The jalapeño is a medium-sized chili pepper pod type cultivar of the species Capsicum annuum. A mature jalapeño chili is 5–10 cm long and hangs down with a round, smooth flesh of 25–38 mm wide, it can have a range of pungency, with Scoville heat units of 3,500 to 8,000. Picked and consumed while still green, it is allowed to ripen and turn red, orange, or yellow, it is wider and milder than the similar Serrano pepper. The Chile Pepper Institute is known for developing colored variations; the jalapeño is variously named huachinango, for the ripe red jalapeño, chile gordo known as cuaresmeño. The name jalapeño is Spanish for "from Xalapa", the capital city of Veracruz, where the pepper was traditionally cultivated; the name Xalapa is itself of Nahuatl origin, formed from roots xālli "sand" and āpan "water place". Genetic analysis of Capsicum annuum places jalapeños as a distinct genetic clade with no close sisters that are not directly derived from jalapeños. Jalapeños were in use by the Aztecs prior to the Spanish conquest.
The use of peppers in the Americas dates back thousands of years, including the practice of smoking some varieties of peppers in order to preserve them. In 1999 107,000 acres in Mexico were dedicated towards growing jalapeños and as of 2011, that number had fallen to 101,000 acres. Jalapeños account for thirty percent of Mexico's chili production, while acreage has decreased, there has been a 1.5% increase in volume yield per year in Mexico due to increasing irrigation, use of greenhouses, better equipment and improved techniques so that in 2009, 619,000 tons of jalapeños were produced with 42% of the crop coming from Chihuahua, 12.9% from Sinaloa, 6.6% from Jalisco, 6.3% from Michoacán. La Costeña controls about 60% of the world market and, according to company published figures, exports 16% of the peppers that Mexico produces, an 80% share of the 20% that Mexico exports in total; the US imports 98% of La Costeña's exports. According to the USDA, starting since 2010, California produces the most jalapeños followed by New Mexico and Texas, for a total of 462.5 million pounds of peppers in 2014.
It is difficult to get accurate statistics on chilies and specific chilies as growers are not fond of keeping and sharing such data and reporting agencies lump all green chilies together, or all hot chilies, with no separation of pod type. In New Mexico in 2002 the crop of jalapeños were worth $3 million at the farm gate and $20 million with processing. China, Peru and India are producers of commercial chilies, including jalapeños. Jalapeños are a pod type of Capsicum annuum; the growing period is 70–80 days. When mature, the plant stands 70–90 cm tall. A plant produces 25 to 35 pods. During a growing period, a plant will be picked multiple times; as the growing season ends, the peppers turn red. Jalapeños thrive in a number of soil types and temperatures, though they prefer warmer climates, provided they have adequate water; the optimum temperature for seed germination is 29 °C, with degradation of germination seen above 30 °C and little to no germination occurring at 40 °C. A pH of 4.5 to 7.0 is preferred for growing jalapeños and keeping the soil well drained is essential for keeping the plants healthy.
Jalapeños need at least 6 to 8 hours of sunlight per day. Experimental results show that unlike bell peppers at least 7.5 millimolar Nitrogen is needed for optimal pod production and 15 to 22 mM Nitrogen produces the best result, the plant produces both more leaves and more pods, rather than just more leaves. Once picked, individual peppers may turn to red of their own accord; the peppers can be eaten red. Though grown as an annual they are perennial and if protected from frost can produce during multiple years, as with all Capsicum annuum. Jalapeños are subject to root rot and foliar blight, both caused by Phytophthora capsici. However, the cause is not itself over-watering but the fungus. Crop rotation can help, resistant strains of jalapeño, such as the NuMex Vaquero and TAM Mild Jalapeño, have been and are being bred as this is of major commercial impact throughout the world; as jalapeños are a cultivar, the diseases are common to Capsicum annuum: Verticillium wilt, Cercospora capsici, Powdery mildew, Colletotrichum capsici, Erwinia carotovora, Beet curly top virus, Pepper mottle virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Pepper Geminiviridae, Root-knot nematode being among the major commercially important diseases.
After harvest if jalapeños are stored at 7.5 °C they have a shelf life of up to 3–5 weeks. Jalapeños produce 0.1-0.2 µl/kg⋅h of ethylene, low for chiles and do not respond to ethylene treatment. Holding jalapeños at 20-25 °C and high humidity can be used to complete the ripening of picked jalapeños. A hot water dip of 55 °C for 4 minutes is used to kill off molds that may exist on the picked peppers without damaging them; the majority of jalapeños are wet processed, canned o
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Jack Daniel's is a brand of Tennessee whiskey and the top-selling American whiskey in the world. It is produced in Lynchburg, Tennessee, by the Jack Daniel Distillery, owned by the Brown–Forman Corporation since 1956. Jack Daniel's home county of Moore is a dry county, so the product is not available for purchase at stores or restaurants within the county; the product meets the regulatory criteria for classification as a straight bourbon, though the company disavows this classification. It markets the liquor as Tennessee whiskey rather than as Tennessee bourbon; as defined in the North American Free Trade Agreement, Tennessee Whiskey is classified as a straight bourbon authorized to be produced in the state of Tennessee. Tennessee law further requires most producers of Tennessee whiskey to filter the spirit through charcoal made from maple prior to aging, in addition to meeting the above requirements. Packaged in square bottles, Jack Daniel's "Black Label" Tennessee whiskey sold 12.5 million cases in the 2017 fiscal year, which ended on April 30, 2017.
Other brand variations, such as Tennessee Honey, Gentleman Jack, Tennessee Fire, added another 2.9 million cases to sales. Sales of an additional 800,000 equivalent cases in ready-to-drink products brought the fiscal year total to more than 16.1 million equivalent adjusted cases for the entire Jack Daniel's family of brands. The Jack Daniel's brand's official website suggests that its founder, Jasper Newton "Jack" Daniel, was born in 1850, but says his exact birth date is unknown; the company website says. The Tennessee state library website said in 2013 that records list his birth date as September 5, 1846, that the 1850 birth date seems impossible since his mother died in 1847. In the 2004 biography Blood & Whiskey: The Life and Times of Jack Daniel, author Peter Krass said his investigation showed that Daniel was born in January 1849. Jack was the youngest of 10 children born to his mother, Lucinda Daniel, father Calaway Daniel. After Lucinda's death, his father had three more children. Calaway Daniel's father, Joseph "Job" Daniel, had emigrated from Wales to the United States with his Scottish wife, the former Elizabeth Calaway.
Jack Daniels' ancestry included English, Scots-Irish as well. Jack did not get along with his stepmother. After Daniel's father died in the Civil War, the boy ran away from home and was orphaned at a young age; as a teenager, Daniel was taken in by a local lay preacher and moonshine distiller. He began learning the distilling trade from Call and his Master Distiller, Nathan "Nearest" Green, an enslaved African-American man. Green continued to work with Call after emancipation. In 1875, on receiving an inheritance from his father's estate, Daniel founded a registered distilling business with Call, he took over the distillery shortly afterward. The brand label on the product says "Est. & Reg. in 1866", but his biographer has cited official registration documents in asserting that the business was not established until 1875. After taking over the distillery in 1884, Daniel purchased the hollow and land where the distillery is now located. By the 1880s, Jack Daniel's was one of 15 distilleries operating in Moore County, the second-most productive behind Tom Eaton's Distillery.
He began using square-shaped bottles in 1897, with the square shape of the bottle intended to convey a sense of fairness and integrity. According to Daniel's biographer, the origin of the "Old No. 7" brand name was the number assigned to Daniel's distillery for government registration. He was forced to change the registration number when the federal government redrew the district, he became Number 16 in district 5 instead of No. 7 in district 4. However, he continued to use his original number as a brand name, since his brand reputation had been established. Jack Daniel's had a surge in popularity after the whiskey received the gold medal for the finest whiskey at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. Daniel's local reputation was suffering as the temperance movement was gaining strength in Tennessee. Jack Daniel never did not have any known children, he took his nephews under his wing -- one of Lemuel "Lem" Motlow. Lem, a son of Daniel's sister, was skilled with numbers, he soon was responsible for all of the distillery's bookkeeping.
In 1907, due to failing health, Jack Daniel gave the distillery to two of his nephews. Motlow soon bought out the other nephew, he operated the distillery for about 40 years. Tennessee passed a statewide prohibition law in 1910 barring the legal distillation of Jack Daniel's within the state. Motlow challenged the law in a test case that worked its way to the Tennessee Supreme Court; the court upheld the law as constitutional. Daniel died in 1911 from blood poisoning. An oft-told tale is that the infection began in one of his toes, which Daniel injured one early morning at work by kicking his safe in anger when he could not get it open, but Daniel's modern biographer has asserted. Because of prohibition in Tennessee, the company shifted its distilling operations to St Louis and Birmingham, Alabama. None of the production from these locations was sold due to quality problems; the Alabama operation was halted following a similar statewide prohibition law in that state, the St. Louis operation was halted by the onset of nationwide prohibit
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting overnutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, otherwise being unhealthful. Primary food processing turns agricultural products, such as raw wheat kernels or livestock, into something that can be eaten; this category includes ingredients that are produced by ancient processes such as drying, threshing and milling grain, shelling nuts, butchering animals for meat. It includes deboning and cutting meat and smoking fish and meat and filtering oils, canning food, preserving food through food irradiation, candling eggs, as well as homogenizing and pasteurizing milk.
Contamination and spoilage problems in primary food processing can lead to significant public health threats, as the resulting foods are used so widely. However, many forms of processing contribute to improved food safety and longer shelf life before the food spoils. Commercial food processing uses control systems such as hazard analysis and critical control points and failure mode and effects analysis to reduce the risk of harm. Secondary food processing is the everyday process of creating food from ingredients that are ready to use. Baking bread, regardless of whether it is made at home, in a small bakery, or in a large factory, is an example of secondary food processing. Fermenting fish and making wine and other alcoholic products are traditional forms of secondary food processing. Sausages are a common form of secondary processed meat, formed by comminution of meat that has undergone primary processing. Tertiary food processing is the commercial production of what is called processed food.
These are heat-and-serve foods, such as TV dinners and re-heated airline meals. Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, various types of cooking, Such basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay. Salt-preservation was common for foods that constituted warrior and sailors' diets until the introduction of canning methods. Evidence for the existence of these methods can be found in the writings of the ancient Greek, Chaldean and Roman civilizations as well as archaeological evidence from Europe and South America and Asia; these tried and tested processing techniques remained the same until the advent of the industrial revolution. Examples of ready-meals date back to before the preindustrial revolution, include dishes such as Cornish pasty and Haggis.
Both during ancient times and today in modern society these are considered processed foods. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which contributed to the development of tinning, subsequently canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would become a staple around the world. Pasteurization, discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1864, improved the quality and safety of preserved foods and introduced the wine and milk preservation. In the 20th century, World War II, the space race and the rising consumer society in developed countries contributed to the growth of food processing with such advances as spray drying, juice concentrates, freeze drying and the introduction of artificial sweeteners, colouring agents, such preservatives as sodium benzoate.
In the late 20th century, products such as dried instant soups, reconstituted fruits and juices, self cooking meals such as MRE food ration were developed. By the 20th century, automatic appliances like microwave oven and rotimatic paved way for convenience cooking. In western Europe and North America, the second half of the 20th century witnessed a rise in the pursuit of convenience. Food processing companies marketed their products towards middle-class working wives and mothers. Frozen foods found their success in sales of juice concentrates and "TV dinners". Processors utilised the perceived value of time to appeal to the postwar population, this same appeal contributes to the success of convenience foods today. Benefits of food processing include toxin removal, easing marketing and distribution tasks, increasing food consistency. In addition, it increases yearly availability of many foods, enables transportation of delicate perishable foods across long distances and makes many kinds of foods safe to eat by de-activating spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.
Modern supermarkets would not exist without modern food processing techniques, long voyages would not be possible. Processed foods are less susceptible to early spoilage than fresh foods and are better suited for long-distance transportation from the source to the consumer; when they were first introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved th
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
A levee, dyke, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is earthen and parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines. Speakers of American English, use the word levee, from the French word levée, it originated in New Orleans a few years after the city's founding in 1718 and was adopted by English speakers. The name derives from the trait of the levee's ridges being raised higher than both the channel and the surrounding floodplains; the modern word dike or dyke most derives from the Dutch word dijk, with the construction of dikes in Frisia well attested as early as the 11th century. The 126 kilometres long Westfriese Omringdijk, completed by 1250, formed by connecting existing older dikes; the Roman chronicler Tacitus mentions that the rebellious Batavi pierced dikes to flood their land and to protect their retreat. The word dijk indicated both the trench and the bank, it parallels the English verb to dig.
In Anglo-Saxon, the word dic existed and was pronounced as dick in northern England and as ditch in the south. Similar to Dutch, the English origins of the word lie in digging a trench and forming the upcast soil into a bank alongside it; this practice has meant that the name may be given to the bank. Thus Offa's Dyke is a combined structure and Car Dyke is a trench - though it once had raised banks as well. In the midlands and north of England, in the United States, a dike is what a ditch is in the south, a property-boundary marker or small drainage-channel. Where it carries a stream, it may be called a running dike as in Rippingale Running Dike, which leads water from the catchwater drain, Car Dyke, to the South Forty Foot Drain in Lincolnshire; the Weir Dike is a soak dike in Bourne North Fen, near Twenty and alongside the River Glen, Lincolnshire. In the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads, a dyke may be a drainage ditch or a narrow artificial channel off a river or broad for access or mooring, some longer dykes being named, e.g. Candle Dyke.
In parts of Britain Scotland, a dyke may be a field wall made with dry stone. The main purpose of artificial levees is to prevent flooding of the adjoining countryside and to slow natural course changes in a waterway to provide reliable shipping lanes for maritime commerce over time. Levees can be found along the sea, where dunes are not strong enough, along rivers for protection against high-floods, along lakes or along polders. Furthermore, levees have been built for the purpose of empoldering, or as a boundary for an inundation area; the latter can be a controlled inundation by the military or a measure to prevent inundation of a larger area surrounded by levees. Levees have been built as field boundaries and as military defences. More on this type of levee can be found in the article on dry-stone walls. Levees can be permanent earthworks or emergency constructions built hastily in a flood emergency; when such an emergency bank is added on top of an existing levee it is known as a cradge. Some of the earliest levees were constructed by the Indus Valley Civilization on which the agrarian life of the Harappan peoples depended.
Levees were constructed over 3,000 years ago in ancient Egypt, where a system of levees was built along the left bank of the River Nile for more than 600 miles, stretching from modern Aswan to the Nile Delta on the shores of the Mediterranean. The Mesopotamian civilizations and ancient China built large levee systems; because a levee is only as strong as its weakest point, the height and standards of construction have to be consistent along its length. Some authorities have argued that this requires a strong governing authority to guide the work, may have been a catalyst for the development of systems of governance in early civilizations. However, others point to evidence of large scale water-control earthen works such as canals and/or levees dating from before King Scorpion in Predynastic Egypt, during which governance was far less centralized. Another example of a historical levee that protected the growing city-state of Mēxihco-Tenōchtitlan and the neighbouring city of Tlatelōlco, was constructed during the early 1400s, under the supervision of the tlahtoani of the altepetl Texcoco, Nezahualcoyotl.
Its function was to separate the brackish waters of Lake Texcoco from the fresh potable water supplied to the settlements. However, after the Europeans destroyed Tenochtitlan, the levee was destroyed and flooding became a major problem, which resulted in the majority of The Lake to be drained in the 17th Century. Levees are built by piling earth on a cleared, level surface. Broad at the base, they taper to a level top, where temporary sandbags can be placed; because flood discharge intensity increases in levees on both river banks, because silt deposits raise the level of riverbeds and auxiliary measures are vital. Sections are set back from the river to form a wider channel, flood valley basins are divided by multiple levees to prevent a single breach from flooding a large area. A levee made from stones laid in horizontal rows with a bed of thin turf between each of them is known as a spetchel. Artificial levees require substantial engineering, their surface must be protected from erosion, so they are planted