Code of Federal Regulations
The Code of Federal Regulations is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States. The CFR is divided into 50 titles; the CFR annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published by the Office of the Federal Register and the Government Publishing Office. In addition to this annual edition, the CFR is published in an unofficial format online on the Electronic CFR website, updated daily. Under the nondelegation doctrine, federal agencies are authorized by "enabling legislation" to promulgate regulations; the process of rulemaking is governed by the Administrative Procedure Act: the APA requires a process that includes publication of the proposed rules in a notice of proposed rulemaking, a period for comments and participation in the decisionmaking, adoption and publication of the final rule, via the Federal Register. The rules and regulations are first published in the Federal Register.
The CFR is structured into 50 subject matter titles. Agencies are assigned chapters within these titles; the titles are broken down into chapters, parts and paragraphs. For example, 42 CFR 260.11 would be read as "title 42, part 260, section 11, paragraph." While new regulations are continually becoming effective, the printed volumes of the CFR are issued once each calendar year, on this schedule: Titles 1–16 are updated as of January 1 Titles 17–27 are updated as of April 1 Titles 28–41 are updated as of July 1 Titles 42–50 are updated as of October 1The Office of the Federal Register keeps an unofficial, online version of the CFR, the e-CFR, updated within two days after changes that have been published in the Federal Register become effective. The Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules lists rulemaking authority for regulations codified in the CFR; the CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad subject areas: Title 1: General Provisions Title 2: Grants and Agreements Title 3: The President Title 4: Accounts Title 5: Administrative Personnel Title 6: Domestic Security Title 7: Agriculture Title 8: Aliens and Nationality Title 9: Animals and Animal Products Title 10: Energy Title 11: Federal Elections Title 12: Banks and Banking Title 13: Business Credit and Assistance Title 14: Aeronautics and Space Title 15: Commerce and Foreign Trade Title 16: Commercial Practices Title 17: Commodity and Securities Exchanges Title 18: Conservation of Power and Water Resources Title 19: Customs Duties Title 20: Employees' Benefits Title 21: Food and Drugs Title 22: Foreign Relations Title 23: Highways Title 24: Housing and Urban Development Title 25: Indians Title 26: Internal Revenue Title 27: Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms Title 28: Judicial Administration Title 29: Labor Title 30: Mineral Resources Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury Title 32: National Defense Title 33: Navigation and Navigable Waters Title 34: Education Title 35: Reserved Title 36: Parks and Public Property Title 37: Patents and Copyrights Title 38: Pensions and Veterans' Relief Title 39: Postal Service Title 40: Protection of Environment Title 41: Public Contracts and Property Management Title 42: Public Health Title 43: Public Lands: Interior Title 44: Emergency Management and Assistance Title 45: Public Welfare Title 46: Shipping Title 47: Telecommunication Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System Title 49: Transportation Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries The Federal Register Act provided for a complete compilation of all existing regulations promulgated prior to the first publication of the Federal Register, but was amended in 1937 to provide a codification of all regulations every five years.
The first edition of the CFR was published in 1938. Beginning in 1963 for some titles and for all titles in 1967, the Office of the Federal Register began publishing yearly revisions, beginning in 1972 published revisions in staggered quarters. On March 11, 2014, Rep. Darrell Issa introduced the Federal Register Modernization Act, a bill that would revise requirements for the filing of documents with the Office of the Federal Register for inclusion in the Federal Register and for the publication of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the changed publication requirement in which they would be available online but would not be required to be printed; the American Association of Law Libraries opposed the bill, arguing that the bill undermines citizens' right to be informed by making it more difficult for citizens to find their government's regulations. According to AALL, a survey they conducted "revealed that members of the public, researchers, students and small business owners continue to rely on the print" version of the Federal Register.
AALL argued that the lack of print versions of the Federal Register and CFR would mean the 15 percent of Americans who don't use the internet would lose their access to that material. The House voted on July 14, 2014 to pass the bill 386–0. Regulations.gov United States Reports California Code of Regulations Florida Administrative Code Illinois Administrative Code Code of Massachusetts Regulations New Hampshire Code of Administrative Rules New Jersey Administrative Code New York Codes and Regulations Oregon Administrative Rules Pennsylvania Code "About Code of Federal Regulations". Government Publishing Office. "A Res
Cooking weights and measures
In recipes, quantities of ingredients may be specified by mass, by volume, or by count. For most of history, most cookbooks did not specify quantities instead talking of "a nice leg of spring lamb", a "cupful" of lentils, a piece of butter "the size of a walnut", "sufficient" salt. Informal measurements such as a "pinch", a "drop", or a "hint" continue to be used from time to time. In the US, Fannie Farmer introduced the more exact specification of quantities by volume in her 1896 Boston Cooking-School Cook Book. Today, most of the world prefers metric measurement by weight, though the preference for volume measurements continues among home cooks in the United States, the rest of North America, Australia. Different ingredients are measured in different ways: Liquid ingredients are measured by volume worldwide. Dry bulk ingredients, such as sugar and flour, are measured by weight in most of the world, by volume in North America and Australia. Small quantities of salt and spices are measured by volume worldwide, as few households have sufficiently precise balances to measure by weight.
Meats are specified by weight or count worldwide: "a 2 kg chicken". Eggs are specified by count. Vegetables are specified by weight or by count, despite the inherent imprecision of counts given the variability in the size of vegetables. In most of the world, recipes use the metric system of units—litres and millilitres and kilograms, degrees Celsius; the spelling litre is preferred in most English-speaking nations: the notable exception is the United States where the spelling liter is preferred. The USA measures weight in pounds, while recipes in the UK, following the advice of the Guild of Food Writers, tend to be first in metric quantities and in pounds and ounces or may be in metric; the USA uses volume measures based on cooking utensils and pre-metric measures. The actual values deviate from the utensils on which they were based, there is little consistency from one country to another. † In South Australia, a "pint" of beer is traditionally 425 mL, while most other states have metricated this value to 570 mL.
The volumetric measures here are for comparison only. See below for the definition of Gallon for more details. In addition, the "cook's cup" above is not the same as a "coffee cup" which can vary anywhere from 100 to 200 mL, or smaller for espresso. In Australia, since 1970, metric utensil units have been standardized by law and imperial measures no longer have legal status. However, it is wise to measure the actual volume of the utensil measures the'Australian tablespoon', since many are imported from other countries with different values. Dessertspoons are standardized as part of the metric system at 10 mL, though they are not used in contemporary recipes. Australia is the only metricated country with a metric tablespoon of 20 mL, unlike the rest of the world, which has a 15 mL metric tablespoon. In Europe, older recipes refer to pounds. In each case, the unit refers to 500 g, about 10% more than an avoirdupois pound. Dutch recipes may use the ons, 100 g. With the advent of accurate electronic scales it has become more common to weigh liquids for use in recipes, avoiding the need for accurate volumetric utensils.
The most common liquids used in cooking are water and milk, milk weighing the same as water in the low volumes used in cooking. 1 mL of water weighs 1 gram so a recipe calling for 300 mL of water can be substituted with 300 g of water. 1 fluid ounce of water weighs 1 ounce so a recipe calling for a UK pint of water can be substituted with 20 oz of water. More accurate weight equivalents become important in the large volumes used in commercial food production. To an accuracy of five significant digits, they are: Even a home cook can use greater precision at times. Water at 4.0 °C may be volumetrically measured weighed to determine an unknown measuring-utensil volume without the need for a water-density adjustment. The US uses pounds and ounces for weight, US customary units for volume. For measures used in cookbooks published in other nations navigate to the appropriate regional section in Traditional measurement systems. Measures are classified as fluid measures; some of the fluid and dry measures have similar names, but the actual measured volume is quite different.
A recipe will specify which measurement is required. U. S. recipes are in terms of fluid measures for dry ingredients. Most of these units derive from earlier English units, as applied to the U. S. gallon. They follow a pattern of binary submultiples, where each larger measure consists of two units of the next-smallest measure. An exception is with the used teaspoon as one-third of a tablespoon. Binary submultiples are fractional parts obtained by successively dividing by the number 2. Thus, one-half, one-fourth, one-eighth, one-sixteenth, so on, are binary submultiples; the system can be traced back to the measuring systems of the Hindus and the ancient Egyptians, who subdivided the hekat into parts of 1⁄2, 1⁄4,1⁄8, 1⁄16, 1⁄32, 1⁄64, the hin down to 1⁄32 using hieratic notation, as early as the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, 2494 to 2345 BC, thus making the "English doubling system" at least 4300 years old. The introduction of m
Cutlery includes any hand implement used in preparing and eating food in Western culture. A person who makes or sells cutlery is called a cutler; the city of Sheffield in England has been famous for the production of cutlery since the 17th century and a train – the Master Cutler – running from Sheffield to London was named after the industry. Bringing affordable cutlery to the masses, stainless steel was developed in Sheffield in the early 20th century. Cutlery is more known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery means knives and related cutting instruments. Although the term silverware is used irrespective of the material composition of the utensils, the term tableware has come into use to avoid the implication that they are made of silver; the major items of cutlery in Western culture are the knife and spoon. In recent times, hybrid versions of cutlery have been made combining the functionality of different eating implements, including the spork and knork or the sporf which combines all three.
The word cutler derives from the Middle English word'cuteler' and this in turn derives from Old French'coutelier' which comes from'coutel'. The word's early origins can be seen in the Latin word'culter'. Sterling silver is the traditional material. Silver had the advantage over other metals of being less chemically reactive. Chemical reactions between certain foods and the cutlery metal can lead to unpleasant tastes. Gold is less reactive than silver, but the use of gold cutlery was confined to the exceptionally wealthy, such as monarchs. Steel was always used for more utilitarian knives, pewter was used for some cheaper items spoons. From the nineteenth century, electroplated nickel silver was used as a cheaper substitute for sterling silver. In 1913, the British metallurgist Harry Brearley discovered stainless steel by chance, bringing affordable cutlery to the masses; this metal has come to be the predominant one used in cutlery. An alternative is melchior, corrosion-resistant nickel and copper alloy, which can sometimes contain manganese and nickel-iron.
Plastic cutlery is made for disposable use, is used outdoors for camping and barbecues for instance. Plastic cutlery is commonly used at fast-food or take-away outlets and provided with airline meals in economy class. Plastic is used for children's cutlery, it is thicker and more durable than disposable plastic cutlery. Wooden disposable cutlery is available as a biodegradable alternative. At Sheffield the trade of cutler became divided, with allied trades such as razormaker, awlbladesmith and forkmaker emerging and becoming distinct trades by the 18th century. Before the mid 19th century when cheap mild steel became available due to new methods of steelmaking, knives were made by welding a strip of steel on to the piece of iron, to be formed into a knife, or sandwiching a strip of steel between two pieces of iron; this was done because steel was a much more expensive commodity than iron. Modern blades are sometimes for a different reason. Since the hardest steel is brittle, a layer of hard steel may be laid between two layers of a milder, less brittle steel, for a blade that keeps a sharp edge well, is less to break in service.
After fabrication, the knife had to be sharpened on a grindstone, but from the late medieval period in a blade mill or a cutlers wheel. Introduced for convenience purposes, disposable cutlery made of plastic has become a huge worldwide market. Along with other disposable tableware, these products have become essential for the fast food and catering industry; the products are emblematic of throw-away societies and the cause of millions of tons of non-biodegradable plastic waste. Traditional centres of cutlery-making include: Caldas das Taipas in Portugal Albacete in Spain Oneida in United States of America Premana in Italy Sheffield in the United Kingdom Solingen in Germany Thiers and Laguiole in France Toledo in Spain Wazirabad in Pakistan Cutler Eating utensil etiquette Steak knife Table setting Tableware List of eating utensils List of food preparation utensils Sujeo Hey, D; the Fiery Blades of Hallamshire: Sheffield and Its Neighbourhood, 1660–1740. 193–140. Lloyd, G. I. H; the Cutlery Trades: An Historical Essay in the Economics of Small Scale Production..
Associazione culturale Coltellinai Forgiatori Bergamaschi - Research laboratory on damascus steel
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
United States customary units
United States customary units are a system of measurements used in the United States. The United States customary system developed from English units which were in use in the British Empire before the U. S. became an independent country. However, the United Kingdom's system of measures was overhauled in 1824 to create the imperial system, changing the definitions of some units. Therefore, while many U. S. units are similar to their Imperial counterparts, there are significant differences between the systems. The majority of U. S. customary units were redefined in terms of the meter and the kilogram with the Mendenhall Order of 1893 and, in practice, for many years before. These definitions were refined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959. Americans use customary units in commercial activities, as well as for personal and social use. In science, many sectors of industry, some of government and military, metric units are used; the International System of Units, the modern form of the metric system, is preferred for many uses by the U.
S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. For newer units of measure where there is no traditional customary unit, international units are used, sometimes mixed with customary units, such as electrical resistance of wire expressed in ohms per thousand feet; the United States system of units is similar to the British imperial system. Both systems are derived from English units, a system which had evolved over the millennia before American independence, which had its roots in Roman and Anglo-Saxon units; the customary system was championed by the U. S.-based International Institute for Preserving and Perfecting Weights and Measures in the late 19th century. Advocates of the customary system saw the French metric, system as atheistic. An auxiliary of the Institute in Ohio published a poem with wording such as "down with every'metric' scheme" and "A perfect inch, a perfect pint". One adherent of the customary system called it "a just weight and a just measure, which alone are acceptable to the Lord".
The U. S. government passed the Metric Conversion Act of 1975, which made the metric system "the preferred system of weights and measures for U. S. trade and commerce". The legislation states that the federal government has a responsibility to assist industry as it voluntarily converts to the metric system, i.e. metrification. This is most evident in U. S. labeling requirements on food products, where SI units are always presented alongside customary units. According to the CIA Factbook, the United States is one of three nations that have not adopted the metric system as their official system of weights and measures. U. S. Customary units are used on consumer products and in industrial manufacturing. Metric units are standard in science, medicine, as well as many sectors of industry and government, including the military. There are anecdotal objections to the use of metric units in carpentry and the building trades, on the basis that it is easier to remember an integer number of inches plus a fraction than a measurement in millimeters, or that foot-inch measurements are more suitable when distances are divided into halves and quarters in parallel.
The metric system lacks a parallel to the foot. For measuring length, the U. S. customary system uses the inch, foot and mile, which are the only four customary length measurements in everyday use. Since July 1, 1959, these have been defined on the basis of 1 yard = 0.9144 meters except for some applications in surveying. The U. S. the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries agreed on this definition, so it is termed international measure. When international measure was introduced in the English-speaking countries, the basic geodetic datum in North America was the North American Datum of 1927, constructed by triangulation based on the definition of the foot in the Mendenhall Order of 1893, 1 foot = 1200/3937 meters: this definition was retained for data derived from NAD27, but renamed the US survey foot to distinguish it from the international foot. For most applications, the difference between the two definitions is insignificant – one international foot is 0.999998 of a US survey foot, for a difference of about 1/8 inch per mile – but it affects the definition of the State Plane Coordinate Systems, which can stretch over hundreds of miles.
The NAD27 was replaced in the 1980s by the North American Datum of 1983, defined in meters. The SPCSs were updated, but the National Geodetic Survey left the decision of which definition of the foot to use to the individual states. All SPCSs are defined in meters, but seven states have SPCSs defined in US survey feet and an eighth state in international feet: the other 42 states use only meter-based SPCSs. State legislation is important for determining the conversion factor to be used for everyday land surveying and real estate transactions, although the difference is of no practical significance given the precision of normal surveying measurements over short distances. Twenty-four states have legislated that surveying measures should be based on the US survey foot, eight have legislated that they be made on the basis of the international foot, eighteen have not specified the conversion factor from metric units; the most used area unit with a name unrelated to any length unit is the acre. The National Institute of Standards and Technology contends that customary area units are defined in terms of the square survey foot, not the square international foot.
Conversion factors are based on Astin and National Institute
The apothecaries' system or apothecaries' weights and measures is a historical system of mass and volume units that were used by physicians and apothecaries for medical recipes, sometimes by scientists. The English version of the system is related to the English troy system of weights, the pound and grain being the same in both, it divides a pound into 12 ounces, an ounce into 8 drachms, a drachm into 3 scruples or 60 grains. This exact form of the system was used in the United Kingdom; the apothecaries' system of measures is a similar system of volume units based on the fluid ounce. For a long time, medical recipes were written in Latin using special symbols to denote weights and measures; the use of different measure and weight systems depending on the purpose was an universal phenomenon in Europe between the decline of the Roman Empire and metrication. This was connected with international commerce with the need to use the standards of the target market and to compensate for a common weighing practice that caused a difference between actual and nominal weight.
In the 19th century, most European countries or cities still had at least a "commercial" or "civil" system for general trading, a second system for precious metals such as gold and silver. The system for precious metals was divided in a different way from the commercial system using special units such as the carat. More it was based on different weight standards; the apothecaries' system used the same ounces as the precious metals system, although then the number of ounces in a pound could be different. The apothecaries' pound was divided into its own special units, which were inherited from the general-purpose weight system of the Romans. Where the apothecaries' weights and the normal commercial weights were different, it was not always clear which of the two systems was used in trade between merchants and apothecaries, or by which system apothecaries weighed medicine when they sold it. In old merchants' handbooks the former system is sometimes referred to as the pharmaceutical system, distinguished from the apothecaries' system.
The traditional English apothecaries' system of weights is as shown in the table, the pound and grain being identical to the troy pound and grain. In the United Kingdom, a reform in 1826 made the troy pound the primary weight unit, but this had no effect on apothecaries' weights. However, the Medicinals Act of 1858 abolished the apothecaries' system in favour of the standard Avoirdupois system; the confusing variety of definitions and conversions for pounds and ounces is covered elsewhere in a table of pound definitions. In the United States, the apothecaries' system remained official until it was abolished in 1971 in favour of the metric system. From the pound down to the scruple, the English apothecaries' system was a subset of the Roman weight system except that the troy pound and its subdivisions were heavier than the Roman pound and its subdivisions. Similar systems were used all over Europe, but with considerable local variation described below under Variants; the English-speaking countries used a system of units of fluid measure, or in modern terminology volume units, based on the apothecaries' system.
A volume of liquid, that of an apothecaries' ounce of water was called a fluid ounce, was divided into fluid drachms and sometimes fluid scruples. The analogue of the grain was called a minim; the imperial and US systems differ in the size of the basic unit, in the number of fluid ounces per pint. Apothecaries' systems for volumes were internationally much less common than those for weights. Before introduction of the imperial units in the UK, all apothecaries' measures were based on the wine gallon, which survived in the US under the name liquid gallon or wet gallon; the wine gallon was abolished in Britain in 1826, this system was replaced by a new one based on the newly introduced imperial gallon. Since the imperial gallon is 20% more than the liquid gallon, the same is true for the imperial pint in relation to the liquid pint; this explains why the number of fluid ounces per gallon had to be adjusted in the new system so that the fluid ounce was not changed too much by the reform. So, the modern UK fluid ounce is 4% less than the US fluid ounce, the same is true for the smaller units.
For some years both systems were used concurrently in the UK. There were commonly used, but unofficial divisions of the Apothecaries' system, consisting of: glass-tumbler 8 fl oz breakfast-cup about 8 fl oz tea-cup 5 fl oz wine-glass 2 fl oz table-spoon 1/2 fl oz dessert-spoon 2 fl dr tea-spoon 1 fl dr In the US, the similar measures in use were once Tumblerful — ƒ℥ viii Teacupful — ƒ℥ iv Wineglassful — ƒ℥ ij Tablespoonful— ƒ℥ ss Desertspoonful— ƒʒ ij Teaspoonful — ƒʒ j The cited book states, "In all cases the modern teacups, tablespoons and teaspoons, after careful test by the author, were found to average 25 per cent. Greater capacity than the theoretical quantities given above, thus the use of graduated medicine glasses, which may be had now at a trifling cost, should be insisted upon."Apothecaries' measures
A dessert spoon is a spoon designed for eating dessert and sometimes used for soup or cereals. Similar in size to a soup spoon but with an oval rather than round bowl, it has a capacity around twice that of a teaspoon. By extension the term'dessert spoon' is used as a cooking measure of volume of 10ml of 0.4 fl oz. The use of dessert spoons around the world varies greatly. In most traditional table settings, the dessert spoon is placed above the plate or bowl, separated from the rest of the cutlery, or it may be brought in with the dessert; as a unit of culinary measure, a level dessertspoon equals 2 teaspoons. In the United States this is 0.4 of a fluid ounce. In the UK it is 10 ml; as a unit of Apothecary measure, the dessert-spoon was an unofficial but used unit of fluid measure equal to two fluid drams, or 1⁄4 fluid ounce. In the United States and pre-1824 England, the fluid ounce was 1⁄128 of a Queen Anne wine gallon thus making the dessert-spoon 7.39 ml. The post-1824 imperial Apothecaries' dessert-spoon was 1⁄4 fluid ounce, but the ounce in question was 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon, defined as 277.274 cubic inches, but adjusted to 277.419433 cubic inches, in either case yielding a dessert-spoon of 7.10 ml.
In both the British and American variants of the Apothecaries' system, two tea-spoons make a dessert-spoon, while two dessert-spoons make a table-spoon. In pharmaceutical Latin, the Apothecaries' dessert-spoon is known as cochleare medium, abbreviated as cochl. Med. or less coch. med. as opposed to the tea-spoon and table-spoon. Cooking weights and measures Teaspoon Tablespoon Silver place settings, from Butler's Guild