An oil filter is a filter designed to remove contaminants from engine oil, transmission oil, lubricating oil, or hydraulic oil. Oil filters are used in many different types of hydraulic machinery. A chief use of the oil filter is in internal-combustion engines in on- and off-road motor vehicles, light aircraft, various naval vessels. Other vehicle hydraulic systems, such as those in automatic transmissions and power steering, are equipped with an oil filter. Gas turbine engines, such as those on jet aircraft require the use of oil filters. Aside from these uses, oil production and recycling facilities employ filters in the manufacturing process. Early automobile engines did not use oil filters. For this reason, along with the low quality of oil available frequent oil changes were required; the first oil filters were simple consisting of a screen placed at the oil pump intake. On November 27, 1923, American inventors George Greenhalgh and Ernest Sweetland filed U. S. Patent #1721250 for an automotive oil filter and called it the Purolator, a portmanteau of "pure oil later".
The Purolator oil filter was the first oil filter invented for the automobile and revolutionized the filtration industry. The Purolator oil filter is still in production today; this original invention was a bypass filter: most of the oil flowed directly from the oil pan to the engine's working parts, a smaller proportion of the oil was sent through the filter via a second flow path in parallel with the first. The oil was thus filtered over time. Modern bypass oil filter systems for diesel engines are becoming popular in consumer applications, but have been in commercial use for some time due to potential reduction in maintenance costs. Oil filters are located near the middle or bottom of the engine. Most pressurized lubrication systems incorporate an overpressure relief valve to allow oil to bypass the filter if its flow restriction is excessive, to protect the engine from oil starvation. Filter bypass may occur if the filter is clogged or the oil is thickened by cold weather; the overpressure relief valve is incorporated into the oil filter.
Filters mounted such that oil tends to drain from them incorporate an anti-drainback valve to hold oil in the filter after the engine is shut down. This is done to avoid a delay in oil pressure buildup; this situation can cause premature wear of moving parts due to initial lack of oil. Mechanical designs employ an element made of bulk material or pleated Filter paper to entrap and sequester suspended contaminants; as material builds up on the filtration medium, oil flow is progressively restricted. This requires periodic replacement of the filter element. Early engine oil filters were of cartridge construction, in which a permanent housing contains a replaceable filter element or cartridge; the housing is mounted either directly on the engine or remotely with supply and return pipes connecting it to the engine. In the mid-1950s, the spin-on oil filter design was introduced: a self-contained housing and element assembly, to be unscrewed from its mount and replaced with a new one; this made filter changes more convenient and less messy, came to be the dominant type of oil filter installed by the world's automakers.
Conversion kits were offered for vehicles equipped with cartridge-type filters. In the 1990s, European and Asian automakers in particular began to shift back in favor of replaceable-element filter construction, because it generates less waste with each filter change. American automakers have begun to shift to replaceable-cartridge filters, retrofit kits to convert from spin-on to cartridge-type filters are offered for popular applications. Commercially available automotive oil filters vary in their design and construction details. Ones that are made from synthetic material excepting the metal drain cylinders contained within are far superior and longer lasting than the traditional cardboard/cellulose/paper type that still predominate; these variables affect the efficacy and cost of the filter. Magnetic filters use an electromagnet to capture ferromagnetic particles. An advantage of magnetic filtration is that maintaining the filter requires cleaning the particles from the surface of the magnet.
Automatic transmissions in vehicles have a magnet in the fluid pan to sequester magnetic particles and prolong the life of the media-type fluid filter. Some companies are manufacturing magnets that attach to the outside of an oil filter or magnetic drain plugs -- first invented and offered for cars and motorcycles in the mid-1930s -- to aid in capturing these metallic particles, though there is ongoing debate as to the effectiveness of such devices. A sedimentation or gravity bed filter allows contaminants heavier than oil to settle to the bottom of a container under the influence of gravity. A centrifugal oil cleaner is a rotary sedimentation device using centrifugal force rather than gravity to separate contaminants from the oil, in the same manner as any other centrifuge. Pressurized oil enters the center of the housing and passes into a drum rotor free to spin on a bearing and seal; the rotor has two jet nozzles arranged to direct a stream of oil at the inner housing to rotate the drum.
The oil slides to the bottom of the housing wall, leaving particulate oil contaminants stuck to the housing walls. The housing must periodi
An engine block is the structure which contains the cylinders, other parts, of an internal combustion engine. In an early automotive engine, the engine block consisted of just the cylinder block, to which a separate crankcase was attached. Modern engine blocks have the crankcase integrated with the cylinder block as a single component. Engine blocks also include elements such as coolant passages and oil galleries; the term "cylinder block" is used interchangeably with engine block, although technically the block of a modern engine would be classified as a monobloc. Another common term for an engine block is "block"; the main structure of an engine consists of the cylinders, coolant passages, oil galleries and cylinder head. The first production engines of the 1880s to 1920s used separate components for each of these elements, which were bolted together during engine assembly. Modern engines, however combine many of these elements into a single component, in order to reduce production costs; the evolution from separate components to an engine block integrating several elements has been a gradual progression throughout the history of internal combustion engines.
The integration of elements has relied on the development of machining techniques. For example, a practical low-cost V8 engine was not feasible until Ford developed the techniques used to build the Ford flathead V8 engine; these techniques were applied to other engines and manufacturers. A cylinder block is the structure which contains the cylinder, plus any cylinder sleeves and coolant passages. In the earliest decades of internal combustion engine development, cylinders were cast individually, so cylinder blocks were produced individually for each cylinder. Following that, engines began to combine two or three cylinders into a single cylinder block, with an engine combining several of these cylinder blocks combined together. In early engines with multiple cylinder banks — such as a V6, V8 or flat-6 engine — each bank was a separate cylinder block. Since the 1930s, mass production methods have developed to allow both banks of cylinders to be integrated into the same cylinder block. Wet liner cylinder blocks use cylinder walls that are removable, which fit into the block by means of special gaskets.
They are referred to as "wet liners" because their outer sides come in direct contact with the engine's coolant. In other words, the liner is the entire wall, rather than being a sleeve. Advantages of wet liners are a lower mass, reduced space requirement and that the coolant liquid is heated quicker from a cold start, which reduces start-up fuel consumption and provides heating for the car cabin sooner. Dry liner cylinder blocks use either the block's material or a discrete liner inserted into the block to form the backbone of the cylinder wall. Additional sleeves are inserted within, which remain "dry" on their outside, surrounded by the block's material. For either wet or dry liner designs, the liners can be replaced allowing overhaul or rebuild without replacement of the block itself, although this is not a practical repair option. An engine where all the cylinders share a common block is called a monobloc engine. Most modern engines use a monoblock design of some type, therefore few modern engines have a separate block for each cylinder.
This has led to the term "engine block" implying a monobloc design and the term monobloc itself is used. In the early years of the internal combustion engine, casting technology could produce either large castings, or castings with complex internal cores to allow for water jackets, but not both simultaneously. Most early engines those with more than four cylinders, had their cylinders cast as pairs or triplets of cylinders bolted to a single crankcase; as casting techniques improved, an entire cylinder block of 4, 6, or 8 cylinders could be produced in one piece. This monobloc construction was more cost effective to produce. For engines with an inline configuration, this meant that all the cylinders, plus the crankcase, could be produced in a single component. One of the early engines produced using this method is the 4-cylinder engine in the Ford Model T, introduced in 1908; the method spread to straight-six engines and was used by the mid-1920s. Up until the 1930s, most V engines retained a separate block casting for each cylinder bank, with both bolted onto a common crankcase.
For economy, some engines were designed to use identical castings for each bank and right. A rare exception is the Lancia 22½° narrow-angle V12 of 1919, which used a single block casting combining both banks; the Ford flathead V-8 — introduced in 1932 — represented a significant development in the production of affordable V engines. It was the first V8 engine with a single engine block casting, putting a V8 into an affordable car for the first time; the communal water jacket of monobloc designs permitted closer spacing between cylinders. The monobloc design improved the mechanical stiffness of the engine against bending and the important torsional twist, as cylinder numbers, engine lengths, power ratings increased. Most engines blocks today, except some unusual V or radial engines, are a monobloc for all the cylinders, plus an integrated crankcase. In such cases, the skirts of the cylinder banks form a crankcase area of sorts, still called a crankcase despite no longer being a discrete part. Use of steel cylinder liners and bearing shells minimizes
Internal combustion engine cooling
Internal combustion engine cooling uses either air or liquid to remove the waste heat from an internal combustion engine. For small or special purpose engines, cooling using air from the atmosphere makes for a lightweight and simple system. Watercraft can use water directly from the surrounding environment to cool their engines. For water-cooled engines on aircraft and surface vehicles, waste heat is transferred from a closed loop of water pumped through the engine to the surrounding atmosphere by a radiator. Water has a higher heat capacity than air, can thus move heat more away from the engine, but a radiator and pumping system add weight and cost. Higher-power engines generate more waste heat, but can move more weight, meaning they are water-cooled. Radial engines allow air to flow around each cylinder directly, giving them an advantage for air cooling over straight engines, flat engines, V engines. Rotary engines have a similar configuration, but the cylinders continually rotate, creating an air flow when the vehicle is stationary.
Aircraft design more favors lower weight and air-cooled designs. Rotary engines were popular on aircraft until the end of World War I, but had serious stability and efficiency problems. Radial engines were popular until the end of World War II, until gas turbine engines replaced them. Modern propeller-driven aircraft with internal-combustion engines are still air-cooled. Modern cars favor power over weight, have water-cooled engines. Modern motorcycles are lighter than cars, both cooling fluids are common; some sport motorcycles were cooled with both oil. Heat engines generate mechanical power by extracting energy from heat flows, much as a water wheel extracts mechanical power from a flow of mass falling through a distance. Engines are inefficient, so more. Internal combustion engines remove waste heat through cool intake air, hot exhaust gases, explicit engine cooling. Engines with higher efficiency less as waste heat; some waste heat is essential: it guides heat through the engine, much as a water wheel works only if there is some exit velocity in the waste water to carry it away and make room for more water.
Thus, all heat engines need cooling to operate. Cooling is needed because high temperatures damage engine materials and lubricants and becomes more important in hot climates. Internal-combustion engines burn fuel hotter than the melting temperature of engine materials, hot enough to set fire to lubricants. Engine cooling removes energy fast enough to keep temperatures low; some high-efficiency engines run without explicit cooling and with only incidental heat loss, a design called adiabatic. Such engines can achieve high efficiency but compromise power output, duty cycle, engine weight and emissions. Most internal combustion engines are fluid cooled using either air or a liquid coolant run through a heat exchanger cooled by air. Marine engines and some stationary engines have ready access to a large volume of water at a suitable temperature; the water may be used directly to cool the engine, but has sediment, which can clog coolant passages, or chemicals, such as salt, that can chemically damage the engine.
Thus, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger, cooled by the body of water. Most liquid-cooled engines use a mixture of water and chemicals such as antifreeze and rust inhibitors; the industry term for the antifreeze mixture is engine coolant. Some antifreezes use no water at all, instead using a liquid with different properties, such as propylene glycol or a combination of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol. Most "air-cooled" engines use some liquid oil cooling, to maintain acceptable temperatures for both critical engine parts and the oil itself. Most "liquid-cooled" engines use some air cooling, with the intake stroke of air cooling the combustion chamber. An exception is Wankel engines, where some parts of the combustion chamber are never cooled by intake, requiring extra effort for successful operation. There are many demands on a cooling system. One key requirement is to adequately serve the entire engine, as the whole engine fails if just one part overheats. Therefore, it is vital.
Liquid-cooled engines are able to vary the size of their passageways through the engine block so that coolant flow may be tailored to the needs of each area. Locations with either high peak temperatures or high heat flow may require generous cooling; this reduces the occurrence of hot spots. Air-cooled engines may vary their cooling capacity by using more spaced cooling fins in that area, but this can make their manufacture difficult and expensive. Only the fixed parts of the engine, such as the block and head, are cooled directly by the main coolant system. Moving parts such as the pistons, to a lesser extent the crank and rods, must rely on the lubrication oil as a coolant, or to a limited amount of conduction into the block and thence the main coolant. High performance engines have additional oil, beyond the amount needed for lubrication, sprayed upwards onto the bottom of the piston just for extra cooling. Air-cooled motorcycles rely on oil-cooling in addition to air-cooling of the cylinder barrels.
Liquid-cooled engines have a circulation pump. The first engines relied
In automotive engineering, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald and refers to the folding together of multiple inputs and outputs. Exhaust manifolds are simple cast iron or stainless steel units which collect engine exhaust gas from multiple cylinders and deliver it to the exhaust pipe. For many engines, there are aftermarket tubular exhaust manifolds known as headers in American English, as extractor manifolds in British and Australian English, as "tubular manifolds" in British English; these consist of individual exhaust headpipes for each cylinder, which usually converge into one tube called a collector. Headers that do not have collectors are called zoomie headers; the most common types of aftermarket headers are made of mild steel or stainless steel tubing for the primary tubes along with flat flanges and a larger diameter collector made of a similar material as the primaries. They may be painted with a heat-resistant finish, or bare.
Chrome plated headers are available but these tend to blue after use. Polished stainless steel will color, but less than chrome in most cases. Another form of modification used is to insulate a aftermarket manifold; this decreases the amount of heat given off into the engine bay, therefore reducing the intake manifold temperature. There are a few types of thermal insulation but three are common: Ceramic paint is sprayed or brushed onto the manifold and cured in an oven; these are thin, so have little insulatory properties. A ceramic mixture is bonded to the manifold via thermal spraying to give a tough ceramic coating with good thermal insulation; this is used on performance production cars and track-only racers. Exhaust wrap is wrapped around the manifold. Although this is cheap and simple, it can lead to premature degradation of the manifold; the goal of performance exhaust headers is to decrease flow resistance, to increase the volumetric efficiency of an engine, resulting in a gain in power output.
The processes occurring can be explained by the gas laws the ideal gas law and the combined gas law. When an engine starts its exhaust stroke, the piston moves up the cylinder bore, decreasing the total chamber volume; when the exhaust valve opens, the high pressure exhaust gas escapes into the exhaust manifold or header, creating an "exhaust pulse" comprising three main parts: The high-pressure head is created by the large pressure difference between the exhaust in the combustion chamber and the atmospheric pressure outside of the exhaust system As the exhaust gases equalize between the combustion chamber and the atmosphere, the difference in pressure decreases and the exhaust velocity decreases. This forms the medium-pressure body component of the exhaust pulse The remaining exhaust gas forms the low-pressure tail component; this tail component may match ambient atmospheric pressure, but the momentum of the high and medium-pressure components reduces the pressure in the combustion chamber to a lower-than-atmospheric level.
This low pressure helps to extract all the combustion products from the cylinder and induct the intake charge during the overlap period when both intake and exhaust valves are open. The effect is known as "scavenging". Length, cross-sectional area, shaping of the exhaust ports and pipeworks influences the degree of scavenging effect, the engine speed range over which scavenging occurs; the magnitude of the exhaust scavenging effect is a direct function of the velocity of the high and medium pressure components of the exhaust pulse. Performance headers work to increase the exhaust velocity as much as possible. One technique is tuned-length primary tubes; this technique attempts to time the occurrence of each exhaust pulse, to occur one after the other in succession while still in the exhaust system. The lower pressure tail of an exhaust pulse serves to create a greater pressure difference between the high pressure head of the next exhaust pulse, thus increasing the velocity of that exhaust pulse.
In V6 and V8 engines where there is more than one exhaust bank, "Y-pipes" and "X-pipes" work on the same principle of using the low pressure component of an exhaust pulse to increase the velocity of the next exhaust pulse. Great care must be used when selecting the diameter of the primary tubes. Tubes that are too large will cause the exhaust gas to expand and slow down, decreasing the scavenging effect. Tubes that are too small will create exhaust flow resistance which the engine must work to expel the exhaust gas from the chamber, reducing power and leaving exhaust in the chamber to dilute the incoming intake charge. Since engines produce more exhaust gas at higher speeds, the header are tuned to a particular engine speed range according to the intended application. Wide primary tubes offer the best gains in power and torque at higher engine speeds, while narrow tubes offer the best gains at lower speeds. Many headers are resonance tuned, to utilize the low-pressure reflected wave rarefaction pulse which can help scavenging the combustion chamber during valve overlap.
This pulse is created in all exhaust systems each time a change in density occurs, such as when exhaust merges into the collector. For clarification, the rarefaction pulse is the technical term for the same process, described above in the "he
TVR Tuscan Speed Six
For the TVR Tuscan of 1967 to 1971, see TVR Tuscan. The TVR Tuscan is a sports car, manufactured by TVR in the United Kingdom from 1999 to 2006. Five different inline-six engine options were offered to customers. Four of these were variants of the aspirated 4.0 L Speed Six fuel feed by multipoint fuel injection making different amounts of power and torque, depending on the trim level selected. The last was a 3.6 L Speed Six which produced the same amount of power as the lowest-level 4.0 L engine, although less torque. Bore X stroke: 96 mm × 92 mm 4.0 L. Though there have been numerous tweaks to the Tuscan's chassis and suspension, the overall size and appearance of the variants remain identical apart from minor aerodynamic aids to the S model in the form of an undertray in the front and a small boot-lid spoiler on the rear. In October 2005 the "Mk 2" version of the Tuscan was introduced, though in reality this was just a minor facelift; the modifications were restricted to cosmetic changes to the front and rear lights, the dashboard, the spoilers on the S model plus some minor changes to the chassis to improve the handling.
At the same time, a new variant a full soft top was introduced alongside the original targa version. 0–30 mph: 1.72 s 0–60 mph: 3.68 s 0–100 mph: 8.08 s 100–0 mph: 4.15 s These test results were achieved in a post-2003 Tuscan S without traction-control or anti-lock brakes. TVR's design philosophy holds that such features do not improve either the performance or safety of their vehicles and thus they are not so equipped. TVR rejects the notion that these features, along with airbags, are "safety devices" and believes that, based on testing and experience, their cars are safer without these things than with them. A modified version of the car was used in the 2003 24 Hours of Le Mans, again the following year. A TVR Tuscan was used as a spy car in the 2003 movie Looney Tunes: Back in Action. One was featured in the feature film Swordfish. Official TVR website
The TVR Typhon is a sports car produced by the British car manufacturer TVR in their factory in Blackpool between 2000 and 2006. It is the fastest production TVR built. Only three were built. All are in England. In the late 1990s, Peter Wheeler began the project that would fulfil his ambition to see TVRs at Le Mans. An new car was going to be needed, it would need to be built using modern composites, be more rigid than any previous TVR and designed for 200 mph on the Mulsanne Straight, to be stable and above all, to win. And so began what started labelled as the TuscanR and resulted in the 200 MPH+ Typhon the fastest and most expensive production car in TVR's history. There is confusion over the naming of this project. While the project itself was focused and singular, its naming was more typical of TVR; the car itself would be a steel tubular frame with full roll cage forming the backbone to a full carbon fibre monocoque. While larger than any previous road TVR, it would be lighter and much stronger.
New suspension designs were implemented and professional CAD design and aero testing ensured a shape that would be stable at 200 mph. It began life as the TuscanR; this was a composite race/road car. There was one road car prototype built in 2001, displayed during its lifetime in two colours and silver; the rear lights of this car differ from those. The early TVR T400R racers had this design. Between 2000 and 2004 TVR built a total of six or seven road cars. Of the latter, the 2001 prototype had the TuscanR body but from 2002 the other cars were of T400R design; the road cars had no standard interior. Shortly after TVR built the two road-going prototypes the project name changed. Both badged as TuscanR, the FIA rules for Le Mans stipulated that there had to be two models so in 2002 the red car was rebranded as the T400R and the Fleetwood Brown car as the T440R, named for the proposed BHP outputs of the models, priced at £71,995 and £74,995 respectively; the road project would offer a two-seater car with a long-range race tank or a 2+2 with a standard-sized tank.
When TVR delivered the first T440 customer car they announced that all cars would be 2+2 and with the longer range fuel tank. The monocoque design had been altered to offer better side impact protection. At the same time they announced the birth of the Typhon; the Typhon would be a supercharged 4.0L T440 with larger brakes and the option of a sequential gearbox over the standard 5SP manual. It would run'sequential' injection, instead of the traditional'batch' of other S6 cars; the T400R badge was dropped as the new Typhon model would retain the two-model line-up required by the FIA. The red T400R was seen with the T440R badge before being re-styled in the De Walt colours and used as a Le Mans promotional vehicle; this car is owned by Richard Stanton and is being recommissioned at TVR101. Before any customer Typhons could be delivered, Peter Wheeler sold TVR. With no race cars to support, the T440R badge was dropped at this time, leaving just the Typhon brand name to cover both NA and FI road cars.
The orange Typhon was fitted with the TVR Vortech supercharger and the in-house designed and built sequential box and went on to be retained by the factory as the development mule for the ill-fated Typhoon project. In 2004 during testing, the engine was found to produce over 600BHP. Over the course of 2005, TVR stated that excessive heat from the supercharger was a cause of delivery delays but the closure of the Composites Department around that time suggests that this was a story to mask the deepening financial woes of the company, it was clear no more cars would be built by the factory and there was no budget available to complete the supercharger project. The two Reflex Charcoal Typhons were fitted with Tuscan S 4.0 S6 engines and one was sold direct to a customer and the other used by the new owner of TVR until that too was sold on to a customer. While both these cars were road registered in 2006 and the orange car in 2004 they were all built at around the same time during 2003/4. Priced at £84,995, by 2005 the end of production the Typhon was £134,995.
The cars had cost far more in labour and development than had been anticipated. In addition, TVR listed two'Ultimate' options, the high-performance track day gearbox at £33,995 and the high-performance track day diff at £14,995: surprising options at a time when little sense emanated from the firm. One can only conclude they were priced to ensure that no one would ask for them; the cars cost far more to build than anticipated, why production after 2004 halted. 2000 - TuscanR prototype at NEC 2002 - two homologation TuscanRs built 2002 - Names changed to T400R & T440R to meet Le Mans FIA regulations 2003 - Typhon launched at MPH Show 2003 - T400R badge dropped. 2003 - T440R YC53GBW registered and delivered 2004 - Typhon AF04BYZ registered 2005 - TVR sold, racing program closed 2005 - T440R badge dropped 2006 - Typhons PN06EHT & PN06EHX registered and delivered 2011 - Typhon AF04BYZ back on the road EngineEngine: TVR Speed Six, straight six, fuel injected Engine Capacity: 4000 cc or 4200 cc