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Tabon Caves

The Tabon Caves, dubbed as the Philippines' Cradle of Civilization, are a group of caves located on Lipuun Point, north of Quezon municipality, in the south western part of the province of Palawan on Palawan Island, in the Philippines. They are part of the Lipuun Point Reservation, protected by the government of the Philippines as a museum reservation to protect the caves and immediate vicinity from deforestation and to preserve the cultural artifacts present there; the caves are named after the Tabon scrubfowl. It is bordered on the south by the town proper of Bgy. Panitian on the west, the West Philippine Sea on the north and east. Out of 215 known caves, 29 have been explored and seven of these are open to the public; the seven include Tabon, Diwata and Liyang Caves. One of the oldest human bones found in the Philippines, the Tabon Man, was found here in 1962. Other excavated, unexamined remains are stored onsite. In 2006, the Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun was added to the tentative list of the Philippines for future UNESCO World Heritage Site nomination.

The complex is managed by the National Museum and was declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the same institution in February 2011. The caves were researched by Dr. Robert B. Fox and a team from the National Museum of the Philippines between 1962 and 1966; the greatest find of was the skull cap of the Tabon Man. It is believed to be 22,000-24,000 years old; the team found over 1,500 burial jars. One jar in particular, the Manunggul Jar, is considered to be a National Cultural Treasure. Other finds included earthenware, jade ornaments and jewelry, many stone tools, animal bones, human fossils dating back to 47,000 years ago, the earliest human remains found in the Philippines; the archaeological finds indicate habitation from 50,000 to 700 years ago. The limestone formations in the reservation date back 25 million years to the Lower Middle Miocene Period; the Lipuun Point Reservation, covering a 138 ha island connected to the Palawan mainland by a mangrove forest, was declared a Site Museum Reservation in April 1972 and was made a priority site for tourism development in 1991 for its natural and cultural heritage.

In recent years, verification of facts in addition to further analysis of collected samples has allowed for a greater understanding of the site as a whole. Radioisotope dating techniques have been able to show a period of near continuous habitation from 30,000-9,000 years ago. Human remains as well as rock flakes and other stone tools indicate the cave may have been used as a workshop; the bone fragments found in the caves have been suggested to have been from the late Pleistocene to early Holocene periods. Previous excavations of the site have revealed evidence of a diet including pig and deer, which are extinct in the Philippines today. While little new data is available because of the cave's location and safety concerns, they are being excavated and the old data is being reexamined. 25% of archaeological sites in the caves have been excavated. Earliest cave uses included inhabitation, the factory like production of stone tools. According to a video by Dr. Fox, a jar burial period began 3000 years ago and lasted until 1500 years ago.

This is evidence. The Sa Huynh adorned their dead with agate and glass beads from India and Iran. Artifacts of this nature, including glass bracelets, were found in the cave and are displayed at the Palawan Cultural Museum in Puerto Princesa. A migration of Sa Huyhn people to Vietnam is accepted by most experts to have been the forebears of the Cham people; these are a people still existing today. History of the people in the area took on a new significance in modern times owing to the Spratly Islands dispute. A gold Ornamental Pendant, from the Tabon caves in the island of Palawan, is an image of Garuda, the eagle bird, the mount of Hindu deity Vishnu; the discovery of sophisticated Hindu imagery and gold artifacts in Tabon caves has been linked to those found from Óc Eo archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province of Vietnam in the Mekong River Delta. These archaeological evidence suggests an active trade of many specialized goods and gold between India and Philippines and coastal regions of Vietnam and China.

Igang is one of the longest of the complex. It appears to have been the primary burial site and most of the burial jars were found here. Tabon Cave lends its name to the complex as a whole. In this large cave with a big open chamber, researchers found artifacts indicating trade with China during the Song dynasty and the Yuan dynasty; these are now at the Philippine National Museum in Manila. In July 2015, Holy Trinity University in Puerto Princesa, Palawan was selected for the construction of a new college to studies of ancient Palawan man. Nearly all active research stopped; the National Museum of the Philippines guards the cave complex. All visitors pictures and do not damage the cave walls. Further, all burial jars and remains have been secured. One issue is that new research and exploration of the complex has ceased. Tabon Cave Story Video of caves. National Museum of the Philippines Anthropology Section. Arts of the Philippines Article on the Manunggul Jar

Central African Power Pool

The Pool Energetique De L'Afrique Centrale Central African Power Pool, is an association of ten Central African countries. The major aim of the association is to interconnect the electricity grids of the member countries in order to facilitate the trading of electric power between the members. PEAC is one of the five regional power pools in Africa; the headquarters of CAPP are located on the 14th Floor of Nabemba Tower, in the city of Brazzaville, the capital and largest city in the Republic of the Congo. The geographical coordinates of CAPP's headquarters are 4°16'19.0"S, 15°17'22.0"E. Member countries are Angola, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe; the energy compact was established in 2003 and focuses on developing electricity interconnections between member states. The member countries and their respective electricity utility companies are listed in the table below. Southern African Power Pool Eastern Africa Power Pool West African Power Pool North African Power Pool Website of Central African Power Pool

Katherine Mitchell

Katherine Mitchell is an American artist, best known for her abstract painting. Katherine Mitchell was born in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1944, she received her artist education in Atlanta, first at the Atlanta College of Art, where she received a BFA degree at Georgia State University, where she received an MFA degree. She attended the Tyler School of Art in Rome in 1968, she spent her career in Atlanta. A proponent of minimalism, Mitchell's geometric drawings and paintings are meditative and seek to provide the viewer with a spiritual experience, she has participated in over 100 group and twenty solo exhibitions including those at the Museum of Contemporary Art of Georgia, Atlanta Contemporary Art Center, Galerie Stil und Bruch, Berlin and the Factory, Krems, Austria. She lectured in drawing and painting at Emory University from 1980 until her retirement in 2009. Mitchell's Variations on a Theme of Modules, is a mural made of 15,000 square feet of ceramic tile in the Sandy Springs station of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority.

Embedded in the walls of the underground station, the geometric tesserae create visual columns upon the station's structural columns. Her artwork makes use of an architectural vocabulary to explore psychological space, depicting vaults and ziggurats in her paintings and drawings. Mitchell works abstractly in drawing and painting in various media, has exhibited in museums and galleries, both nationally and abroad, including The American Academy and Institute of Arts & Letters in New York, 1979, the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D. C. 1996. Mitchell married Edward Ross, a fellow painter, who served as Mitchell's teacher. Ross died in 1976. Katherine Mitchell Art