Tabriz is the most populated city in northwestern Iran, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province. It is the sixth most populous city in Iran. Located in the Quru River valley, in Iran's historic Azerbaijan region, between long ridges of volcanic cones in the Sahand and Eynali mountains, Tabriz's elevation ranges between 1,350 and 1,600 metres above sea level; the valley opens up into a plain that slopes down to the eastern shores of Lake Urmia, 60 kilometres to the west. With cold winters and temperate summers, Tabriz is considered a summer resort, it was named World Carpet Weaving City by the World Crafts Council in October 2015 and Exemplary Tourist City of 2018 by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. With a population of over 1.73 million, Tabriz is the largest economic hub and metropolitan area in Northwest Iran. The population is overwhelmingly Azerbaijani, though Persian is spoken by residents as a second language. Tabriz is a major heavy industries hub for automobiles, machine tools, petrochemicals and cement production industries.

The city is famous for its handicrafts, including jewellery. Local confectionery, dried nuts and traditional Tabrizi food are recognised throughout Iran as some of the best. Tabriz is an academic hub and a site for some of the most prestigious cultural institutes in Northwest Iran. Tabriz contains many historical monuments, representing Iran's architectural transition throughout its deep history. Most of Tabriz's preserved historical sites belong to Ilkhanid and Qajar. Among these sites is the grand Bazaar of Tabriz, designated a World Heritage Site. From the early modern era, Tabriz was pivotal in the development and economy of its three neighboring regions. In modern era city played a vital role in the history of Iran; as the country's closest hub to Europe, many aspects of early modernisation in Iran began in Tabriz. Prior to forced ceding of Iran's Caucasian territories to Imperial Russia, following two Russo-Persian Wars in the first half of the 19th century, Tabriz was at the forefront of Iranian rule over its Caucasian territories.

Until 1925, the city was the traditional residence for the crown princes of the Qajar dynasty. According to some sources, including Encyclopædia Britannica, the name Tabriz derives from tap-riz, from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Tiridates II of Armenia repelled Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh". In AD 297, it became the capital of king of Armenia. However, this story has a popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event; this is based on accounts of a 13th-century Armenian historian. The Cambridge History of Iran points to a connection between the "ancient stronghold of Tarui-Tarmakisa", which existed in VIII century BC, the city of Tabriz, with Ernst Emil Herzfeld's Archaeological History of Iran directly equating "Tarwakisa" with Tabriz. Thus, some researchers believe; the early history of Tabriz is not well-documented.

The earliest civilization signs in the city belongs to an Iron Age grave yard of 1st millennium B. C. which were unearthed in late 1990s in northern side of Blue Mosque. The city inscribed as old as 714 B. C. on as Tarui or Tauris, on the Assyrian King Sargon II's epigraph in 714 BC. Egyptologist David Rohl suggested. Archaeologist Eric H. Cline commented on Rohl's views, writing that "his suggestions have not caught on with the scholarly establishment, his argument is not helped by the fact that it depends upon speculations regarding the transmission of place-names for both the various rivers and nearby related areas from antiquity to the present. In the end, while Rohl’s suggestion is not out of the question, it seems no more probable than any other hypothesis, less than those suggested by Speiser and Sauer."Since the earliest documented history of Tabriz, it has been chosen as the capital for several rulers commencing from Atropates era and his dynasty. It is the city has been destroyed multiple times either by natural disasters or by the invading armies.

The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or in the 7th century. The city used to be called T'awrēš in Middle Persian. After the Muslim conquest of Iran, the Arabian Azd tribe from Yemen resided in Tabriz; the development of post-Islamic Tabriz began as of this time. The Islamic geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd arrive at Tabriz. In 791 AD, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder. In the ramadan of 1208, Tabriz, as well as its adjacent cities and territories were conquered by the Kingdom of Georgia under Tamar the Great, as a response to the massacre of 12,000 Christians in the Georgian-controlled city of Ani on Easter day by Muslims. In nearby Ardebil, conquered by the Georgians as well, as many as 12,000 Muslims were killed.

The Georgians pushed further, taking Khoy and Qazvin along the way. After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh as the Ilkhanid Mongol capital of Azerbaijan until it was sacked by Timur in 1392. Chosen as a capit

Ed Mangano

Edward P. Mangano is an American politician from the state of New York. A Republican, he was the County Executive from January 2010 to December 2017, a former legislator in Nassau County, New York, he served seven terms as a county legislator. In November 2009, he defeated incumbent Thomas R. Suozzi for Nassau County Executive. In November 2013, he was re-elected, again defeating Suozzi, by 59% to 41%. On October 2016, a 13-count federal indictment for fraud and bribery was unsealed in the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York against Mangano, his wife Linda, Oyster Bay Town Supervisor John Venditto, he did not seek reelection in 2017. He was convicted in March 2019. Edward Mangano was raised in Bethpage, New York, one of three siblings born to John and Rachel Mangano. During high school he worked as a janitor. While pursuing undergraduate and law degrees from Hofstra University Mangano found the time to have a successful career in printing and publishing newspapers and, in 1988, was admitted to the New York State Bar.

Additionally he went on to serve as counsel to Rivkin Radler, on Long Island. He and his wife, have two children. Mangano represented the 17th legislative district of Nassau County as County Legislator for seven terms, from 1996, when the legislature was first formed, until 2009; this district includes areas of Bethpage, Plainedge, South Farmingdale and Syosset. He served on the Rules Committee, the Public Works Committee, the Recreation and Parks Committee, the Procedures Committee, the Economic and Community Development Committee, he was replaced by fellow Republican Rose Marie Walker. Mangano was the recipient of an award from New York's League of Conservation Voters for "working to preserve open space and setting aside $5 million for the acquisition of the Underhill Property" and for "fighting for the “Clean Water/Clear Air bond act funding for the purpose of ground water protection". In the spring of 2009, Legislator Mangano began a campaign for Nassau County Executive, his platform included promises to cut wasteful spending and fix Nassau's broken property tax assessment system, repeal the new tax on home energy and electricity use, halt the practice of borrowing and relying on debt to pay current expenses.

In an upset in the November 2009 election, Mangano narrowly defeated the incumbent, Thomas Suozzi, winning the county executive position by 386 votes. He led the Republicans to a major victory, in which they took three of the four count-wide positions, regained control of the County Legislature. In October 2009, Mangano's brothers business, New Media Printing, in Bethpage was found to have more than $900,000 in federal and state tax liens. Mangano stated. Mangano promised that if elected, he would repeal a $38 million home energy tax on homeowners passed by former County Executive Tom Suozzi, which cost households on average $7.27 a month. During his inaugural address, Mangano fulfilled his promise by signing an executive order to repeal the tax as of June 1, 2010, his administration estimated the repeal would save families and seniors hundreds of dollars each year. He eliminated a 13% property tax hike proposed by Suozzi. Due to the lost revenue from the tax cut, the Nassau County Interim Financial Authority found that the county's $2.6 billion budget was out of balance by $176 million.

This led Moody's Investors Service to put its finances on outlook negative. NIFA did not consider Mangano to have a satisfactory plan to make up for the lost revenue, seized control of the county's finances; this outcome was called "a cautionary tale" and "a black eye for the Tea Party" by Reuters, although it was noted that much of the county's financial problems had been inherited from a previous financial crisis in 1999 under the administration of then-County Executive Thomas Gulotta which had led to the original creation of NIFA. In his proposed 2011 budget, Mangano proposed the removal of the county guarantee, a policy that saw Nassau County repaying taxes that were wrongfully collected and distributed to school taxes. Under the new policy school districts in Nassau, like the rest of the country, would be responsible for returning funds collected in error; this was met with heated opposition by the school districts, who objected that they would be forced to begin setting money aside to pay the property tax refunds starting in 2013.

The budget was approved by the Nassau County legislature on October 30, 2010, with all 8 Democrats voting against and all 11 Republicans voting in favor. Mangano has implemented several tax initiatives including "$35.6 million in revenue" garnered "from increased real estate fees that" have added "hundreds or thousands of dollars to the cost of buying, selling or refinancing properties in the county." A CBS news story about the proposed inclusion of a $105 surcharge for every issuance of a traffic or parking ticket in Nassau County quoted several county residents deriding potential fallout from such fees. On October 5, 2016, Nassau County legislature Democrats opposed Mangano's tax plan, claiming it was a 9.4% tax increase. The property assessment system in Nassau County had been blamed for costing taxpayers $250 million each year, including $100 million in refunds and $150 million in interest on debt incurred to pay tax settlements in previous years. In all, this accounts for $1.13 billion of the county's $2.45 billion in outstanding debt.

Mangano has stated that the average land owner in


Nevers is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France. It was the principal city of the former province of Nivernais, it is 260 km south-southeast of Paris. Nevers first enters written history as Noviodunum, a town held by the Aedui at Roman contact; the quantities of medals and other Roman antiquities found on the site indicate the importance of the place, in 52 BCE, Julius Caesar made Noviodunum, which he describes as in a convenient position on the banks of the Loire, a depot. There he had his hostages, his military chest, with the money in it allowed him from home for the war, his own and his army's baggage and a great number of horses, bought for him in Spain and Italy. After his failure before Gergovia, the Aedui at Noviodunum massacred those who were there to look after stores, the negotiators, the travelers who were in the place, they divided the money and the horses among themselves, carried off in boats all the corn that they could, burned the rest or threw it into the river.

Thinking they could not hold the town, they burned it. This was a great loss to Caesar, but he was in straits during this year, he could not have done other than he did. Dio Cassius tells the story of Caesar out of the affair of Noviodunum, he states incorrectly what Caesar did on the occasion, he shows that he neither understood his original nor knew what he was writing about. The city was called Nevirnum, as the name appears in the Antonine Itinerary. In the Tabula Peutingeriana, it is corrupted into Ebrinum. In still other sources the name appears as Nebirnum, it became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the 5th century. The county dates at least from the beginning of the 10th century; the citizens of Nevers obtained charters in 1194 and in 1231. For a short time in the 14th century the town was the seat of a university, transferred from Orléans, to which it was restored. In 1565 the town became the seat of a branch of the Gonzaga family, which in 1627 succeeded to the Duchy of Mantua; this line of the Gonzaga Dukes of Nevers itself died out in 1708.

Nevers is situated on the slope of a hill on the right bank of the Loire River. Narrow winding streets lead from the quay through the town where there are numerous old houses dating from the 14th to the 17th century. Among the ecclesiastical buildings the most important is the Cathédrale of Saint Cyr-Sainte Julitte, dedicated to Saint Quiricus and Saint Julietta, a combination of two buildings, possesses two apses; the apse and transept at the west end are the remains of a Romanesque church, while the nave and eastern apse are in the Gothic style and belong to the 14th century. There is no transept at the eastern end; the lateral portal on the south side belongs to the late 15th century. The church of Saint Etienne is a specimen of the Romanesque style of Auvergne of which the disposition of the apse with its three radiating chapels is characteristic, it was consecrated at the close of the 9th century, belonged to a priory affiliated to Cluny. The Ducal Palace was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and is one of the principal feudal edifices in central France.

The façade is flanked at each end by a round tower. A middle tower containing the great staircase has its windows adorned by sculptures relating to the history of the House of La Marck by the members of which the greater part of the palace was built. Behind the palace lies an open space with a fine view over the valley of the Loire; the Porte du Croux, a square tower, with corner turrets, dating from the end of the 14th century, is among the remnants of the old fortifications. A triumphal arch from the 18th century, commemorating the victory of Fontenoy and the hotel de ville, a modern building which contains the library, are of some interest; the Loire is crossed by a modern stone bridge, by an iron railway bridge. At the Chapel of Saint Bernadette at the mother house of the Sisters of Charity of Nevers, it is possible to view the incorrupt body of Saint Bernadette Soubirous, the famous seer of Our Lady of Lourdes apparitions, which are presented in a gold and crystal reliquary. Nevers is the seat of a bishopric, of tribunals of first instance and of commerce and of a Cour d'assises and has a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.

Its educational institutions include several lycées, a training college for female teachers, ecclesiastical seminaries, a school of art of the automotive engineering college Institut supérieur de l'automobile et des transports. The town manufactures porcelain, agricultural implements, chemical manures, glue and iron goods and shoes and fur garments, has distilleries and dye works, its trade is in iron and steel, wine, livestock, etc. hydraulic lime and clay for the manufacture of faience are worked in the vicinity. The Gare de Nevers railway station offers connections to Paris, Lyon, Clermont-Ferrand and several regional destinations; the A77 motorway connects Nevers with Paris. Marie Louise Gonzaga, Queen of Poland, born in Nevers in 1611 Marie Casimire Louise de La Grange d'Arquien, Queen of Poland, born in Nevers in 1641 Pierre Gaspard Chaumette, born in Nevers in 1763 Bernadette Soubirous, better known as Saint Bernadette of Lourdes, died in Nevers in 1879. Anne Boutiaut, born in Nevers in