SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tackle (football move)

Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.

In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.

To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.

Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.

A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force

Mauser Model 1908

The Mauser Model 1908 were series of Gewehr 98 pattern bolt-action rifles. First produced by Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken and Mauser, they were exported to Uruguay and Brazil. In this latter country, Itajuba arms factory produced upgraded versions until the rifle was replaced by the FN FAL; the Model 1908 rifle was a copy of the Mauser Gewehr 98, chambered in 7×57mm Mauser and with a simple tangent-leaf sight and a longer upper hand-guard. A variant was shortened to a 1.19 m -short rifle configuration. The 7 mm Mauser-made Model 1935 rifle featured grasping grooves. A short rifle variant existed. Not to be confused with the Czech-made Model 1908/34 police carbine, the Model 1908/34 short rifle was an upgraded version of the Model 1908 using local wood; the Mosquetão Itajubá M1949 was a 08/34 short rifle chambered in.30-06 Springfield. The Mosquetão Itajubá M954 was a variant fitted with a threaded muzzle, that enabled the use of a flash suppressor or of a grenade launcher, its buttplate was inspired by the one of the Gewehr 43.

The Mosquetão 7,62mm Modelo 968 or M968 was one of the last Mauser service rifle produced. This rifle fired the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge, a grenade launcher was fixed to its barrel and its stock was renforced with rubber. These features were used on the FN FAL, hence the Mosquefal nickname. Large numbers of Model 1908 rifles and short rifles was purchased between 1908 and 1914. While DWM was the main manufacturer, Mauser produced 100,000 Model 1908 with DWM Obendorf stamps; some Mauser 1908 saw combat during the Contestado War. Model 1935 rifles and short rifles were purchased in unknown quantities from Mauser, they were fielded against the Cangaço bandits. To improve the country's independence from foreign suppliers, the Model 08/34 was produced in Itajuba. Uruguay received DWM-made Model 1908 rifles and short rifles before 1914 and used them into the 1950s. Several Mystery Mausers, similar to the Model 1908 but chambered in 7.92×57mm Mauser, can be found with Arabic markings or an hexagram. In the early 1950s, surplus Brazilian 1908 rifles and short rifles were exported to the Dominican Republic.

The Brazilian markings were replaced by Dominican markings and the rifles were designated Model 1953. During the US intervention in the Dominican Civil War, these Mauser rifles were found to be effective since they had longer range than the M16 rifle. Post-war, Itajuba plant produced the M954 short rifles for the Brazilian armed forces. During the Araguaia Guerrilla War, the rebels were able to acquire 7.62 Mausers from the state police of Pará. The M968 was produced for the Brazilian police. Ball, Robert W. D.. Mauser Military Rifles of the World. Iola: Gun Digest Books. ISBN 9781440228926. Out, Roger. "Les Mauser brésiliens". Gazette des Armes. No. 228. Pp. 17–21

Valle d'Aosta DOC

The Valle d'Aosta DOC is an Italian denominazione di origine controllata located in the Aosta Valley of northwest Italy. Surrounded by the Alps, the Valle d'Aosta is home to the highest elevated vineyards in all of Europe; the principal winemaking region of the Valle d'Aosta is found along the eastern banks of the Dora Baltea river with the city of Aosta serving as the central winemaking location. The region is divided into three main vineyard areas. To the south is the winemaking region of Piedmont; the Valle d'Aosta is Italy's smallest winemaking region both in terms of size and production with only about 330,000 cases produced annually in the region and only 36,000 cases produced under the DOC label. Seventy five percent of the area's production is red wine made from the Pinot noir and Petit Rouge varieties. A white wine is made from the indigenous Prié blanc grape by the cooperative of Blanc de Morgex et de La Salle; the area of the Aosta valley has continental climate and despite its location in the Alps region the weather is very hot and dry in the summer time which tends to put harvesttime in early September.

The geography of the wine regions is marked by high, steep slopes leading to the river valley which makes the use of mechanical vineyard equipment nearly impossible. The vineyard soils are composed of sand at the higher elevation with more alluvial sediments of clay and gravel further down into the valley; the wine-making region of the Valle d'Aosta is divided into three areas. In the northwest, the Valdigne area south of the commune of Courmayeur is home to the highest elevated vineyards in Europe at 3,937 feet above sea level; the white grape Prié Blanc accounts for all of the vineyard area and is used to produce Blanc de Morgex et de la Salle in both a still and sparkling wine style. Roussin de Morgex, a rare teinturier variety endemic to only a small area around the town of Morgex, has been rescued from extinction to make an unusual pink sparkling wine. Due to its high elevations, the area has never been affected by phylloxera louse, which has allowed the vineyards of this area to remain with ungrafted rootstock.

The Central Valley is the region's most productive area and is further sub-divided into four areas-Enfer d'Arvier, Torrette and Chambave. The Enfer d'Arvier is a red wine-producing area around the village of Arvier; the wines from this area are blends made from the Petit Rouge grape with lesser amounts of Dolcetto, Neyret, Pinot noir, and/or Vien de Nus. Enfer d'Arvier had its own DOC designation but was subsequently incorporated into the Valle d'Aosta DOC; the area of the Torrette sub-zone is located east of Arvier and produces a drier wine made with at least 70% Petit Rouge and smaller quantities of Dolcetto, Gamay, Pinot noir and/or Vien de Nus. The village of Nus, located east of Aosta, produces a wine made with at least 50% Vien de Nus and at least 40% Petit Rouge. White wines are made in this area from a Pinot gris clone known as Malvoisie including a sweet passito straw wine. East of Nus is the sub-zone of Chambave which includes the communities of Chambave, Châtillon and Saint-Vincent.

The red wines made here are composed of at least 60% Petit Rouge with some Dolcetto, Gamay and/or Pinot noir. The white wines made here are from the Moscato Bianco grape; the Lower Valley is known for two styles of wine. The Arnad-Montjovet area produces a medium-bodied dry red wine made from at least 70% Nebbiolo with some Dolcetto, Neyret, Pinot noir, and/or Vien de Nus; the area near the commune of Donnaz produces wine made from at least 85% Nebbiolo with some Freisa, Pinot noir and Vien de Nus. Like Enfer d'Arvier, Donnas at one point had its own DOC designation. Here Nebbiolo is less potent due to the high altitude. Other DOC wines in the Valle d'Aosta can be varietally labeled as long as it contains at least 90% from one of the following grapes-Chardonnay, Gamay, Müller-Thurgau, Petite Arvine, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Petit Rouge and Premetta. A generic Valle d'Aosta Bianco/Blanc, Valle d'Aosta Rosso/Rouge and Valle d'Aosta Rosato/Rosé can be produced from any local grape as long as the wine is made in the appropriate color for the style.

The region has no Indicazione Geografica Tipica designations so that any wine that doesn't fit into one of the 22 DOC styles is sold under the vini da tavola designation. For the majority of wines, DOC regulations require harvest yields below 12 tonnes per ha with a minimum alcohol levels of at least 9%. Wines must age for at least 6 months prior to public release. For some individual wine styles there are notable exceptions and stricter requirements such as the Pinot gris from Nus, required to have a maximum yield of 8 tonnes/ha and a minimum alcohol content of 16.5%, high for a typical white wine. The reserve wines labeled Superiore from the Arnad-Montjovet region must have a minimum alcohol level of 12% and be aged for two years; the Superiore wines from Torrette need a similar 12% alcohol level but only require eight months of aging, required to be done in oak casks. The Moscatos from Chambave require oak aging but only for three months