Sociology of race and ethnic relations
The sociology of race and ethnic relations is the study of social and economic relations between races and ethnicities at all levels of society. This area encompasses the study of racism, residential segregation, the sociological analysis of race and ethnicity frequently interacts with other areas of sociology such as stratification and social psychology, as well as with postcolonial theory. At the level of policy, ethnic relations is discussed in terms of either assimilationism or multiculturalism. Anti-racism forms another style of policy, particularly popular in the 1960s and 1970s, at the level of academic inquiry, ethnic relations is discussed either by the experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or else by overarching theoretical issues. Marx described society as having nine great classes, the capitalist class and he hoped for the working class to rise up against the capitalist class in an attempt to stop the exploitation of the working class. He blamed part of their failure to organize on the capitalist class, as they separated black and this separation, specifically between Blacks and Whites in America, contributed to racism.
Marx attributes capitalisms contribution to racism through segmented labor markets and a racial inequality of earnings, weber laid the foundations for a micro-sociology of ethnic relations beginning in 1906. Weber argued that biological traits could not be the basis for group foundation unless they were conceived as shared characteristics and it was this shared perception and common customs that create and distinguish one ethnicity from another. This differs from the views of many of his contemporaries who believed that a group was formed from biological similarities alone apart from social perception of membership in a group. Du Bois is well known as one of the most influential black scholars, du Bois educated himself on his people, and sought academia as a way to enlighten others on the social injustices against his people. Du Bois believed that Black Americans should embrace higher education and use their new access to schooling to achieve a position within society. He referred to this idea as the Talented Tenth, with gaining popularity, he preached the belief that for blacks to be free in some places, they must be free everywhere.
After traveling to Africa and Russia, he recanted his original philosophy of integration, booker T. Washington was considered one of the most influential black educators of the 19th and 20th centuries. Born in 1856 as a slave in Virginia, Washington came of age as slavery was coming to an end, just as slavery ended, however, it was replaced by a system of sharecropping in the South that resulted in black indebtedness. By focusing on education for blacks, rather than political advancement, however, he pursued legal challenges against segregation and disfranchisement of blacks. The effect is so strong that even simply asking the test-taker to state her or his race before taking the test will significantly alter test performance, psychoanalysis has much to offer the study of racism. Its central proposition is that rationality is not the state of the individual. Humans resist change because change threatens established ways of dealing with anxiety, individual defence mechanisms contribute to social defence mechanisms
History of sociology
Sociology as a scholarly discipline emerged primarily out of enlightenment thought, shortly after the French Revolution, as a positivist science of society. Its genesis owed to various key movements in the philosophy of science, Social analysis in a broader sense, has origins in the common stock of philosophy and necessarily pre-dates the field. Modern academic sociology arose as a reaction to modernity, urbanization, secularization, colonization, an emphasis on the concept of modernity, rather than the Enlightenment, often distinguishes sociological discourse from that of classical political philosophy. Various quantitative social research techniques have become common tools for governments and organizations, divorced from theoretical explanations of social dynamics, this has given social research a degree of autonomy from the discipline of sociology. Similarly, social science has come to be appropriated as a term to refer to various disciplines which study humans, interaction. Sociological reasoning may be traced back at least as far as the ancient Greeks, proto-sociological observations are to be found in the founding texts of Western philosophy, as well as in the non-European thought of figures such as Confucius.
The characteristic trends in the thinking of the ancient Greeks can be traced back to their social environment. Because there was rarely any extensive or highly centralized political organization within states this allowed the tribal spirit of localism and provincialism to have free play and this tribal spirit of localism and provincialism pervaded most of the Greek thinking upon social phenomena. The origin of the survey can be traced back to the Domesday Book ordered by king William I in 1086, there is evidence of early Muslim sociology from the 14th century. He is thus considered by some to be the forerunner of sociology, concerning the discipline of sociology, he conceived a dynamic theory of history that involved conceptualizations of social conflict and social change. He developed the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the concept of a generation, following a contemporary Arab scholar, Sati al-Husri, the Muqaddimah may be read as a sociological work, six books of general sociology.
Topics dealt with in this work include politics, urban life, the work is based around Ibn Khalduns central concept of asabiyyah, which has been translated as social cohesion, group solidarity, or tribalism. This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other kinship groups. The term was first coined by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, from the Latin, socius and the suffix -ology, in 1838, the French-thinker Auguste Comte ultimately gave sociology the definition that it holds today. Comte had earlier expressed his work as physics, but that term had been appropriated by others, most notably a Belgian statistician. He argued that scientists could distract groups from war and strife, in turn, this would bring multiple cultures and societies together and prevent conflict. Saint-Simon took the idea that everyone had encouraged from the Enlightenment, which was the belief in science, saint-Simons main idea was that industrialism would create a new launch in history. He saw that people had been seeing progress as an approach for science, Society was making a crucial change at the time since it was growing out of a declining feudalism
Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, management, control and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels. The term criminology was coined in 1885 by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie. In the mid-18th century criminology arose as social philosophers gave thought to crime, over time, several schools of thought have developed. There were three schools of thought in early criminological theory spanning the period from the mid-18th century to the mid-twentieth century, Positive. The Classical School, which developed in the century, was based on utilitarian philosophy. Cesare Beccaria, author of On Crimes and Punishments, Jeremy Bentham, thus, it ignores the possibility of irrationality and unconscious drives as motivators. Punishment can deter people from crime, as the costs outweigh benefits, the more swift and certain the punishment, the more effective it is in deterring criminal behavior.
The Classical school of thought came about at a time when major reform in penology occurred, this time period saw many legal reforms, the French Revolution, and the development of the legal system in the United States. The Positivist school presumes that criminal behavior is caused by internal and external factors outside of the individuals control, the scientific method was introduced and applied to study human behavior. Positivism can be broken up into three segments which include biological and social positivism, Cesare Lombroso, an Italian sociologist working in the late 19th century, is regarded as the father of criminology. He was one of the key contributors to biological positivism and founded the Italian school of criminology, Lombroso took a scientific approach, insisting on empirical evidence for studying crime. This approach, influenced by the theory of phrenology and by Charles Darwin. Criminologists have since rejected Lombrosos biological theories, with groups not used in his studies.
Sociological positivism suggests that factors such as poverty, membership of subcultures. Adolphe Quetelet made use of data and statistical analysis to gain insight into the relationship between crime and sociological factors and he found that age, poverty and alcohol consumption were important factors related to crime. Lance Lochner conducted three different research experiments that shared the same conclusion, schooling reduces crime by a significant margin, Rawson W. Rawson utilized crime statistics to suggest a link between population density and crime rates, with crowded cities creating an environment conducive for crime. Joseph Fletcher and John Glyde presented papers to the Statistical Society of London on their studies of crime, Henry Mayhew used empirical methods and an ethnographic approach to address social questions and poverty, and presented his studies in London Labour and the London Poor. Émile Durkheim viewed crime as an aspect of society, with uneven distribution of wealth
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from experience, interpreted through reason and logic. Positivism holds that knowledge is found only in this derived knowledge. Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence, Positivism holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected, as are metaphysics and theology, Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so does society, and further developed positivism into a Religion of Humanity. The English noun positivism was re-imported in the 19th century from the French word positivisme, the corresponding adjective has been used in similar sense to discuss law since the time of Chaucer. Wilhelm Dilthey popularized the distinction between Geisteswissenschaft and Naturwissenschaften, the consideration that laws in physics may not be absolute but relative, and, if so, this might be more true of social sciences, was stated, in different terms, by G. B.
Vico, in contrast to the positivist movement, asserted the superiority of the science of the human mind, Positivism asserts that all authentic knowledge allows verification and that all authentic knowledge assumes that the only valid knowledge is scientific. Émile Durkheim reformulated sociological positivism as a foundation of social research, Wilhelm Dilthey, in contrast, fought strenuously against the assumption that only explanations derived from science are valid. Dilthey was in part influenced by the historicism of Leopold von Ranke, at the turn of the 20th century the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, rejected the doctrine, thus founding the antipositivist tradition in sociology. Later antipositivists and critical theorists have associated positivism with scientism, science as ideology, but can any one conceive of a more pointless philosophy, seeing that what we can say clearly amounts to next to nothing. If we omitted all that is unclear we would probably be left with completely uninteresting, Logical positivists rejected metaphysical speculation and attempted to reduce statements and propositions to pure logic.
Strong critiques of this approach by philosophers such as Karl Popper, Willard Van Orman Quine and Thomas Kuhn have been highly influential, in historiography the debate on positivism has been characterized by the quarrel between positivism and historicism. Arguments against positivist approaches in historiography include that history differs from sciences like physics and ethology in subject matter and that much of what history studies is nonquantifiable, and therefore to quantify is to lose in precision. Experimental methods and mathematical models do not generally apply to history, Positivism in the social sciences is usually characterized by quantitative approaches and the proposition of quasi-absolute laws. A significant exception to this trend is represented by cultural anthropology, in psychology the positivist movement was influential in the development of operationalism. Economic thinker Friedrich Hayek rejected positivism in the sciences as hopelessly limited in comparison to evolved and divided knowledge.
For example, much legislation falls short in contrast to pre-literate or incompletely defined common or evolved law, in contemporary social science, strong accounts of positivism have long since fallen out of favour
Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, about 84% of the worlds population is affiliated with one of the five largest religions, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion. With the onset of the modernisation of and the revolution in the western world. The religiously unaffiliated demographic include those who do not identify with any religion, atheists. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs, about 16% of the worlds population is religiously unaffiliated. The study of religion encompasses a variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion.
Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, Religion is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i. e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully. The medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders, we hear of the religion of the Golden Fleece, of a knight of the religion of Avys. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as a virtue of worship, never as doctrine, practice. In the Quran, the Arabic word din is often translated as religion in modern translations and it was in the 19th century that the terms Buddhism, Hinduism and Confucianism first emerged. Max Müller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, what is called ancient religion today, they would have only called law. Some languages have words that can be translated as religion, but they may use them in a different way.
For example, the Sanskrit word dharma, sometimes translated as religion, throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a union between imperial law and universal or Buddha law, but these became independent sources of power. There is no equivalent of religion in Hebrew, and Judaism does not distinguish clearly between religious, racial, or ethnic identities
Sociology of law
The sociology of law is often described as a sub-discipline of sociology or an interdisciplinary approach within legal studies. Some see sociology of law as belonging necessarily to the field of sociology whilst others tend to consider it a field of research caught up between the disciplines of law and sociology. Still others regard it neither as a sub-discipline of sociology nor as a branch of legal studies and its object encompasses the historical movement of law and justice and their relentless contemporary construction, e. g. The roots of the sociology of law can be traced back to the works of sociologists and jurists of the turn of the previous century, the relationship between law and society was sociologically explored in the seminal works of both Max Weber and Émile Durkheim. The writings on law by these classical sociologists are foundational to the sociology of law today. A number of scholars, mainly jurists, employed social scientific theories. Notably among these were Leon Petrazycki, Eugen Ehrlich and Georges Gurvitch, for Max Weber, a so-called legal rational form as a type of domination within society, is not attributable to people but to abstract norms.
He understood the body of coherent and calculable law in terms of a rational-legal authority, such coherent and calculable law formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism. Central to the development of law is the formal rationalisation of law on the basis of general procedures that are applied equally and fairly to all. Modern rationalised law is codified and impersonal in its application to specific cases. Over time, law has undergone a transformation from repressive law to restitutive law, restitutive law operates in societies in which there is a high degree of individual variation and emphasis on personal rights and responsibilities. For Durkheim, law is an indicator of the mode of integration of a society, Durkheim argued that a sociology of law should be developed alongside, and in close connection with, a sociology of morals, studying the development of value systems reflected in law.
In Fundamental Principles of the Sociology of Law, Eugen Ehrlich developed an approach to the study of law by focusing on how social networks. The latter emerged spontaneously as people interacted with other to form social associations. According to Kelsen, Ehrlich had confused Sein and Sollen, Petrazyckis work addressed sociological problems and his method was empirical, since he maintained that one could gain knowledge of objects or relationships only by observation. However, he couched his theory in the language of cognitive psychology, his contribution to the development of sociology of law remains largely unrecognized. Among those who were inspired by Petrazyckis work is the Polish legal sociologist Adam Podgórecki. Theodor Geiger developed an analysis of the Marxist theory of law
A community is a small or large social unit who have something in common, such as norms, values, or identity. Often - but not always - communities share a sense of place that is situated in a geographical area. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties define a sense of community, people tend to define those social ties as important to their identity and roles in social institutions like family, work, society, or humanity, at large. The word community derives from the Old French comuneté, which comes from the Latin communitas community, human communities may share intent, resources, preferences and risks in common, affecting the identity of the participants and their degree of cohesiveness. Community studies is an academic field drawing on both sociology and anthropology and the research methods of ethnography and participant observation in the study of community. In academic settings around the world, community studies is variously a sub-discipline of anthropology or sociology and it is often interdisciplinary and geared toward practical applications rather than purely theoretical perspectives.
Community studies is sometimes combined with other fields, i. e. Urban and Community Studies and Community Studies, or Family, while studies of the Internet are now widespread across academic disciplines, there is a growing collaboration among these investigations. On the research side, Internet studies intersects with studies of cyberculture, human–computer interaction, Urban sociologists contest the significance of place in shaping community. The anonymity and impersonal characterizing life in modern city spaces tend to be devoid of the collective connectedness associated with the idea of community”. The philosophy of science is the study of the logic and method of the social sciences, such as sociology, anthropology. Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant, a variety of methods are involved in cultural anthropological, including participant observation and surveys.
The term civilization gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with forming an umbrella term. Anthropologists have argued that culture is human nature, and that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global. Colonialism and its processes increasingly brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with primitive others, the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. In archaeological studies of communities the term community is used in two ways, paralleling usage in other areas.
The first is a definition of community as a place where people used to live
Social network analysis
Social network analysis is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory. It characterizes networked structures in terms of nodes and the ties and these networks are often visualized through sociograms in which nodes are represented as points and ties are represented as lines. Social network analysis has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology, in the 1930s Jacob Moreno and Helen Jennings introduced basic analytical methods. Even in the study of literature, network analysis has been applied by Anheier and Romo, Wouter De Nooy, social network analysis has found applications in various academic disciplines, as well as practical applications such as countering money laundering and terrorism. Homophily, The extent to which actors form ties with similar versus dissimilar others, similarity can be defined by gender, age, educational achievement, values or any other salient characteristic. Homophily is referred to as assortativity, The number of content-forms contained in a tie.
For example, two people who are friends and work together would have a multiplexity of 2, multiplexity has been associated with relationship strength. Mutuality/Reciprocity, The extent to which two actors reciprocate each others friendship or other interaction, Network Closure, A measure of the completeness of relational triads. An individuals assumption of network closure is called transitivity, transitivity is an outcome of the individual or situational trait of Need for Cognitive Closure. Propinquity, The tendency for actors to have ties with geographically close others. Bridge, An individual whose weak ties fill a structural hole and it includes the shortest route when a longer one is unfeasible due to a high risk of message distortion or delivery failure. Centrality, Centrality refers to a group of metrics that aim to quantify the importance or influence of a node within a network. Examples of common methods of measuring centrality include betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, eigenvector centrality, alpha centrality, The proportion of direct ties in a network relative to the total number possible.
Distance, The minimum number of required to connect two particular actors, as popularized by Stanley Milgrams small world experiment and the idea of six degrees of separation. Structural holes, The absence of ties between two parts of a network and exploiting a structural hole can give an entrepreneur a competitive advantage. This concept was developed by sociologist Ronald Burt, and is referred to as an alternate conception of social capital. Tie Strength, Defined by the combination of time, emotional intensity, intimacy. Strong ties are associated with homophily and transitivity, while ties are associated with bridges
Social movements are a type of group action. They are large, sometimes informal, groupings of individuals or organizations which focus on political or social issues. In other words, they carry out, resist, or undo a social change, modern Western social movements became possible through education and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization and urbanization of 19th century societies. However, others point out many of the social movements of the last hundred years grew up, like the Mau Mau in Kenya. Either way, social movements have been and continued to be connected with democratic political systems. Occasionally, social movements have been involved in democratizing nations, over the past 200 years, they have become part of a popular and global expression of dissent. Modern movements often utilize technology and the internet to people globally. Adapting to communication trends is a theme among successful movements. Research is beginning to explore how advocacy organizations linked to social movements in the U. S.
and Canada use social media to facilitate civic engagement, the systematic literature review of Buettner & Buettner analyzed the role of Twitter during a wide range of social movements. Political science and sociology have developed a variety of theories and empirical research on social movements, there is no single consensus definition of a social movement. For Tilly, social movements are a vehicle for ordinary peoples participation in public politics. Sidney Tarrow defines a social movement as collective challenges by people with common purposes and solidarity in sustained interactions with elites, opponents and he specifically distinguishes social movements from political parties and advocacy groups. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the political figure. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, as a result of this episode, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes - people began chanting and Liberty in the streets.
After a period of exile, brought about by further charges of libel and obscenity, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at Middlesex, where most of his support was located. When Wilkes was imprisoned in the Kings Bench Prison on 10 May 1768 and this was the first ever sustained social movement, -it involved public meetings, the distribution of pamphlets on an unprecedented scale and the mass petition march. The force and influence of social movement on the streets of London compelled the authorities to concede to the movements demands. Wilkes was returned to Parliament, general warrants were declared as unconstitutional, the Association had the support of leading Calvinist religious figures, including Rowland Hill, Erasmus Middleton, and John Rippon
Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study, an ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. The word can thus be said to have a double meaning, the resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. The typical ethnography is a study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate. In all cases it should be reflexive, make a contribution toward the understanding of the social life of humans, have an aesthetic impact on the reader. An ethnography records all observed behavior and describes all symbol-meaning relations, the word ethnography is derived from the Greek ἔθνος, meaning a company, a people, nation and -graphy meaning field of study. Ethnographic studies focus on large groups of people who interact over time.
Ethnography is a design, where the researcher explains about shared learnt patterns of values, beliefs. The field of anthropology originated from Europe and England designed in late 19th century and it spread its roots to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the main contributors like EB Tylor from Britain and Lewis H Morgan, franz Boas, Bronislaw Malinowski, Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, were a group of researchers from United States who contributed the idea of cultural relativism to the literature. He gives the point of the native and this became the origin of field work. Since Malinowski was very firm with his approach he applied it practically and he was interested in learning the language of the islanders and stayed there for a long time doing his field work. The field of ethnography became very popular in the late 19th century, again, in the latter part of the 19th century, the field of anthropology became a good support for scientific formation. Though the field was flourishing it had a lot of threat to encounter, post colonialism, the research climate shifted towards post-modernism and feminism.
Therefore, the field of anthropology moved into discipline of social science, gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition as a professor of history and geography. Whilst involved in the expedition, he differentiated Völker-Beschreibung as an area of study. This became known as ethnography, following the introduction of the Greek neologism ethnographia by Johann Friedrich Schöpperlin, there are different forms of ethnography, confessional ethnography, life history, feminist ethnography etc. Two popular forms of ethnography are realist ethnography and critical ethnography, realist ethnography, is a traditional approach used by cultural anthropologists
Sociology is the study of social behaviour or society, including its origins, organisation and institutions. It is a science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, disorder. Many sociologists aim to research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare. Subject matter ranges from the level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems. The traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, social mobility, secularization, sexuality, the range of social scientific methods has expanded. Social researchers draw upon a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques, the linguistic and cultural turns of the mid-twentieth century led to increasingly interpretative and philosophic approaches towards the analysis of society. There is often a great deal of crossover between social research, market research, and other statistical fields, Sociology is distinguished from various general social studies courses, which bear little relation to sociological theory or to social-science research-methodology.
The US National Science Foundation classifies sociology as a STEM field, Sociological reasoning pre-dates the foundation of the discipline. Social analysis has origins in the stock of Western knowledge and philosophy. The origin of the survey, i. e, there is evidence of early sociology in medieval Arab writings. The word sociology is derived from both Latin and Greek origins, the Latin word, companion, the suffix -logy, the study of from Greek -λογία from λόγος, lógos, knowledge. It was first coined in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès in an unpublished manuscript, Sociology was defined independently by the French philosopher of science, Auguste Comte, in 1838. Comte used this term to describe a new way of looking at society, Comte had earlier used the term social physics, but that had subsequently been appropriated by others, most notably the Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet. Comte endeavoured to unify history and economics through the understanding of the social realm.
Comte believed a positivist stage would mark the final era, after conjectural theological and metaphysical phases, Comte gave a powerful impetus to the development of sociology, an impetus which bore fruit in the decades of the nineteenth century. To say this is not to claim that French sociologists such as Durkheim were devoted disciples of the high priest of positivism. To be sure, beginnings can be traced back well beyond Montesquieu, for example, Marx rejected Comtean positivism but in attempting to develop a science of society nevertheless came to be recognized as a founder of sociology as the word gained wider meaning. For Isaiah Berlin, Marx may be regarded as the father of modern sociology
Social change refers to an alteration in the social order of a society. Social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviours, Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by dialectical or evolutionary means. It may refer to a change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism. Accordingly, it may refer to social revolution, such as the Socialist revolution presented in Marxism, or to other social movements. Social change may be driven by cultural, economic, scientific or technological forces, Developmental psychology can play a role in social change. Social change comes about with tangible/intangible resource inputs as social investment. One source is random or unique factors such as climate, for example, successful development has the same general requirements, such as a stable and flexible government, enough free and available resources, and a diverse social organization of society.
On the whole, social change is usually a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors, there are many theories of social change. Generally, a theory of change should include elements such as aspects of change and mechanisms of social change. Hegelian, The classic Hegelian dialectic model of change is based on the interaction of opposing forces, starting from a point of momentary stasis, Thesis countered by Antithesis first yields conflict, it subsequently results in a new Synthesis. Marxist, Marxism presents a dialectical and materialist concept of history, The Greek philosopher Heraclitus used the metaphor of a river to speak of change thus, On those stepping into rivers staying the same other and other waters flow. What Heraclitus seems to be suggesting here, interpretations notwithstanding, is that, in order for the river to remain the river, change must constantly be taking place. Thus one may think of the Heraclitan model as parallel to that of a living organism, a contemporary application of this approach is shown in the social change theory SEED-SCALE which builds off of the complexity theory subfield of Emergence.
Daoist, The Chinese philosophical work Dao De Jing, I.8, although soft and yielding, will eventually wear away stone. Change in this model is to be natural and steady, one of the most obvious changes currently occurring is the change in the relative global population distribution between countries. China and India continue to be the largest countries, followed by the US as a distant third, population growth throughout the world is slowing. Population growth among developed countries has been slowing since the 1950s, population growth among the less developed countries excluding the least developed has been slowing, since 1960, and is now at 1. 3% annual growth. Population growth among the least developed countries has slowed relatively little, in much of the developed world, changes from distinct mens and womens work to more gender equal patterns have been economically important since the mid 20th century. Both men and women are to be considered to be contributors to social change world wide