has a large diameter >3.55 m, is low speed using a directly connected shaft mounted permanent magnet alternator with electronic power regulation and is fish friendly. The DIVE-Turbine is a vertical propeller turbine with double regulation by wicket gates and speed variation, it covers a range of application up to 2 MW with efficiencies comparable to standard Kaplan-Turbines. Due to the propeller design with fixed blades it is considered a fish friendly turbine. Tyson turbines are a fixed propeller turbine designed to be immersed in a fast flowing river, either permanently anchored in the river bed, or attached to a boat or barge. Https://www.wws-wasserkraft.at/en National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark Kaplan Turbine, retrieved 2010 June 24 Bently Nevada Application Note on Hydro turbine vibration, retrieved 2014 August 14
Ottó Titusz Bláthy was a Hungarian electrical engineer. In his career, he became the co-inventor of the modern electric transformer, the tension regulator, the AC watt-hour meter.motor capacitor for the single-phase electric motor, the turbo generator, the high-efficiency turbo generator. Bláthy's career as an inventor began during his time at the Ganz Works in 1883. There, he conducted experiments for creating a transformer, it is noteworthy. In 1885 the ZBD model alternating-current transformer was invented by three Hungarian engineers: Ottó Bláthy, Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky.. In the autumn of 1889 he patented the AC watt-meter, he attended schools in Tata and Vienna, where he obtained diploma of machinery in 1882. Between 1881 and 1883 he worked at the machinery workshop of the Hungarian Railways. Attracted by the successes of Károly Zipernowsky, he joined his team on 1 July 1883, he admitted he had learnt nothing about electrotechnics in university, so he started to learn about the theory himself.
Using the Maxwell equations he invented a practical approach of sizing magnetic coils. Kapp and Hopkinson only published their findings in 1886, 1887, his practical calculation method was crucial in building the first practical transformer. Based on his findings, he rebuilt his machines in 1883 and obtained better efficiency with the same weight, he was the first to investigate the heat dissipation problems of electric motors, at that time the connection between current density and heat was determined. At the Turin Italian National Exhibition in 1884, he saw Gaulard and Gibbs's "secondary generator"' system, he decided to improve it. Including a closed-loop magnetic field, based on the findings of Faraday, he conducted experiments with Miksa Déri in the summer of 1884 at the Ganz factory. Based on these experiments, they invented the transformer in 1885, unveiled at the Budapest National Exhibition in 1885. Based on the opinions of Galileo Ferraris, the Italian government ordered a power transformer for Rome, installed in October 1886.
They designed a power plant for Tivoli, built by Ganz, with six water turbines and 5000 V, which were worked in parallel with the old steam engine generators. This was the first time in history, his other invention, the electricity meter, was first introduced to the market in 1889. He tried to decrease its weight. Besides his scientific work, Bláthy is well known as an author of chess problems, he specialized in the field of long moremovers known as longmovers.. Bláthy's Inventions Technical University of Budapest, "Ottó Titusz Bláthy". Budapest, 1996. Blathy's problems on PDB Server Biography and inventions of Otto Titusz Bláthy Evgeny Katz. "Ottó Titusz Bláthy". Clarkson University. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-02