The tabla is a membranophone percussion instrument originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of a pair of drums, used in traditional, classical and folk music. It has been a important instrument in Hindustani classical music since the 18th century, remains in use in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka; the name tabla comes from tabl, the Persian and Arabic word for drum. However, the ultimate origin of the musical instrument is contested by scholars, some tracing it to West Asia, others tracing the evolution of indigenous musical instruments of the Indian subcontinent; the tabla consists of two single-headed, barrel-shaped small drums of different size and shape: daya called dahina meaning right, baya called bahina meaning left. The daya tabla is played by the musician's right hand, is about 15 centimetres in diameter and 25 centimetres high; the baya tabla is a bit bigger and deep kettledrum shaped, about 20 centimetres in diameter and 25 centimetres in height. Each is made of hollowed out wood or clay or brass, the daya drum laced with hoops and wooden dowels on its sides.

The dowels and hoops are used to tighten the tension of the membrane. The daya is tuned to the ground note of the raga called Sa; the baya construction and tuning is about a fifth to an octave below that of the daya drum. The musician uses his hand's heel pressure to change the pitch and tone colour of each drum during a performance; the playing technique is complex and involves extensive use of the fingers and palms in various configurations to create a wide variety of different sounds and rhythms, reflected in mnemonic syllables. In the Hindustani style tabla is played in two ways: band khula bol. In the sense of classical music it is termed "tali" and "khali", it is one of the main qawali instrument used by Sufi musicians of Bangladesh and India. The tabla is an important instrument in the bhakti devotional traditions of Hinduism and Sikhism, such as during bhajan and kirtan singing; the history of tabla is unclear, there are multiple theories regarding its origins. There are two groups of theories, one that traces its origins to Muslim and Moghul invaders of the Indian subcontinent, the other traces it to indigenous origins.

One example of the latter theory is carvings in Bhaja Caves. However, clear pictorial evidence of the drum emerges only from about 1745, the drum continued to develop in shape until the early 1800s; the first theory common during the colonial period scholarship, is based on the etymological links of the word tabla to Arabic word tabl which means "drum". Beyond the root of the word, this proposal points to the abundant documentary evidence that the Muslim armies, as they invaded the Indian subcontinent, had hundreds of soldiers on camels and horses carrying paired drums, they would beat these drums to scare the residents, the non-Muslim armies, their elephants and chariots, that they intended to attack. Babur, the Turk founder of the Mughal Empire, is known to have used these paired drums carrying battalions in their military campaigns. However, this theory has had the flaw that the war drums did not look or sound anything like tabla, they were large paired drums and were called naqqara; the second version of the Arab theory is that Amir Khusraw, a musician patronized by Sultan Alauddin Khalji invented the tabla when he cut an Awaj drum, which used to be hourglass shaped.

This is, unlikely, as no painting or sculpture or document dated to his period supports it with evidence. If tabla had arrived, or had been invented under Arabic influence from the root word tabl, it would be in the list of musical instruments that were written down by Muslim historians, but such evidence is absent. For example, Abul Fazi included a long list of musical instruments in his Ain-i-akbari written in the time of the 16th century Mughal Emperor Akbar, the generous patron of music. Abul Fazi's list makes no mention of tabla; the third version of the Arab theory credits the invention of tabla to the 18th century musician, with a similar sounding name Amir Khusru, where he is suggested to have cut a Pakhawaj into two to create tabla. This is not an unreasonable theory, miniature paintings of this era show instruments that sort of look like tabla, but this would mean that tabla emerged from within the Muslim community of Indian subcontinent and were not an Arabian import. However, scholars such as Neil Sorrell and Ram Narayan state that this legend of cutting a pakhawaj drum into two to make tabla drums "cannot be given any credence".

The Indian theory traces the origin of tabla to indigenous ancient civilization. The stone sculpture carvings in Bhaja Caves depict a woman playing a pair of drums, which some have claimed as evidence for the ancient origin of the tabla in India. A different version of this theory states that the tabla acquired a new Arabic name during the Islamic rule, having evolved from ancient Indian puskara drums; the evidence of the hand-held puskara is founded in many temple carvings, such as at the 6th and 7th century Muktesvara and Bhuvaneswara temples in India. These arts show drummers who are sitting, with two or three separate small drums, with their palm and fingers in a position as if they are playing those drums. However, it is not apparent in any of these ancient carvings that those drums were made of the same material and skin, or played the same music, as the modern tabla; the textual evidence for similar material and methods of construction as tabla comes from Sanskrit texts. The earliest discussion of tabla-like musical instrument building methods, including paste-patches, are fo

Antonio Pappano

Sir Antonio Pappano is an English-Italian conductor and pianist. He has been music director of the Royal Opera House since 2002. In 2015 he received a Gold Medal from the Royal Philharmonic Society. Pappano was born in Essex. Pappano's family had relocated to England from Castelfranco in Miscano near Benevento, Italy, in 1958, at the time of his birth his parents worked in the restaurant business, his father, Pasquale Pappano, was by vocation a singing teacher. When Pappano was 13 years old, he moved with his family to Connecticut. After musical training in piano and conducting, he became a rehearsal accompanist at the New York City Opera at the age of 21. Pappano attracted the attention of fellow pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim, became his assistant at the Bayreuth Festival, he worked in Barcelona and Frankfurt, served as an assistant to Michael Gielen. His first conducting appearance at Den Norske Opera was in 1987, he became music director there in 1990. In 1992, Pappano became music director of La Monnaie, the Belgian Royal Opera House, a post he held until 2002.

In that year, he was named the music director of Covent Garden. At Covent Garden and Kasper Holten, the ROH Director of Opera, shared responsibility for production, his current ROH contract runs through to 2017, was extended until 2023. Pappano was the youngest conductor to lead the orchestra of the ROH, accompanying both the Royal Opera and Royal Ballet. Pappano has been principal guest conductor of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. In 2005 he became music director of the Orchestra dell'Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia. Pappano was knighted in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to music. On 17 January 2013 he received the Incorporated Society of Musicians' Distinguished Musician Award, he was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Philharmonic Society in 2015. Pappano is married to an American vocal coach. Pappano records for Warner Classics, his recordings include: Harrison Birtwistle: The Minotaur Philippe Boesmans: Wintermärchen Jules Massenet: Manon, Werther Giacomo Puccini: Il Trittico, La Bohème, La Rondine, Madama Butterfly Gioachino Rossini: Stabat Mater, William Tell Giuseppe Verdi: Don Carlo, Il Trovatore, Messa da Requiem, Aida Richard Wagner: Tristan und Isolde Hugo Wolf: Lieder, with tenor Ian Bostridge Antonín Dvořák: Symphony No. 9 & Cello Concerto Sergei Rachmaninoff: Symphony No.2 Sergei Rachmaninoff: Piano Concerto No. 1 & Piano Concerto No.

2, with Leif Ove Andsnes Pappano has presented for the BBC including: Pappano's Classical Voices, a four-part series exploring the great roles and the greatest singers of the last 100 years through the prism of the main classical voice types – soprano, mezzo-soprano and bass. Maeckelbergh, Lucrèce, Antonio Pappano: Con Passione. Snoeck, 2006. ISBN 9053495274. Pappano recordings on Warner Classics Pappano recordings on Deutsche Grammophon Interview with Antonio Pappano, December 8, 1996

Haruhiko Kuroda

Haruhiko Kuroda, is the 31st and current Governor of the Bank of Japan. He was the President of the Asian Development Bank from 1 February 2005 to 18 March 2013. Kuroda attended University of Tokyo from 1963 to 1967, where he studied law and passed the bar examination before graduation, he joined the Ministry of Finance following graduation, studied economics at Oxford University on a Japanese government scholarship from 1969 to 1971. He went on to hold various posts at the Ministry of Finance, culminating in the post of Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs, he resigned from the ministry in January 2003 and was appointed Special Advisor to the Cabinet in March 2003. From 2005 to 2013, he served as president of the Asian Development Bank. Kuroda has been an advocate of looser monetary policy in Japan, his February 2013 nomination by the incoming government of the Prime Minister Shinzō Abe had been expected. Nominated at the same time were Kikuo Iwata – "a harsh critic of past BOJ policies" – and Hiroshi Nakaso, a senior BOJ official in charge of international affairs, as Kuroda's two deputies.

The former governor, Masaaki Shirakawa, left in March 2013.2013 "There is plenty of room for monetary easing" in Japan, Kuroda said in a February 2013 interview, adding that the BOJ could go beyond purchasing government bonds to include corporate bonds "or stocks". The yen, which "has fallen 10% against the dollar since Abe began his campaign in November" fell on the news of Kuroda's nomination. However, the new governor was "expected to use his experience as Japan’s top currency official until 2003 to rebut overseas criticism that Tokyo is using easy monetary policy to drive the yen lower, triggering a war of competitive currency devaluation". Bloomberg quoted Stephen Roach, a senior fellow at Yale University, as saying about Kuroda's goals: “It’s a strong pledge from a well-intended man, but I’m not convinced it’s going to work." When Kuroda was asked the same question in his assumption of office's press conference on March 21, Kuroda said the BOJ's role is to stabilize prices, stabilizing exchange rates is the role of the Ministry of Finance.

He said that BOJ's "Quantitative and Qualitative Monetary Easing" policy was not intend to devalue the yen, aiming to grow out of deflation by targeting inflation. Although there was opposition from developing countries, the policy was accepted by the other developed countries in the G20 summit. However, G20 members emphasized to Japanese policymakers that Japanese policy should be directed at domestic goals while highlighting the importance of a Japanese effort to reduce government debt.2016 In early 2016 after a stretch of global market weakness, Kuroda led Japan's move into negative interest rates. The BOJ had pushed its balance sheet from 35% to 70+% of GDP since 2013 and was continuing to buy ¥80 trillion of securities each month. “Risks were growing that the slowdown in the Chinese and resource-producing countries, which has caused volatility and instability in financial markets since the beginning of the year, may hurt confidence among domestic companies,” Kuroda was quoted as saying at the time of the interest-rate cut.

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