A tabard is a type of short coat, worn by men during the late Middle Ages and early modern period in Europe. Worn outdoors, the coat was either sleeveless or had short sleeves or shoulder pieces. In its more developed form it was open at the sides, it could be worn with or without a belt. Though most were ordinary garments workclothes, tabards might be emblazoned on the front and back with a coat of arms, in this form they survive as the distinctive garment of officers of arms. In modern British usage, the term has been revived for what is known in American English as a cobbler apron: a lightweight open-sided upper overgarment, of similar design to its medieval and heraldic counterpart, worn in particular by workers in the catering and healthcare industries as protective clothing, or outdoors by those requiring high-visibility clothing. Tabards may be worn by percussionists in marching bands in order to protect their uniforms from the straps and rigging used to support the instruments. A tabard was a humble outer garment of tunic form without sleeves, worn by peasants and foot-soldiers.

In this sense, the earliest citation recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from c.1300. By the second half of the 15th century, now open at the sides and so belted, were being worn by knights in military contexts over their armour, were emblazoned with their arms; the Oxford English Dictionary first records this use of the word in English in 1450. Tabards were distinguished from surcoats by being open-sided, by being shorter. In its form, a tabard comprised four textile panels – two large panels hanging down the wearer's front and back, two smaller panels hanging over his arms as shoulder-pieces or open "sleeves" – each emblazoned with the same coat of arms. Tabards became an important means of battlefield identification with the development of plate armour as the use of shields declined, they are represented on tomb effigies and monumental brasses of the late 15th and early 16th centuries. A expensive, but plain, garment described as a tabard is worn by Giovanni Arnolfini in the Arnolfini Portrait of 1434.

This may be made of silk and or velvet, is trimmed and lined with fur sable. At The Queen's College, the scholars on the foundation were called tabarders, from the tabard which they wore. A surviving garment similar to the medieval tabard is the monastic scapular; this is a wide strip of fabric worn front back of the body, with an opening for the head and no sleeves. It may have a hood, may be worn under or over a belt. By the end of the 16th century, the tabard was associated with officers of arms; the shift in emphasis was reported by John Stow in 1598, when he described a tabard as: a Jacquit, or sleevelesse coat, whole before, open on both sides, with a square collor, winged at the shoulders: a stately garment of olde time worne of Noble men and others, both at home and abroade in the Warres, but theyr Armes embrodered, or otherwise depicte uppon them, that every man by his Coate of Armes might bee knowne from others: but now these Tabardes are onely worne by the Heraults, bee called their coates of Armes in service.

In the case of Royal officers of arms, the tabard is emblazoned with the coat of arms of the sovereign. Private officers of arms, such as still exist in Scotland, make use of tabards emblazoned with the coat of arms of the person who employs them. In the United Kingdom the different ranks of officers of arms can be distinguished by the fabric from which their tabards are made; the tabard of a king of arms is made of velvet, the tabard of a herald of arms of satin, that of a pursuivant of arms of damask silk. The oldest surviving English herald's tabard is that of Sir William Dugdale as Garter King of Arms, it was at one time the custom for English pursuivants to wear their tabards "athwart", to say with the smaller panels at the front and back, the larger panels over the arms. The derisive Scots nickname of "Toom Tabard" for John Balliol may originate from either an alleged incident where his arms were stripped from his tabard in public, or a reference to the Balliol arms which are a plain shield with an orle known as an inescutcheon voided.

In the Diamond Jubilee year of the Queen of Canada, the Governor General unveiled a new tabard for the use of the Chief Herald of Canada. This new royal blue tabard, for Canadian use and of uniquely Canadian design, is a modern take on the traditional look; the tabard differs from others of more traditional design in that the Canadian royal arms appear on the sleeves, while the front and back of the tabard are covered with Native Canadian-inspired emblematic representations of the raven-polar bears of the Canadian Heraldic Authority's coat of arms. A tabard was the inn sign of the Tabard Inn in Southwark, established in 1307 and remembered as the starting point for Geoffrey Chaucer's pilgrims on their journey to Canterbury in The Canterbury Tales, dating from about the 1380s. In E. C. Bentley's short story "The genuine tabard", published in his collection Trent Intervenes in 1938, a wealthy American couple purchase an antique heraldic tabard, having been told that it was worn in 1783 by Sir Rowland Verey, Garter King of Arms, when proclaiming the Peace of Versailles from the steps of St James's Palace: the amateur detective Philip Trent is able to point out that it in fact bears the post-1837 royal arms.


William S. Hayward

William S. Hayward was an American banker and politician who served as mayor of Providence, Rhode Island from 1881 until 1884. Hayward was "reared a poor boy" in Foster, Rhode Island; as a young man, he worked on a farm. Hayward moved to Providence 1851, he was hired as an employee of bakery Rice & Hayward, owned by Mr. Fitz James Rice and Mr. George W. Hayward, he left the firm for a year returned as a salesman until 1858. In 1860, Hayward became a member of the firm, the name was changed to Rice, Hayward & Company. In 1861, at the start of the Civil War, Hayward moved to Washington DC and opened another bakery branch called "Rhode Island Bakery", it supplied biscuits to soldiers stationed in Washington DC. When soldiers moved out of DC into Virginia early in the war, Howard sold the DC location at a loss and returned to Providence. By 1863 Hayward became full owner of Rice Hayward, & Co.. He partnered again with Fitz James Rice; the company was successful. They supplied biscuits to the Union Army stationed in Rhode Island during the Civil War and grew into one of the largest bakeries in New England.

1872 Elected to the Common Council from the Sixth Ward, was re-elected until in 1876 he was elected to the Board of Aldermen. He served as President of the Board of Aldermen from 1878 to 1880, he was elected mayor of Providence in 1880 and held the post for three years, but declined to run for re-election in 1884. During his years in office, the city's debt was reduced by nearly $600,000. Hayward was a member of the board of State Charities and Corrections. Hayward was co-founder of Citizens Savings Bank in 1871, along with his bakery partners Fitz James Rice and George Hayward, he was president of the Union Trust Bank of Providence, a director of the Eagle National and Citizens Savings Banks. Hayward married Lucy Maria Rice in 1859, she was the daughter of Fitz James Rice, Hayward's business partner in the bakery and fellow founder of Citizens Savings Bank. Hayward was described as "a man of fine physique, of commanding presence, standing over six feet, two inches in height, weighing two hundred and twenty pounds".

Hayward was a member of What Cheer Lodge of Masons, a member of the Union Congregational Church on Broad Street. He is buried in Swan Point Cemetery. Sixth Avenue Park, in Providence, was renamed Hayward Park in his honor in 1889; the park was demolished for construction of the interchange for Interstate 95 and Interstate 195. Providence Mayors Biography William S. Hayward at Find a Grave

Bernardo Harris

Bernardo Harris is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League. He attended Chapel Hill High School, graduating in 1990, he was recruited by Mack Brown to play at the University of North Carolina and graduated in 1994. After not being drafted, he was signed as a free agent by the Kansas City Chiefs in 1994. At Kansas City, Harris was out of football. Bernardo Harris became a free agent and was signed by the Green Bay Packers in 1995, playing in eleven games his rookie season. Harris played for the Green Bay Packers for seven seasons and played on the 1996 Super Bowl XXXI and 1997 Super Bowl XXXII teams. In 2002, Harris was signed as a free agent by the Baltimore Ravens, after a shoulder injury to Ray Lewis. In 2003, Bernardo Harris was subsequently retired. While Bernardo Harris was playing for the Green Bay Packers in the January 3, 1999 playoff game against the San Francisco 49ers, Harris caused a controversial fumble which would be recognized as the precursor to video replay in the NFL.

Towards the end of the 1999 playoff game, a pass was caught by Hall of Fame wide-receiver Jerry Rice, following the catch, Bernardo Harris stripped Jerry Rice of the ball, was recovered by the Green Bay Packers. The game appeared to be won by the Green Bay Packers. However, the call on the field was that Rice was down by contact and San Francisco retained possession. Video replay showed that Rice has fumbled the ball, however, at that time replay was not used in the NFL; the 49ers went on to defeat the Green Bay Packers on that drive, by a final score of 30-27. Due to the controversial Harris call, the NFL announced the following season that it would begin instituting video replay