A fish hatchery is a place for artificial breeding and rearing through the early life stages of animals—finfish and shellfish in particular. Hatcheries produce larval and juvenile fish and crustaceans to support the aquaculture industry where they are transferred to on-growing systems, such as fish farms, to reach harvest size; some species that are raised in hatcheries include Pacific oysters, Indian prawns, salmon and scallops. The value of global aquaculture production is estimated to be US$98.4 billion in 2008 with China dominating the market. Additional hatchery production for small-scale domestic uses, prevalent in South-East Asia or for conservation programmes, has yet to be quantified. There is much interest in supplementing exploited stocks of fish by releasing juveniles that may be wild caught and reared in nurseries before transplanting, or produced within a hatchery. Culture of finfish larvae has been utilised extensively in the United States in stock enhancement efforts to replenish natural populations.
The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service have established a National Fish Hatchery System to support the conservation of native fish species. Hatcheries produce larval and juvenile fish and shellfish for transferral to aquaculture facilities where they are ‘on-grown’ to reach harvest size. Hatchery production confers three main benefits to the industry. Out of season production Consistent supply of fish from aquaculture facilities is an important market requirement. Broodstock conditioning can extend the natural spawning season and thus the supply of juveniles to farms. Supply can be further guaranteed by sourcing from hatcheries in the opposite hemisphere i.e. with opposite seasons.2. Genetic improvement Genetic modification is conducted in some hatcheries to improve the quality and yield of farmed species. Artificial fertilisation facilitates selective breeding programs which aim to improve production characteristics such as growth rate, disease resistance, colour, increased fecundity and/or lower age of maturation.
Genetic improvement can be mediated by selective breeding, via hybridization, or other genetic manipulation techniques.3. Reduce dependence on wild-caught juveniles In 2008 aquaculture accounted for 46% of total food fish supply, around 115 million tonnes. Although wild caught juveniles are still utilised in the industry, concerns over sustainability of extracting juveniles, the variable timing and magnitude of natural spawning events, make hatchery production an attractive alternative to support the growing demands of aquaculture. Broodstock conditioning is the process of bringing adults into spawning condition by promoting the development of gonads. Broodstock conditioning can extend spawning beyond natural spawning periods, or for production of species reared outside their natural geographic range with different environmental conditions; some hatcheries collect wild adults and bring them in for conditioning whilst others maintain a permanent breeding stock. Conditioning is achieved by holding broodstock in flow-through tanks at optimal conditions for light, salinity, flow rate and food availability.
Another important aspect of broodstock conditioning is ensuring the production of high quality eggs to improve growth and survival of larvae by optimising the health and welfare of broodstock individuals. Egg quality is determined by the nutritional condition of the mother. High levels of lipid reserves in particular are required to improve larval survival rates. Natural spawning can occur in hatcheries during the regular spawning season however where more control over spawning time is required spawning of mature animals can be induced by a variety of methods; some of the more common methods are:Manual stripping: For shellfish, gonads are removed and gametes are extracted or washed free. Fish can be manually stripped of eggs and sperm by stroking the anaesthetised fish under the pectoral fins towards the anus causing gametes to flow out. Environmental manipulation: Thermal shock, where cool water is alternated with warmer water in flow-through tanks can induce spawning. Alternatively, if environmental cues that stimulate natural spawning are known, these can be mimicked in the tank e.g. changing salinity to simulate migratory behaviour.
Many individuals can be induced to spawn this way, however this increases the likelihood of uncontrolled fertilisation occurring. Chemical injection: A number of chemicals can be used to induce spawning with various hormones being the most used. Prior to fertilisation, eggs can be washed to remove wastes and bacteria that may contaminate cultures. Promoting cross-fertilisation between a large number of individuals is necessary to retain genetic diversity in hatchery produced stock. Batches of eggs are kept separate, fertilised with sperm obtained from several males and allowed to stand for an hour or two before samples are analyzed under a microscope to ensure high rates of fertilisation and to estimate numbers to be transferred to larval rearing tanks. Rearing larvae through the early life stages is conducted in nurseries which are closely associated with hatcheries for fish culture whilst it is common for shellfish nurseries to exist separately. Nursery culture of larvae to rear juveniles of a size suitable for transferral to on-growing facilities can be performed in a variety of different systems which may be land-based, or larvae may be transferred to sea-based rearing systems which reduce the need to supply feed.
Juvenile survival is dependent on high quality water conditions. Feeding is an impor
White River (Arkansas–Missouri)
The White River is a 722-mile long river that flows through the U. S. states of Missouri. Originating in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, it flows northwards into southern Missouri, turns back into Arkansas, flowing southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River; the source of the White River is in the Boston Mountains of northwest Arkansas, in the Ozark–St. Francis National Forest southeast of Fayetteville; the river flows northwards from its source in northwest Arkansas, loops up through southwest Missouri through Branson, Missouri. In Branson the river forms Lake Taneycomo; the Powersite was the first dam on the White River. The flow into this comes from Table Rock Lake, down stream it flows into Bull Shoals Lake, from where it travels back into Arkansas, heads southeast to its mouth at the Mississippi River. On entering the Mississippi River Valley region near Batesville, the river becomes navigable to shallow-draft vessels, its speed decreases considerably; the final 10 miles of the river serves as the last segment of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.
Despite being much shorter than the Arkansas River, it carries nearly as much water—normally more than 20,000 cubic feet per second, more than 100,000 cubic feet per second during floods. Lake Taneycomo was created in 1913 when the Empire District Electric Company built a dam just south of Forsyth, Missouri. Beaver Lake, Bull Shoals Lake, Table Rock Lake are man-made lakes or reservoirs created by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers under the authority of the Flood Control Act of 1938. A total of eight dams impound six in Arkansas and two in Missouri; the White River National Wildlife Refuge lies along the lower part of the river. The tributaries of the White River include Cache River, Bayou des Arc, Little Red River, Black River, North Fork River, Crooked Creek, Buffalo River, Kings River, James River, Roaring River; some cities that lie on the White River are Newport, Calico Rock, Batesville, all in Arkansas, as well as Branson and Hollister in Missouri. Fishing for trout is popular in the upper portions of the river from the Beaver Lake tailwaters in northwestern Arkansas, through its course through southwest Missouri, back down through Arkansas to the Highway 58 bridge in Guion.
The river has long been ranked one of the top trout fisheries in the country. Fishing is popular in these waters for a number of trout species including rainbow and cutthroat trout. A number of trout fishing resorts lie on the tailwaters of Bull Shoals Lake and the North Fork River. Fishing for white bass is popular in these waters. Cotter Bridge Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project List of rivers of Arkansas List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Missouri Whitewater Development Corporation White River Monster Cushing, Charles Phelps. "Floating Through The Ozarks". The Outing Magazine. LVIII: 537–547. Retrieved 2009-08-16. Media related to White River at Wikimedia Commons
A recreational vehicle abbreviated as RV, is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living quarters designed for accommodation. Types of RVs include motorhomes, caravans, fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers. Typical amenities of an RV include a kitchen, a bathroom, one or more sleeping facilities. RVs can range from the utilitarian — containing only sleeping quarters and basic cooking facilities — to the luxurious, with features like air conditioning, water heaters and satellite receptors, quartz countertops, for example. RVs can either be self-motorized. Most RVs are single-deck. To allow a more compact size while in transit, larger RVs have expandable sides, called slide-outs, or canopies. An early type of caravan is the horse-drawn covered wagon, which from circa 1745 played a significant part in opening up of the interior of the North American continent to white settlement. By the 1920s the RV was well established in the United States, with RV camping clubs established across the country, despite the unpaved roads and limited camping facilities.
Several companies began manufacturing house trailers. Airstream is one such company; until the 1950s, the RV industry was connected to the mobile home industry because most mobile homes were shorter than 9 metres long, thus transportable. During the 1950s, the RV and mobile home industries became separated and RV manufacturers began building self-contained motorhomes. In Europe, wagons built for accommodation were developed in France around 1810, they were used in Britain by circus performers from the 1820s. Romani people only began living in caravans circa 1850. In Canada, the earliest motorhomes were built on car or truck bodies from about 1910. In Australia, the earliest known motorhome was built in 1929; this motorhome is recognized as being the first motorized caravan in Australia and is located in the Goolwa museum. Although the most common usage of RVs is as temporary accommodation when traveling, some people use an RV as their main residence. In the United States and Canada, travelling south each winter to a warmer climate is referred to as snowbirding.
In Australia, the slang term for a retired person who travels in a recreational vehicle is a "grey nomad". Some owners fit solar panels to the roof of their RV. Usage of RVs is common at rural festivals such as Burning Man; as of 2016, the average age of a person owning a recreational vehicle in the United States was 45, with a three year decrease since 2015. Gallant, JD. How to Select and Buy an RV. RV Consumer Group. ISBN 1890049-9-05. Freeman, Jayne; the Complete RV Handbook. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-144339-5. Moeller, Bill; the Complete Book of Boondock RVing: Camping Off the Beaten Path. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-149065-8. "Hitting the Trail 1935 Style". Popular Mechanics: 40–42. July 1935
A marina is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats. A marina differs from a port in that a marina does not handle large passenger ships or cargo from freighters; the word marina is used for inland wharves on rivers and canals that are used by non-industrial pleasure craft such as canal narrowboats. Marinas may be inland, they are located on coastal harbors or coastal lagoons, either as stand alone facilities or within a port complex. A marina may have refueling and repair facilities and boat chandlers and restaurants. A marina may include ground facilities such as parking lots for vehicles and boat trailers. Slipways transfer a trailered boat into the water. A marina may have a boat hoist well operated by service personnel. A marina may provide in- or out-of-water boat storage. Fee-based services such as parking, use of picnic areas and clubhouses for showers are included in long-term rental agreements. Visiting yachtsmen have the option of buying each amenity from a fixed schedule of fees.
The right to use the facilities is extended at overnight or period rates to visiting yachtsmen. Since marinas are limited by available space, it may take years on a waiting list to get a permanent berth. Boats are moored on buoys, on fixed or floating walkways tied to an anchoring piling by a roller or ring mechanism. Buoys are less convenient than being able to walk from land to boat. Harbor shuttles, may transfer people between the shore and boats moored on buoys; the alternative is a tender such as an inflatable boat. Facilities offering fuel, boat ramps and stores will have a common-use dock set aside for such short term parking needs. Where the tidal range is large, marinas may use locks to maintain the water level for several hours before and after low water. Marinas may be owned and operated by a private club yacht clubs — but as private enterprises or municipal facilities. Marinas may be standalone private businesses, components of a resort, or owned and operated by public entities. List of marinas "MARINA - Maritime Industry Authority".
SeamanRepublic.com. Retrieved 12 March 2015
Branson is a city in Taney and Stone counties in the U. S. state of Missouri. Most of the city is with a small portion in the west extending into Stone County. Branson is in the Ozark Mountains; the community was named after Reuben Branson and operator of a general store in the area in the 1880s. The population was 10,520 at the 2010 census. Branson has long been a popular destination for vacationers around the country; the collection of entertainment theaters along 76 Country Boulevard, including Dolly Parton's Stampede, has increased Branson's popularity as a tourist destination. In 1882, Reuben Branson opened a general post office in the area. Branson was formally incorporated in 1912, construction of the Powersite Dam nearby on the White River which would form Lake Taneycomo was completed. In 1894, William Henry Lynch began charging visitors to tour it. Hugo and Mary Herschend began hosting square dances in it; the Herschend Family modernized the cave with electricity and concrete staircases, in 1960 the Herschends opened Silver Dollar City, a re-creation of a frontier town that featured five shops, a church, a log cabin, with actors that played out the feud between the Hatfields and the McCoys.
Harold Bell Wright published his novel about the Ozarks, The Shepherd of the Hills, in 1907. The Old Mill Theater began its first outdoor production based on the novel in 1960; the show known as The Shepherd of the Hills Outdoor Drama & Homestead continues in its 58th season for 2017. It is the home of Inspiration Tower, the Sons of the Pioneers show, other attractions; the Harold Bell Wright Museum is located within The World's Largest Toy Museum complex. Mayor of Branson for 12 years and entrepreneur Jim Owen built the first theater in 1934 on Commercial Street called "The Hillbilly Theater", which began to attract people from far and wide to tour the area. 1959 saw the completion of Table Rock Dam on the White River. In 1959, the Baldknobbers Jamboree opened the first live music show in Branson. In 1962, Paul Henning, inspired by a Boy Scout camping trip to the Ozarks, created The Beverly Hillbillies, which ran on first-run television until 1971; the first five episodes of Season 8 in 1969 are set in the Branson area when the Clampetts return to their home.
Henning donated 1,534 acres for the Ruth and Paul Henning Conservation Area near Branson. He donated the modified 1921 Oldsmobile truck used as the vehicle in the series to the College of the Ozarks, where it is on display in the Ralph Foster Museum; the Presley family became the first to move their show to Highway 76 in 1967, followed a year by the Baldknobbers. Branson would have more than 50 theaters, most of them located on Highway 76. In the early 1980s, Chisai Child's Starlite Theater was one of the first to introduce stage sets, horn section, elaborate costume changes, music outside of the traditional country music played, it helped to launch the careers of many others. In 1983, Branson began its transformation into a major tourist attraction when the Roy Clark Celebrity Theatre opened and began to bring famous country music stars to Branson. Many of the performers who have had their own theaters in Branson first discovered Branson when they performed at this venue; the Roy Clark Celebrity Theatre at the Lodge of the Ozarks has been called the "birthplace of Branson celebrity theatres".
In 1983, the 7,500-seat Swiss Villa Amphitheatre opened in Lampe, southwest of Branson. The outdoor amphitheatre brought in acts like Def Leppard, Lynyrd Skynyrd, REO Speedwagon and Ozzy Osbourne. Closing in the early 2000s, it reopened in 2010 as the Black Oak Mountain Amphitheatre. In 1987, Boxcar Willie became the first internationally known entertainer to purchase a theater in Branson and have a permanent performance schedule there. In 1989, Shoji Tabuchi opened his first theater in Branson, he built a new theater on Shepherd of the Hills Expressway in 1990, while Mel Tillis moved into Shoji's old theater. In 1990-1991 several nationally known stars such as Jim Stafford, Ray Stevens, Mickey Gilley, Moe Bandy opened their own theaters. Along with these national stars, many home-grown shows had theaters; the Lowe Family featured their show and hosted nationally known stars like Conway Twitty, Loretta Lynn, Vern Gosdin, Waylon Jennings, others. 76 Music Hall became the first theater to have three different shows a day performing in different time slots.
In 1991, local producer and entertainer Bob Nichols opened the first morning show and the following year, Buck Trent became the first nationally known star to star in a morning show. The increasing number of theaters and other attractions opening in Branson drew the attention of 60 Minutes, which aired an episode about Branson on December 8, 1991, called it the "live music capital of the entire universe". Andy Williams built his theater in Branson, opening on May 1, 1992, calling it the Moon River Theatre; the Glen Campbell Goodtime Theatre opened in 1994, starring Glen along with his "Goodtime Band", daughter Debbie Campbell, the Matthew Dickens Dancers, comedian ventriloquist Jim Barber. Headlining their own theaters were Tony Orlando and Bobby Vinton. In 1998, the Acrobats of China arrived in Branson, making them one of the first international shows to call Branso
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa