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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical oral dosage form or solid unit dosage form. Tablets may be defined as the solid unit dosage form of medicament or medicaments with suitable excipients and prepared either by molding or by compression, it comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents and lubricants to ensure efficient tabletting. A polymer coating is applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredient, to make it more resistant to the environment, or to enhance the tablet's appearance; the compressed tablet is the most popular dosage form in use today. About two-thirds of all prescriptions are dispensed as solid dosage forms, half of these are compressed tablets. A tablet can be formulated to deliver an accurate dosage to a specific site; the tablet is just one of the many forms that an oral drug can take such as syrups, elixirs and emulsions.

Medicinal tablets were made in the shape of a disk of whatever color their components determined, but are now made in many shapes and colors to help distinguish different medicines. Tablets are stamped with symbols and numbers, which enable them to be identified. Sizes of tablets to be swallowed range from a few millimeters to about a centimeter. Pills are thought to date back to around 1500 BC. Earlier medical recipes, such as those from 4000 BC, were for liquid preparations rather than solids; the first references to pills were found on papyruses in ancient Egypt, contained bread dough, honey or grease. Medicinal ingredients, such as plant powders or spices, were mixed in and formed by hand to make little balls, or pills. In ancient Greece, such medicines were known as katapotia, the Roman scholar Pliny, who lived from 23-79 AD, first gave a name to what we now call pills, calling them pilula. Pills have always been difficult to swallow and efforts long have been made to make them go down easier.

In medieval times, people coated pills with slippery plant substances. Another approach, used as as the 19th century, was to gild them in gold and silver, although this meant that they would pass through the digestive tract with no effect. In the 1800s sugar-coating and gelatin-coating was invented. In 1843, the British painter and inventor William Brockedon was granted a patent for a machine capable of "Shaping Pills and Black Lead by Pressure in Dies"; the device was capable of compressing powder into a tablet without use of an adhesive. A pill was defined as a small, solid pharmaceutical oral dosage form of medication. Today, pills include tablets and variants thereof like caplets — any solid form of medication colloquially falls into the pill category. An early example of "pills" came from Ancient Rome, they were made of the zinc carbonates smithsonite. The pills were used for sore eyes, were found aboard a Roman ship Relitto del Pozzino which wrecked in 140 BC. However, these tablets were meant to be pressed on the eyes, not swallowed.

A caplet is a smooth, oval-shaped medicinal tablet in the general shape of a capsule. Many caplets have an indentation running down the middle. Since their inception, capsules have been viewed by consumers as the most efficient method of taking medication. For this reason, producers of drugs such as OTC analgesics wanting to emphasize the strength of their product developed the “caplet”, a portmanteau of “capsule-shaped tablet”, in order to tie this positive association to more efficiently-produced tablet pills, as well as being an easier-to-swallow shape than the usual disk-shaped tablet. An orally disintegrating tablet or orodispersible tablet, is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter and prescription medications. In the tablet-pressing process, it is important that all ingredients be dry, powdered or granular, somewhat uniform in particle size, flowing. Mixed particle sized powders segregate during manufacturing operations due to different densities, which can result in tablets with poor drug or active pharmaceutical ingredient content uniformity, but granulation should prevent this.

Content uniformity ensures. Some APIs may be tableted as pure substances, but this is the case. A pharmacologically inactive ingredient termed a binder is added to help hold the tablet together and give it strength. A wide variety of binders may be used, some common ones including lactose, dibasic calcium phosphate, corn starch, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone polyvinylpyrrolidone and modified cellulose. An ingredient is needed to act as a disintegrant to aid tablet dispersion once swallowed, releasing the API for absorption; some binders, such as starch and cellulose, are excellent disintegrants. Tablets are convenient to use, they provide an measured dosage of the active ingredient in a convenient portable package, can be designed to protect unstable medications or disguise unpalatable ingredients. C

Kuj┼Ź Yoritsune

Kujō Yoritsune known as Fujiwara no Yoritsune, was the fourth shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. His father was kanpaku his grandmother was a niece of Minamoto no Yoritomo, his wife was a granddaughter of daughter of Minamoto no Yoriie. He was born in the year of the Tiger, in the month, on the day, so his given name at birth was Mitora. Yoritsune was a member of the great Fujiwara clan; the Kujō family was one of the five branches of the powerful Fujiwara clan of courtiers. Father: Kujō Michiie Mother: Saionji Rinko Wife: Minamoto no Yoshiko Concubine: Omiya no Tsubone Children: Kujō Yoritsugu by Omiya Kujō Michijo by Omiya Minamoto no Meguhime by Omiya At the age of seven, in 1226, Yoritsune became Sei-i Taishōgun in a political deal between his father and the Kamakura shogunate regent Hōjō Yoshitoki and Hōjō Masako who set him up as a puppet shogun. 1225: At Kamakura, Yoritsune's coming of age ceremonies took place at age 8. 1226: Emperor Go-Horikawa raised Yoritsune to the first rank of the fifth class in the apex of artistocratic court hierarchy.

1230: Yoritsune is married to the daughter of Minamoto no Yoriie. She is 15 years older. 1231: Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the 4th class in the dōjō kuge. 1231: Yoritsune is created a general of the left. 1231: Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the 4th class in the dōjō kuge. 1232: Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the 3rd class in the dōjō kuge. 1233: Yoritsune is granted the court post of provisional Middle Counselor 1234: Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the 3rd class in the dōjō kuge. 1235: Yoritsune is raised to the second rank of the second class in the dōjō kuge. 1236: Yoritsune is raised to the first rank of the second class in the dōjō kuge. 1237: Yoritsune ordered the building of a mansion in the Rokuhara section of Miyako. 1238: Yoritsune leaves Kamakura en route to Miyako, accompanied by Yaskutoki and the troupes of several provinces. Fujiwara no Yukimitis stays at Kamakura to preserve order in the land. 1238: Yoritsune arrives in Miyako and begins to live in his new palace at Rokuhara.

1238: Yoritsune leaves Miyako to return to Kamakura. July 14, 1242: Hōjō Yasutoki died at age 60. From Gennin 1, or during 19 years, Yasutoki had been the regent or prime minister of the Kamakura shogunate. Yasutoki's son, Hōjō Tsunetoki succeeded him as shikken, but Yoritsune himself took charge of the bakufu. 1244: In the spring of this year, a number of extraordinary phenomena in the skies over Kamakura troubled Yoritsune deeply. 1244: Yoritsune's son, had his coming-of-age ceremonies at age 6. In the same month, Yoritsune asked Emperor Go-Saga for permission to give up his responsibilities as shogun in favor of his son, Kujō Yoritsugu. September 11, 1245: Yoshitsune shaved his head and became a Buddhist priest. 1246: Yoritsune's son, now Shogun Yoritsugu marries the sister of Hōjō Tsunetoki. September 1, 1256: Kujō Yoritsune known as Fujiwara Yoritsune, died at the age of 39 years. October 14, 1256: Yoritsune's son and successor as Kamakura shogun, Kujō Yoritsugu known as Fujiwara Yoritsugu, died at the age of 18 years.

The years in which Yoritsune was shogun are more identified by more than one era name or nengō. Karoku Antei Kangi Jōei Tenpuku Bunryaku Katei Ryakunin En'ō Ninji Kangen Mass, Jeffrey P.. The Kamakura bakufu: a study in documents. Stanford: Stanford University Press. __________.. Warrior government in early medieval Japan: a study of the Kamakura Bakufu and jitō New Haven: Yale University Press. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Kamakura bakufu 鎌倉幕府. Tokyo: Shōgakkan 小学館, 1974. Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691. Varley, H. Paul.. A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns: Jinnō Shōtōki of Kitabatake Chikafusa. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.

45th Launch Group

The 45th Launch Group is a United States Air Force unit. It is assigned to the 45th Space Wing, stationed at Florida; the 45th Launch Group participates in receipt, processing and launch of all flight hardware to ensure the successful launch of satellites to support national and combatant commander requirements. The group contributes to mission success through seamless partnership with launch/satellite program offices. 5th Space Launch SquadronThe 5th Space Launch Squadron mission is to ensure the success of the Atlas V and Delta IV programs at CCAFS by fostering innovative teamwork among the Wing, SPO and industry.45th Launch Support SquadronThe 45th Launch Support Squadron is the "flightline" for Department of Defense spacecraft. LCSS personnel oversee spacecraft hardware arrival, processing and launch through direct delegation from spacecraft development wings throughout the DoD providing launch base mission assurance for the Program Executive Officer for Space. In addition, the squadron is responsible for ensuring continued delivery of critical mission-ready facilities and programmatic resources to the launch group, the wing and its customers.

See also: 45th Space Wing and 45th Operations GroupIn order to handle space operations more senior officials at Air Force Space Command, Air Force Material Command and Missile Systems Center, 14th Air Force, the 30th Space Wing, the 45th Space Wing agreed to fine tune the new standard wing organization in 2003. Following approval at the highest levels of the Air Force, an organizational transformation was implemented on 1 December 2003, discontinuing SMC Detachment 8 and activating the 45th Launch Group which included elements of the 45th Operations Group; as a result of the transformation, the 45th Launch Group was constituted and assigned to Air Force Space Command with further assignment to the 45th Space Wing. The 5th Space Launch Squadron was reactivated at Cape Canaveral on 1 December 2003; the 5th was placed under the 45th Launch Group, the squadron was given responsibility for Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle operations held by Detachment 8, along with the 1st Space Launch Squadron performing Delta II operations and the 3rd Space Launch Squadron performing Titan IV and Atlas II/III operations.

The final Atlas IIIB/Centaur and Titan IVB missions were launched from Cape Canaveral in February and April 2005 respectively. The 3rd Space Squadron—which had been responsible for managing both launch programs—was inactivated effective 30 June 2005. On the same date, the 45th Launch Support Squadron was activated and placed under the 45th Launch Group; the ceremony for both organizational changes was held at the Cape on the morning of 6 July 2005. The 1st SLS was inactivated on 18 August 2009, following the final USAF launch of a Delta II which had occurred the previous day. Established as 45th Launch Group on 28 Oct 2003Activated on 1 December 2003. 45th Space Wing, 1 December 2003 – Present 1st Space Launch Squadron: 1 December 2003 – 18 August 2009 3d Space Launch Squadron: 1 December 2003 – 30 June 2005 5th Space Launch Squadron: 1 December 2003 – Present 45th Launch Support Squadron: 30 June 2005 – Present Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, 1 December 2003 – Present This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

45th Launch Group at AFHRA 45th Launch Group Bittersweet launch ends several chapters of history