The little grebe known as dabchick, is a member of the grebe family of water birds. The genus name is from Ancient Greek takhus "fast" and bapto "to sink under"; the specific ruficollis is from Latin rufus "red" and Modern Latin -collis, "-necked", itself derived from Latin collum "neck". At 23 to 29 cm in length it is the smallest European member of its family, it is found in open bodies of water across most of its range. The little grebe was described by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas in 1764 and given the binomial name Colymbus ruficollis; the tricolored grebe was considered conpecific, with some taxonomic authorities still considering it so. There are six currently-recognized subspecies, separated principally by colouration. T. r. ruficollis –: nominate, found from Europe and western Russia south to North Africa T. r. iraquensis –: found in southeastern Iraq and southwestern Iran T. r. capensis –: found in Sub-Saharan Africa, Sri Lanka, the Indian subcontinent, extending east to Burma T. r. poggei –: found from southeastern to northeastern Asia, Taiwan and south Kuril Islands T. r. philippensis –: found in the northern Philippines T. r. cotabato –: found on Mindanao The little grebe is a small water bird with a pointed bill.
The adult is unmistakable in summer, predominantly dark above with its rich, rufous colour neck and flanks, bright yellow gape. The rufous is replaced by a dirty brownish grey in juvenile birds. Juvenile birds have a yellow bill with a small black tip, black and white streaks on the cheeks and sides of the neck as seen below; this yellow bill darkens as the juveniles age turning black in adulthood. In winter, its size, buff plumage, with a darker back and cap, “powder puff” rear end enable easy identification of this species; the little grebe's breeding call, given singly or in duet, is a trilled repeated weet-weet-weet or wee-wee-wee which sounds like a horse whinnying. This bird breeds in small colonies in vegetated areas of freshwater lakes across Europe, much of Asia down to New Guinea, most of Africa. Most birds move to more open or coastal waters in winter, but it is only migratory in those parts of its range where the waters freeze. Outside of breeding season, it moves into more open water even appearing on the coast in small bays.
The little grebe is an excellent swimmer and diver and pursues its fish and aquatic invertebrate prey underwater. It uses the vegetation skilfully as a hiding place. Like all grebes, it nests at the water's edge, since its legs are set far back and it cannot walk well. Four to seven eggs are laid; when the adult bird leaves the nest it takes care to cover the eggs with weeds. This makes it less to be detected by predators; the young leave the nest and can swim soon after hatching, chicks are carried on the backs of the swimming adults. In India, the species breeds during the rainy season. Blasco-Zumeta, Javier. "Little grebe". Identification Atlas of Aragon's Birds. BTO BirdFacts - Little Grebe Grebes of the World by André Konter Information and Illustration on Little Grebe from A Field Guide to Birds of Armenia BirdLife species factsheet for Tachybaptus ruficollis "Tachybaptus ruficollis". Avibase. "Little grebe media". Internet Bird Collection. Little grebe photo gallery at VIREO Audio recordings of Little grebe on Xeno-canto
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
The least grebe, an aquatic bird, is the smallest member of the grebe family. It occurs in the New World from the southwestern United States and Mexico to Chile and Argentina, on Trinidad and Tobago, the Bahamas and the Greater Antilles; the least grebe ranges in length from 21–27 cm and in weight from 112–180 g. Weights are variable based on region and subspecies, being smaller in Panama, where males weighed a mean of 129 g against the females 116 g and larger in the West Indies, where the sexes weigh a mean of 161 g and 133 g, respectively. In Texas, size is intermediate at 122 g. In the largest races, the least grebe is still smaller and lighter than any other grebe species. Like all grebes, its legs are set far back on its body and it cannot walk well, though it is an excellent swimmer and diver. Small and plump, with a short, sharp-pointed beak and bright yellow eyes, it appears quite dark all over; the breeding adult is brownish grey above with throat. It has pale underparts, it shows a white wing patch in flight.
Non-breeding birds are paler with a whitish throat, immatures are paler and greyer than adults. Unlike all other members of its genus, it lacks any chestnut coloring on its neck. There are five recognized subspecies of least separated principally by size and color. T. d. brachypterus –: is found from southern Texas and Mexico south to Panama. T. d. bangsi –: is restricted to southern Baja California, Mexico. It is palest of the subspecies. T. d. dominicus –: nominate, is found in the northern Caribbean, including the Bahamas, Greater Antilles and Virgin Islands. T. d. brachyrhynchus or T. d. speciosus –: is found in South America, from Colombia, Venezuela and Tobago south to northern Argentina and southern Brazil. T. d. eisenmanni – Storer & Getty, 1985: is restricted to the lowlands of western Ecuador. This subspecies is not recognized by all authorities, its genus name, Tachybaptus, is a combination of two Greek words—takhus meaning fast and baptos meaning diving, or sinking under. The specific name dominicus refers to the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, known as Santo Domingo.
As its English name suggests, the least grebe is overall the smallest member of the grebe family. It is the only member of its genus found in the New World. Least grebes are found in a wide variety of wetland habitats, including freshwater ponds and marshes, slow-flowing streams and rivers, roadside ditches, mangrove swamps. In general, they prefer bodies of water with significant amounts of vegetative cover along the edges, they may choose small, temporary bodies of water to breed, in an effort to avoid predation of their chicks by large fish. For much of the year, least grebes are found singly or in pairs; the least grebe eats a variety of aquatic life, including small fish, crustaceans and aquatic insects. Like all grebes, it pursues much of its prey under water. During active feeding bouts, it spends an average of 12.5 seconds beneath the surface on each dive, with surface pauses ranging from 2–24 seconds. Least grebes breed throughout the year; those in the tropics tend to breed during the rainy season, while active nests have been found in every month of the year in Texas.
Each pair builds a compact floating nest of vegetation—typically a variety of aquatic weeds—which is anchored to rooted plants in still open water as deep as 1.5 m. The female lays three to six white eggs. Both adults incubate the eggs; the striped young are sometimes carried on the adult's back. The breeding call has been likened to a horse whinnying; the least grebe, while a species of least concern, experiences a number of predators early in life. Large fish species and turtles are reported to take young grebes, bird-eating raptors, including the bat falcon and the golden eagle, have been observed taking adult birds. Ffrench, Richard. A Guide to the Birds of Trinidad and Tobago. Ithaca, N. Y.: Comstock Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8014-9792-6. Ogilvie, Malcolm. Grebes of the World. Uxbridge, UK: Bruce Coleman. ISBN 978-1-872842-03-5. "Least grebe media". Internet Bird Collection. Least grebe photo gallery at VIREO Audio recordings of Least grebe on Xeno-canto. Least Grebe Stamps at bird-stamps.org BirdLife species factsheet for Tachybaptus dominicus Least grebe species account at Neotropical Birds
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach was a German botanist and ornithologist. It was he who first requested Leopold Blaschka to make a set of glass marine invertebrate models for scientific education and museum showcasing, the successful commission giving rise to the creation of the Blaschkas' Glass sea creatures and and indirectly, the more famous Glass Flowers. Born in Leipzig and the son of Johann Friedrich Jakob Reichenbach Reichenbach studied medicine and natural science at the University of Leipzig in 1810 and, eight years in 1818, he the now Professor became an instructor before, in 1820, he was appointed the director of the Dresden natural history museum and a professor at the Surgical-Medical Academy in Dresden, where he remained for many years. Director of the natural history museum in Dresden, Professor Reichenbach was faced with an annoying yet unsolvable problem of showing invertebrate marine life. Land-based flora and fauna was not an issue, for it was a simple matter to exhibit mounted and stuffed creatures such as gorillas and elephants, their lifelike poses attracting and exciting the museums' visitors.
Invertebrates, however, by their nature, posed a problem. In the 19th century the only method practised for showcasing them was to take a live specimen and place it in a sealed jar of alcohol; this killed it but, more time and a lack of hard parts rendered the specimen little more than a colorless floating blob of jelly, making it neither pretty nor an effective teaching tool. Prof. Reichenbach wanted something more 3D colored models of marine invertebrates that were both lifelike and able to stand the test of time. And,in 1863, he "saw an exhibition of detailed, realistic glass flowers created by a Bohemian Lampworker, Leopold Blaschka, at an exhibition hosted by Prince Camille de Rohan. Enchanted by the botanical models and positive that Leopold held the key to ending his own showcasing issue, in 1863 Reichenbach convinced and commissioned Leopold to produce twelve model sea anemones; these marine models, hailed as "an artistic marvel in the field of science and a scientific marvel in the field of art," were what Prof. Reichenbach needed and, at last, provided an outlet for the wonder Leopold had felt all those years ago when observing the phosphorescent ocean life.
The key fact, was that these glass marine models were, as would soon be acknowledged, "perfectly true to nature," and as such represented an extraordinary opportunity both for the scientific community and the Blaschkas themselves. Knowing this and thrilled with his newly acquired set of glass sea creatures, Reichenbach advised Leopold to drop his current and generations long family business of glass fancy goods and the like in favor of selling glass marine invertebrates to museums, aquaria and private collectors. Advice which would prove wise and fateful both economically and scientifically, for Leopold did as the Dresden natural history museum director suggested. A decision which swiftly sparked the Blaschkas' lucrative mail-order business of selling Glass sea creatures to interested parties across the globe. Poetically, though Reichenbach did not know it, many years his showcasing problem and manner of finding the Blaschkas would be repeated by Harvard Professor George Lincoln Goodale - Goodale getting the idea for the creation of the Glass Flowers from Harvard's own collection of Glass sea creatures.
Sadly, the original six glass sea anemones purchased by Ludwig Reichenbach in 1863 as well as the rest of that first collection was destroyed in the Bombing of Dresden in World War II. He was the founder of the Dresden botanical gardens and joint founder of Dresden Zoo; the museum's zoological collection was completely destroyed by the fire in the Zwinger palace during the constitutional crisis of 1849, but Reichenbach was able to replace it within only a few years. This collection is the basis of that seen in the museum today. Reichenbach was able botanical artist, his works included Iconographia Botanica seu Plantae criticae and Handbuch der speciellen Ornithologie. He was honored by having several plants and animals named after him: Viola reichenbachiana Jord. Ex Bor.. Dr. Reichenbach oversaw a world-famous botanical garden in Dresden with a great collection of cacti, Echinocactus reichenbachii a beautiful cactus of the south-central U. S. and northern Mexico was named in his honor. Reichenbach's sunbird is named after him.
This botanist is denoted by the author abbreviation Rchb. When citing a botanical name, he was the father of Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach a botanist and an eminent orchid specialist. Reichenbach was on the Trinity Cemetery in Dresden Johannstadt interred; the tomb, was cleared after abandoning the right to use. However, the cemetery administration not awarded the grave site, so that at the initiative of the Senckenberg Natural History Collections in Dresden, a stele was erected, unveiled on September 11, 2011. Lepidoptera Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung Reichenbach, Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig. Conspectus regni vegetabilis per gradus naturales evoluti. Leipzig: Carolum Cnobloch. Flora germanica excursoria Flora exotica Flora germanica exsiccata Übersicht des Gewächsreichs und seiner natürlichen Entwickelungsstufen Handbuch des natürlichen Pflanzensyste