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Television New Zealand, more referred to as TVNZ, is a state-owned television network, broadcast throughout New Zealand and parts of the Pacific region. Although the network identifies as a national, part-public broadcaster, it is commercially funded. TVNZ was competition free until November 1989; this began the battle for ratings with the only real rival MediaWorks New Zealand, which operates channels Three, ThreeLife and The Edge TV. However, TVNZ still maintains a number of transmission advantages due to its long-standing relationship with the state-owned sister company Kordia. TVNZ operates playout services from its Auckland studio via Kordia's fibre and microwave network for TVNZ 1, TVNZ 2 and TVNZ Duke, with new media video services via the American-owned Brightcove, streamed on the Akamai RTMP/HLS DNS based caching network, its former channels include TVNZ Kidzone, TVNZ Heartland, TVNZ U, TVNZ 7, TVNZ 6, TVNZ Sport Extra. 90% of TVNZ's revenue is from commercial activity. The remainder of its funding comes from government funding agencies.

TVNZ was created in February 1980, through the merger of Television One and South Pacific Television. Until January 1989, it was paired with Radio New Zealand as the Broadcasting Corporation of New Zealand; the broadcaster was based in Television One's former headquarters at the Avalon television centre in Lower Hutt, however over the course of the 1980s, operations were moved to Auckland. In 1989, TVNZ moved to a new television centre in central Auckland. Broadcasting in New Zealand was deregulated in 1989; the Labour-led government under Helen Clark from 1999 to 2008 pursued a programme of public broadcasting reforms. New Zealand's wide-ranging adoption of neoliberal policies in the mid-1980s and 1990s had large sections of the state sector privatised; as a state owned enterprise, TVNZ enjoyed enormous commercial success and paid the Crown substantial dividends. However, the commercial success had been achieved through an unabashed pursuit of ratings through populist and tabloid content, prior to the 1999 election the National-led government was evidently positioning TVNZ for commercialisation Labour-led administrations since 1999 explicitly recognised the market failures of a wholly commercial broadcasting sector and re-emphasised television's cultural and democratic functions in their policy thinking.

The Clark government's highest profile broadcasting reform to date was the restructuring of TVNZ as a Crown entity in 2003. This introduced a dual remit whereby the broadcaster had to maintain its commercial performance while implementing a new public service Charter; the TVNZ Charter would require the negotiation and reconciliation of contradictory commercial and public service imperatives. The final version of the TVNZ Charter included a range of public service objectives and expectations. However, this dual remit precluded any transformation of TVNZ into fully-fledged public service broadcaster, TVNZ's efforts to balance its pursuit of commercial performance and Charter objectives were soon being criticised. Despite some investment in local content, including new documentaries and discussion programmes, the content on TV One and TV2 remained similar to the pre-charter schedules, with a continuing high proportion of light entertainment and reality-TV shows. TVNZ continues to pay dividends to the Crown.

However, from 2006 until 2009 TVNZ received $15.11 million each year from Government to assist it with fulfilling Charter obligations. There was much debate about the initial secrecy surrounding funding allocations and the programmes supported; the allocation of $5 million toward coverage of the 2008 Olympics, the rights for which are secured by a competitive tender between broadcasters, was the most controversial. In 2009 the Government gave control of that funding to funding agency NZ On Air. NZ On Air announced the creation of the contestable "Platinum Fund" in April 2009, setting aside the $15.11 million for high quality drama and other programme types. Following the election of a National Party-led government under John Key in 2008, the Charter was abolished in favour of a return to the 1990s model of a full commercial broadcaster. There is much debate on the future of TVNZ, which focuses on the nature of public service broadcasting and its commercial role. An example was in a memo called A More Public Broadcaster written by outgoing Chief Executive Ian Fraser to the board of TVNZ in October 2005, was obtained and released by Green MP Sue Kedgley.

The memo outlined three options. These were: TV One as a non-commercial network, like ABC in Australia, charged with delivering Charter values, merging with Radio New Zealand and Māori Television TV One a semi-commercial broadcaster with no more than six minutes of advertisements an hour like SBS in Australia TV One and TV2 remaining unchanged, but two new public service channels being broadcast via digital television. TV One and TV2 are now commercial with 15 – 20 minutes of ads per hour, plus ads overplayed over programs. On 15 February 2006, a group of 31 prominent New Zealanders signed an open letter, published as a full-page newspaper advertisement, calling for


Panhala is a city and a Hill station Municipal Council 18 km northwest of Kolhapur, in Kolhapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Panhala is the smallest city in Maharashtra and being a Municipal Council the city is developing rapidly; the city sprawls in the Panhala fort commands a panoramic view of the valley below. The main historical attraction here is the Panhala fort. There are many places of interest, each with its share of haunting anecdotes; the history of Panhala is linked with the history of the Maratha empire, with its founder, chatrapati Shivaji. Panhala is the only fort where chatrapati Shivaji spent more than 500 days, other than his childhood homes, it was Maratha State capital until 1782 and in 1827 it became part of the British Empire. This imposing fort, 20 km northwest of Kolhapur, is built on an outlying spur of the Sahyadris, rising more than 400 m above plain, is the largest of all the Deccan forts; the strategic importance of Panhala, guarding one of the principal routes through the Western Ghat, can be judged from its long and varied history.

Built between 1178 and 1209, it first served as the headquarters of the Shilahara ruler Bhoja II, subsequently passed into hands of the Yadavas. It was a favorite outpost of the Bahamanis of Bidar. By the beginning of the 16th century Panhala was absorbed into the kingdom of Bijapur; the Adil Shahis were responsible for rebuilding the ramparts and gateways. The fort was raided by Chatrapati Shivaji in 1659, but it was not until 1673 that he was able to occupy it permanently. After Chatrapati Sambhaji’s death in 1689, it was captured by Aurangzeb. However, it was re-captured in 1692 by Kashi Ranganath Sarpotdar under the guidance of Parshuram Pant Pratinidhi. In 1701 Panhala was surrendered to Aurangzeb, it was here that the Mughal Emperor received the English Ambassador, Sir William Norris. Within a few months the fort was retaken by the Maratha forces under Pant Amatya Ramachandra. Tarabai who asserted her autonomy by founding an independent dynasty. In 1782 these rulers shifted their headquarters to Kolhapur.

After a local rebellion in 1844, Panhala was taken by the British. More than 7 km of fortifications define the triangular zone of Panhala fort; the walls are protected for long sections by steep escarpments, reinforced by a parapet with slit holes. The remaining sections have 5–9 m high ramparts, strengthened by round bastions; the East Gate called Char Darawaja, through which the road passes on arrival at fort, was demolished by the British. The fort has another satellite fort visible, it is said. The well-known poet Kavi Moropant Stayed here. Nearby are the Sambhaji temple, Someshwar temple, Teen Darwaza, Raj Dindi,Sajja Kothi, Ambabai Temple, where Shivaji used to seek blessings before venturing on expeditions. Pavankhind, where Baji Prabhu Deshpande laid down his life to cover Shivaji's escape. Panhala was traditionally considered the residence of Maharishi Parashara; the Karvir or Kolhapur Puran, a modern compilation, mentions Panhala as Pannagalay. In old inscriptions the name appears as Padmanal.

These are supposed to be the caves. Moropant, an 18th-century Marathi poet, wrote most of his work in these caves. Moropant's birthplace is Panhala; these caves are mentioned in the Karvir Puraan as tirths. Panhala is located at 16°49′12″N 74°7′12″E, it has an average elevation of 754 metres. Arboretum Site is R. S. No. 457 & 466 located along famous Teen Darwaja to Mangeshkar bungalow road. Area under plantation is 2.56 hectares. There are more than 3000 individuals of flowering plants; the planted species include trees, grasses, Perennial Herbs, orchids, climbers, pines, cycads. The activity itself is a Unique Activity in Maharashtra and is a joint venture of Panhala Municipal Council, Forest Department and Social Forestry; as of 2001 India census, Panhala had a population of 3450. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Panhala has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 88%, female literacy is 76%. In Panhala, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Panhala is about 20 km from Kolhapur. There are continuous bus services from Kolhapur to Panhala, or autorickshaw services are available. You can reach Panhala from Sangli, about 55 km from Panhala. MSRTC buses, private cars and autorickshaw services are available from Sangli to Panhala. Kolhapur now renamed. Miraj - 55 km you can hire private cars and auto rickshaws from Miraj junction, Sangli or Kolhapur stations for Panhala. Kolhapur - 20 km Sangli - 55 kmYou can get, Buses right from railway station to Panhala fort or you can hire taxi or auto from Kolhapur to Panhala fort PANHALA

Alexandr v tramvaji

Alexandr v tramvaji is one of the best-known works of author Pavel Řezníček. It depicts a man named Alexandre whose job as the "razorman" travels in a trolley and cuts women's feet with a razor he holds in his boot; the story presents many characters, including Madame Tussaud who wishes to gain weight in order to bring the police presidium to crumble down into hell, Alexander's portagé, Primář Karlach, the evil philosopher-doctor, deposed from his hospital and has returned. As Řezníček uses his traditional style of writing, it is nearly impossible to follow the line of events, because he interrupts the descriptions of situations with intermezzos, such as "a women is spinache" around which numerous sentences are based, showing what something is and what something else is not; these types of sentences are illogical and they fail to have a point, therefore much of them are just plain descriptions. The events of this book lead through various unconnected situations up to Řezníčeks classic ending, in which all the characters are brought into one place and taken care of, this time before a tribunal from which they escape.

Another part of Řezníček's writing is the usage of himself in his novels, describing himself in the first, but in the third person. He breaks the fourth wall by insulting the readers or the book or supremely praising them

Joseph McCormick (Ohio)

Joseph McCormick was a Democratic lawyer in the U. S. state of Ohio who participated in the second State Constitutional Convention and was Ohio Attorney General for a few months 1851–1852. Joseph McCormick was born in 1814 in Cincinnati, the only child of Adam McCormick and his wife Margaret Ellison, he lived as a child in West Union. He may have attended Marietta College of Ohio. In 1831 and 1832, he was in Ohio as a storekeeper, he studied law under Nelson Barrere and was admitted to the bar in 1835. He located in Portsmouth for a few months, in Cincinnati until 1838. In 1838, McCormick became Prosecuting Attorney of Adams County. Again in 1843, first by appointment, by election, was again prosecutor until 1845. On May 20, 1840, he was married to sister of Judge John M. Smith of West Union, they had two sons and one daughter. Joseph McCormick was an alcoholic, when his father died in 1849, he left a large estate, he left a life estate to Joseph, with the remainder to the two grandchildren alive. He directed the trustee of the estate to turn over the entire estate to Joseph should he reform his drinking habit.

The estate was held in trust until Joseph's death. McCormick was elected from Adams County to the second Ohio Constitutional Convention in 1850. On May 5, 1851, he was appointed by Governor Reuben Wood as the second Ohio Attorney General, to replace Henry Stanbery, whose term had expired, he served about seven months, until George E. Pugh, elected under the new constitution, assumed the office. In about 1857, McCormick went to California, where he died in 1879, his wife and son remained in Manchester from 1857 until her death in 1872

1994 Currie Cup

The 1994 Currie Cup was the 56th season in the South African Currie Cup competition since it started in 1889. There were 6 participating teams in the 1994 Currie Cup; these teams played each other twice over the course of the season, once away. Teams received two points for one points for a draw; the top two teams qualified for the final. None. Northern Transvaal 13 - 57 Transvaal Northern Transvaal 44 - 35 Transvaal Northern Transvaal 23 - 12 Natal Northern Transvaal 28 - 44 Natal Northern Transvaal 22 - 17 Eastern Province Northern Transvaal 26 - 23 Eastern Province Northern Transvaal 7 - 32 Western Province Northern Transvaal 25 - 34 Western Province Northern Transvaal 27 - 34 Cheetahs Northern Transvaal 30 - 33 Cheetahs Currie Cup Log 1994

Civitella Ranieri Foundation

The Civitella Ranieri Foundation is an American artists’ community located at a 15th-century castle in the Umbria region of Italy. The Foundation provides four sessions of six-week long unstructured residencies every year to visual artists and composers. Founded by arts philanthropist Ursula Corning in 1995, Civitella Ranieri Foundation has hosted over 800 Fellows and Director's Guests from across the globe. Civitella Ranieri is an early Renaissance castle in Umbria; the Ranieri family, a noble Italian bloodline, first settled in Perugia and has owned the land since the early 11th century. Ursula Corning, a distant relative to the Ranieri family, turned the castle into the Civitella Ranieri Foundation, which started operating as an artist residency in 1995; each residency community at Civitella Ranieri Foundation is selected by a jury, it brings together 12-15 international artists and composers at pivotal moments in their careers. The Foundation provides studio space, accommodation and covers travel expenses.

Dana Prescott has been the Foundation's Executive Director since 2007. Civitella Ranieri Fellows have been awarded numerous honors, including Pulitzer Prize, Guggenheim Fellowships, Fulbright Grants, National Endowment for the Arts Grants and Fellowships, MacArthur Foundation Grants. Compositions by Civitella Ranieri Music Fellows have been performed by symphonies worldwide and have received awards such as the Grammy’s. Mabel Cheung Atom Egoyan Martin Bresnick Du Yun John Harbison Alexander Hawkins Fred Hersch Anders Hillborg Johann Johannsson Tania Leon Andrew Norman Pauline Oliveros Elliott Sharp Esperanza Spalding Yehudi Weiner A. Igoni Barrett Andrei Bitov Brian Chikwava Henri Cole Billy Collins Mia Couto Kamel Daoud Anita DeSai Rachel Kushner Mike McCormack Azar Nafisi Robert Stone Mark Strand Kate Tempest Allora & Calzadilla Emma Amos El Anatsui Alison Bechdel Manfredi Beninati Xu Bing Yun-Fei Ji William Kentridge Lat Kerry James Marshall Martha Rosler Matthias Weischer Sun Xun A select number of Director’s Guests are invited to join each residency session.

Notable Director’s Guests include Vivien Greene, Rosanna Warren, Fred Hersch, Ann Beattie, Tobias Wolff, John Eaton, Mark Strand, James Siena, Yehudi Wyner