A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
City Girl (1930 film)
City Girl is a 1930 American silent film directed by F. W. Murnau, starring Charles Farrell and Mary Duncan. A version of the film, with some sound elements, was made alongside the silent version; the film is credited as being the primary inspiration for Terrence Malick's Days of Heaven. In the years of the great depression, Lem Tustine is sent to the city by his father to sell the family farm's wheat crop, he meets Kate, a waitress, sick of the endless bustle of the city and has dreams of living in the countryside. The stock market price of wheat starts to drop and Lem hurriedly sells the crop for far less than the bottom line his father had given him. Meanwhile, Lem has fallen in love with Kate and they marry, they travel back to the countryside, but Lem's father, angry at the disastrous wheat sale, subjects Kate to hostility and physical abuse, mistakenly believing that she is after Lem's money. Lem fails to stand up to his father in support of Kate and the relationship appears doomed. Matters are made worse when a group of farm hands arrive to help with the wheat harvest and one of them - Mac - tries to woo Kate away.
Lem's father interprets Mac's unwanted attentions as evidence of Kate's wanton nature and swears to break Lem and Kate apart. When reports of a hurricane destroying the country's wheat crops arrives, Lem's father tries to get the crop in early by working through the night. In an attempt to gain Kate's affections Mac calls a strike to sabotage the harvest. Lem, reading a farewell letter from Kate, realizes that his own lack of action has caused all the misery, responds, he fights with Mac, berates his father and goes searching for Kate. The workers abandon return to finish the harvest. Lem and Kate talk and agree to try again. Lem's father begs forgiveness from Kate. Charles Farrell as Lem Tustine Mary Duncan as Kate David Torrence as Mr Tustine Edith Yorke as Mrs Tustine Anne Shirley as Marie Tustine Tom McGuire as Matey Roscoe Ates as Reaper Ivan Linow as Taxi Driver Arnold Lucy as Cafe Patron Helen Lynch as Girl On Train Jack Pennick as Reaper Guinn Williams as Reaper City Girl was shot on location in Athena and Pendleton, Oregon.
According to research by film historians, a farm was constructed for the making of the film. According to a newspaper article in the Heppner Gazette-Times on the arrival of Murnau and actress Mary Duncan in Pendleton, the film's original working title was Our Daily Bread. Upon her arrival to shoot the film in August 1928, Duncan was granted the Round-Up Queen of the 1928 Pendleton Round-Up rodeo; the Fox Film studios for whom Murnau was working were subject to a takeover during filming. The new owners requested a number of changes to City Girl, including the addition of sound sequences which Murnau resisted, he walked away to begin filming Tabu, A Story of the South Seas; the sound version of City Girl flopped at the box office and has since been lost. References City Girl on IMDb City Girl at AllMovie
The Burning Soil
The Burning Soil is a 1922 German silent film directed by F. W. Murnau, it was released in Germany around the same time. The film follows, it was shot at the Babelsberg Studio in Berlin. The film's sets were designed by the art director Rochus Gliese; the film was considered lost until 1978, when it was discovered to have been owned by an Italian priest who organized screenings in mental hospitals. A restoration of the film was made with the assistance of French director Eric Rohmer. “Devil's Field” is a cursed place, that scares the entire population of a small village of Silesia, because an ancestor of the family Rudenburg perished there victim of a mysterious explosion while digging a well in search of a buried treasure. Count von Rudenburg, current title holder, is searching for the treasure, without result, he lives in his castle with his second wife, a daughter from a first marriage, capricious Gerda. In the nearby village, an old peasant, dies leaving two sons, Peter attached to the family land, ambitious Johannes who thinks he is too good to live a peasant's life.
He starts courting his daughter. One day, he overhears. Shortly after, the Count, terminally ill, dictates him his will according to which his daughter Gerda will inherit his entire estate including all properties and castles, while his second wife Helga will only inherit Devil's Field. Johannes tells Helga she is the one he is in love with, he marries her after the Count's death. Johannes goes to the city to discuss with a large company the exploitation of the oilfield, he refuses the sum of 25 million marks and convinces them to lend him the money so that he can exploit it himself. Meanwhile, his wife, desperate with his obsession with Devil's Field, sells the cursed land to Peter for twelve thousand marks. Johannes, demands that she cancels the sales. Peter agrees, but the young woman, desperate that Johannes has never loved her, drowns herself in the river. Gerda, who spitefully had got engaged to Baron von Lellewel is hoping to regain Johannes' love, but he tells her that he never acted only by ambition.
To avenge herself, Gerda sets fire to the rig, installed on Devil's Field and dies in the ensuing explosion. Aware of the misfortunes he has caused, of the vanity of his ambitions, Johannes returns to the farm where his brother and Maria, a country girl in love with him, had always been waiting for him. Eugen Klöpfer – Peter Rog Vladimir Gajdarov – Johannes Rog Werner Krauss – Der alte Rog / Old Rog Eduard von Winterstein – Graf Rudenburg / Count Rudenburg Stella Arbenina – Helga, Rudenburgs zweite Frau / Helga, Rudenburg's 2nd wife Lya De Putti – Gerda, Rudenburgs Tochter / Gerda, Rudenburg's daughter Alfred Abel – Ludwig von Lellewel Grete Diercks – Maria Olga Engl Elsa Wagner – Magda Emilia Unda – Alte Magd / Old maid Leonie Taliansky – Gerdas Zofe / Gerda's maid Albert Patry Magnus Stifter The Burning Soil on IMDb
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Motion Picture Production Code
The Motion Picture Production Code was the set of industry moral guidelines, applied to most United States motion pictures released by major studios from 1930 to 1968. It is popularly known as the Hays Code, after Will H. Hays, the president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America from 1922 to 1945. Under Hays' leadership, the MPPDA known as the Motion Picture Association of America, adopted the Production Code in 1930, began rigidly enforcing it in mid-1934; the Production Code spelled out what was acceptable and what was unacceptable content for motion pictures produced for a public audience in the United States. From 1934 to 1954, the code was identified with Joseph Breen, the administrator appointed by Hays to enforce the code in Hollywood; the film industry followed the guidelines set by the code well into the late 1950s, but during this time, the code began to weaken due to the combined impact of television, influence from foreign films, controversial directors pushing boundaries, intervention from the courts, including the Supreme Court.
In 1968, after several years of minimal enforcement, the Production Code was replaced by the MPAA film rating system. In 1922, after several risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder Will H. Hays to rehabilitate Hollywood's image. Hollywood in the 1920s was badgered by a number of widespread scandals, such as the murder of William Desmond Taylor and alleged rape of Virginia Rappe by popular movie star Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, which brought widespread condemnation from religious and political organizations. Many felt. Political pressure was increasing, with legislators in 37 states introducing one hundred movie censorship bills in 1921. Faced with the prospect of having to comply with hundreds, thousands, of inconsistent and changed decency laws in order to show their movies, the studios chose self-regulation as the preferable option. Hays was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities".
The move mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in the wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. In 1924, Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula", which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning on making; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before—such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916—little had come of the efforts. New York became the first state to take advantage of the Supreme Court's decision by instituting a censorship board in 1921. Virginia followed suit the following year, with eight individual states having a board by the advent of sound film, but many of these were ineffectual.
By the 1920s, the New York stage—a frequent source of subsequent screen material—had topless shows, performances filled with curse words, mature subject matters, sexually suggestive dialogue. Early in the sound system conversion process, it became apparent that what might be acceptable in New York would not be so in Kansas. Moviemakers were looking at the possibility that many states and cities would adopt their own codes of censorship, requiring a multiplicity of versions of movies made for national distribution. Self-censorship seemed a preferable outcome. In 1927, Hays suggested to studio executives. Irving G. Thalberg of Metro Goldwyn Mayer, Sol Wurtzel of Fox, E. H. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls", based on items that were challenged by local censor boards; this list consisted of eleven subjects best avoided and twenty-six to be handled carefully. The list was approved by the Federal Trade Commission, Hays created the Studio Relations Committee to oversee its implementation.
The controversy surrounding film standards came to a head in 1929. The Code enumerated a number of key points known as the "Don'ts" and "Be Carefuls": Resolved, That those things which are included in the following list shall not appear in pictures produced by the members of this Association, irrespective of the manner in which they are treated: Pointed profanity – by either title or lip – this includes the words "God", "Lord", "Jesus", "Christ", "hell", "damn", "Gawd", every other profane and vulgar expression however it may be spelled.
The Boy in Blue (1919 film)
The Boy in Blue is a 1919 silent German drama film directed by F. W. Murnau, it was Murnau's directorial debut. The film is now considered to be a lost film, though the Deutsche Kinemathek film archive possesses 35 small fragments ranging from two to eleven frames in length. Thomas Gainsborough's painting The Blue Boy and Oscar Wilde's novel The Picture of Dorian Gray were inspirations for Murnau to create this film. Ernst Hofmann as Thomas von Weerth Blandine Ebinger as Schöne Zigeunerin / Fair gypsy Margit Barnay as Junge Schauspielerin / Young actress Karl Platen as Alter Diener / Old servant Georg John as Zigeuner-Hauptmann / Gypsy commander Leonhard Haskel as Theaterdirektor Marie von Buelow as Bettlerin Rudolf Klix as Bobby Hedda Kemp as Dame im Schleier Hans Otterhausen as Guckkastenmann Hans Schaup as Der alte Dietrich / Thomas' Diener List of lost films Media related to Der Knabe in Blau at Wikimedia Commons The Boy in Blue on IMDb
Bora Bora is a 30.55 km2 island group in the Leeward group in the western part of the Society Islands of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the Pacific Ocean. The main island, located about 230 kilometres northwest of Papeete, is surrounded by a lagoon and a barrier reef. In the center of the island are the remnants of an extinct volcano rising to two peaks, Mount Pahia and Mount Otemanu, the highest point at 727 metres, it is part of the commune of Bora-Bora, which includes the atoll of Tūpai. Bora Bora is famous for its aqua-centric luxury resorts; the major settlement, Vaitape, is on the western side of the main island, opposite the main channel into the lagoon. Produce of the island is limited to what can be obtained from the sea and the plentiful coconut trees, which were of economic importance for copra; as of 2017, the Bora Bora group has a permanent population of 10,605. In ancient times the island was called "Pora pora mai te pora", meaning "created by the gods" in the local Tahitian dialect.
This was abbreviated Pora Pora meaning "first born". Because of ambiguities in the phonemes of the Tahitian language, this could be pronounced Bola Bola or Bora Bora; when explorer Jacob Roggeveen first landed on the island, he and his crew adopted the name Bora Bora which has stood since. The island was inhabited by Polynesian settlers around the 4th century The first European sighting was made by Jakob Roggeveen in 1722. James Cook sighted the island on 29 July 1769, using Tupaia; the London Missionary Society arrived in 1820 and founded a Protestant church in 1890. Bora Bora was an independent kingdom until 1888 when its last queen Teriimaevarua III was forced to abdicate by the French who annexed the island as a colony. In World War II the United States chose Bora Bora as a South Pacific military supply base, an oil depot, seaplane base, defensive fortifications were constructed. Known as "Operation Bobcat", it maintained a supply force of nine ships, 20,000 tons of equipment and nearly 7,000 men.
At least eight 7"/44 caliber guns, operated by elements of the 13th Coast Artillery Regiment, were set up at strategic points around the island to protect it against potential military attack. Eight of these guns remain in the area. However, the island saw no combat as the American presence on Bora Bora went uncontested over the course of the war; the base was closed on 2 June 1946. The World War II airstrip was never able to accommodate large aircraft, but it nonetheless was French Polynesia's only international airport until Faa'a International Airport opened next to Papeete, Tahiti, in 1960; the island's economy is driven solely by tourism. Several resorts have been built on motu surrounding the lagoon. Hotel Bora Bora opened in 1961, nine years built the first over-the-water bungalows on stilts over the lagoon. Today, over-water bungalows are a standard feature of most Bora Bora resorts; the quality of those bungalows ranges from comparably cheap, basic accommodations to luxurious and expensive.
Most of the tourist destinations are aqua-centric. Air Tahiti has six flights daily to the Bora Bora Airport on Motu Mute from Tahiti. Public transport on the island is nonexistent so rental cars and bicycles are the recommended methods of transport. There are small, two-seater buggies for hire in Vaitape, it is possible to rent a motorboat to explore the lagoon. Snorkeling and scuba diving in and around the lagoon of Bora Bora are popular activities. Many species of sharks and rays inhabit the surrounding body of water. There are a few dive operators on the island offering manta ray dives and shark-feeding dives. Sharks living in the island's lagoon are not considered to be dangerous to people. In addition to the existing islands of Bora Bora, the new manmade island of Motu Marfo has been added in the northeastern corner of the lagoon on the property of the St. Regis Resort. Most rainfall occurs during the summer months and is accompanied by high humidity, although clear days are not unknown in mid-January.
Forest habitats on Bora Bora on the slopes of Mount Otemanu are quite diverse in gastropod life in comparison to other islands. Several species of endemic or native species existed in great numbers until recently during the introductions of Lissachatina and various flatworms which decimated populations of Partula lutea, Samoana attenuata, Mautodontha boraborensis; the above listed native and endemic species were restricted to virgin forest, the only species that remain common are several subulinids and tornatellinids among others, including Orobophana pacifica. List of volcanoes in French Polynesia List of reduplicated place names Administrative divisions of French Polynesia Bora Bora at Curlie Bora Bora from space https://weather-and-climate.com/average-monthly-Rainfall-Temperature-Sunshine,Bora-Bora,French-Polynesia