Washington State Route 16
State Route 16 is a 27.16-mile-long state highway in the U. S. state of Washington, connecting Kitsap counties. The highway, signed as east–west, begins at an interchange with Interstate 5 in Tacoma and travels through the city as a freeway towards the Tacoma Narrows. SR 16 crosses the narrows onto the Kitsap Peninsula on the tolled Tacoma Narrows Bridge and continues through Gig Harbor and Port Orchard before the freeway ends in Gorst; the designation ends at an intersection with SR 3 southwest of the beginning of its freeway through Bremerton and Poulsbo. SR 16 is designated as a Strategic Highway Network corridor within the National Highway System as the main thoroughfare connecting Tacoma to Naval Base Kitsap and a part of the Highways of Statewide Significance program. SR 16 was created during the 1964 state highway renumbering as the successor to Primary State Highway 14. PSH 14, which had itself been the successor to State Road 14, traveled northeast from Shelton to Gorst and south to Gig Harbor.
PSH 14 was extended over the Tacoma Narrows in 1939 on the unfinished Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which would collapse months after opening in 1940, into Tacoma over Secondary State Highway 14C. SR 16 has been expanded into a freeway in stages beginning with the original Nalley Valley Viaduct in Tacoma in 1971, ending with the opening of an interchange near Port Orchard in 2009. Future improvements to the corridor include the installation of high-occupancy vehicle lanes that connect to I-5 and the rest of the freeway network in Pierce County, scheduled for completion by 2022. SR 16 begins on the Nalley Valley Viaduct in Tacoma at an interchange with I-5 between the Tacoma Mall and Downtown; the freeway travels northwest over the Sound Transit Sounder commuter train to a semi-directional T interchange with Sprague Avenue, where it begins paralleling the Scott Pierson Trail. SR 16 continues west past a diamond interchange with Union Avenue and an interchange with Center Street at Cheney Stadium towards the Skyline neighborhood of North Tacoma.
The freeway travels around Tacoma Community College past partial cloverleaf interchanges with 19th Street and Pearl Street, the latter being signed as SR 163 as it heads north into Ruston and towards Vashon Island. SR 16 continues west past a partial cloverleaf interchange with Jackson Avenue and towards the Tacoma Narrows on the twin-suspension Tacoma Narrows Bridges; the 5,979-foot-long westbound span and the tolled 5,400-foot-long eastbound span combine to carry six lanes of SR 16 onto the Kitsap Peninsula. The eastbound span is tolled via electronic toll collection through the "Good to Go" program on the Kitsap Peninsula side of the bridge. Tolls for two axle vehicles and motorcycles are set at $5 for Good to Go accounts, $6 collected at the toll plaza, $7 for Pay by Mail, with prices increasing for each additional axle by $2.50 for Good to Go accounts, $3 for toll plaza users, $3.50 for Pay by Mail users. SR 16 continues onto the Kitsap Peninsula and intersects 24th Street in a partial diamond interchange east of the Tacoma Narrows Airport as it passes the toll plaza for the eastbound Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
The freeway travels northwest through Gig Harbor past interchanges with Olympic Drive and Wollochet Drive near Gig Harbor High School before it reaches Henderson Bay. SR 16 continues through an interchange with Burnham Drive and past the Washington Corrections Center for Women and St. Anthony Hospital towards Purdy, intersecting the southern terminus of SR 302; the freeway bypasses Purdy and Peninsula High School to the east before intersecting SR 302 Spur and entering Kitsap County. SR 16 passes the community of Burley and intersects its main access highway, Burley-Olalla Road, in an interchange before entering the city of Port Orchard; the freeway ends after serving as the western terminus of SR 160 and SR 166 on the west side of the city. The four-lane highway continues west along the Sinclair Inlet into Gorst, intersecting its spur route and ending at an intersection with SR 3; every year, the Washington State Department of Transportation conducts a series of surveys on its highways in the state to measure traffic volume.
This is expressed in terms of average annual daily traffic, a measure of traffic volume for any average day of the year. In 2012, WSDOT calculated that the busiest section of SR 16 was west of its interchange with Union Avenue in downtown Tacoma, serving 112,000 vehicles, while the least busiest section is after the SR 160 interchange west of Port Orchard, serving 32,000 vehicles. SR 16 is designated as a Strategic Highway Network corridor, connecting Naval Base Kitsap to the state highway system along with SR 3, within the National Highway System that classifies it as important to the national economy and mobility. WSDOT designates the entire route of SR 16 as a Highway of Statewide Significance, which includes highways that connect major communities in the state of Washington; the present route of SR 16 follows the route of several state highways signed during the 20th century, the first of, State Road 14. State Road 14 traveled north from Shelton to Gorst and south into Gig Harbor as the primary connector between the Olympic and Kitsap peninsulas.
State Road 14 was re-designated in 1937 as PSH 14 and included a secondary highway named SSH 14C that traveled from Gig Harbor to the Tacoma Narrows, site of an under-construction suspension bridge to open in 1940. PSH 14 was extended southeast over SSH 14C and the unfinished Tacoma Narrows Bridge into the city of Tacoma as part of a transfer of bridge ownership to the state of Washington in 1939. After the collapse of the original bridge on November 7, 1940, PSH 14 was truncated to Gig Harbor and traffic was redirected t
A toll bridge is a bridge where a monetary charge is required to pass over. The private or public owner builder and maintainer of the bridge uses the toll to recoup their investment, in much the same way as a toll road; the practice of collecting tolls on bridges harks back to the days of ferry crossings where people paid a fee to be ferried across stretches of water. As boats became impractical to carry large loads, ferry operators looked for new sources of revenue. Having built a bridge, they hoped to recoup their investment by charging tolls for people, animals and goods to cross it; the original London Bridge across the river Thames opened as a toll bridge, but an accumulation of funds by the charitable trust that operated the bridge saw that the charges were dropped. Using interest on its capital assets, the trust now owns and runs all seven central London bridges at no cost to taxpayers or users. In the United States, private ownership of toll bridges peaked in the mid-19th century, by the turn of the 20th century most toll bridges were taken over by state highway departments.
In some instances, a quasi-governmental authority was formed, toll revenue bonds were issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Peters and Kramer observed that "...little research has been done to quantify the impact of toll collection on society as a whole..." and therefore they published a comprehensive analysis of the Total Societal Cost associated with toll collection as a means of taxation. TSC is the sum of administrative, compliance and pollution costs. In 2000 they estimated it to be $56,914,732, they found that a user of a toll road is subject to a form of triple taxation, that in the final analysis toll collection is a inefficient means of funding the development of highway infrastructure. Nakamura and Kockelman show that tolls are by nature regressive, shifting the burden of taxation disproportionately to the poor and middle classes. Electronic toll collection, branded under names such as EZ-Pass, SunPass, IPass, FasTrak, GoodToGo, 407ETR, became prevalent to metropolitan areas in the 21st century.
Amy Finkelstien, a public finance economist at MIT, reports that as the fraction of drivers using electronic toll collection increased toll rates increased as well, because people were less aware of how much they're paying in tolls. Electronic tolling proposals that represented the shadow price of electronic toll collection may have misled decision makers. Consumers have additionally endured an increased administrative burden associated with paying toll bills and navigating toll collection company on-line billing systems. Additionally, visitors to a region may incur e-toll tag fees imposed by their rental car company; the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 identified and attempted to address a similar problem associated with the government collection of information. Approvals were to be secured by government agencies before promulgating a paper form, survey or electronic submission that will impose an information collection burden on the general public. However, the act did not anticipate and thus address the consumer burden associated with funding infrastructure via electronic toll collection instead of through more traditional forms of taxation.
In some instances, tolls have been removed after retirement of the toll revenue bonds issued to raise funds for construction and/or operation of the facility. Examples include the Robert E. Lee Memorial Bridge in Richmond, Virginia which carries U. S. Route 1 across the James River, the 4.5-mile long James River Bridge 80 miles downstream which carries U. S. Highway 17 across the river of the same name near its mouth at Hampton Roads. In other cases major facilities such as the Chesapeake Bay Bridge near Annapolis and the George Washington Bridge over Hudson River between New York City and New Jersey, the continued collection of tolls provides a dedicated source of funds for ongoing maintenance and improvements. Sometimes citizens revolt against toll plazas, as was the case in Florida. Tolls were in place on four bridges crossing the St. Johns River, including I-95; these tolls paid for the respective bridges as well as many other highway projects. As Jacksonville continued to grow, the tolls created bottlenecks on the roadway.
In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate all the toll booths and replace the revenue with a ½ cent sales tax increase. In 1989, the toll booths were removed. In Scotland, the Scottish Parliament purchased the Skye Bridge from its owners in late 2004, ending the requirement to pay an unpopular expensive toll to cross to Skye from the mainland. In 2004, the German government cancelled a contract with the "Toll Collect" syndicate after much negative publicity; the term "Toll Collect" became a popular byword among Germans used to describe everything wrong with their national economy. It has become common for a toll bridge to only charge a fee in one direction; this helps reduce the traffic congestion in the other direction, does not reduce revenue when those travelling the one direction are forced to come back over the same or a different toll bridge. A practice known as shunpiking evolved which entails finding another route for the specific purpose of avoiding payment of tolls. In some situations where the tolls were increased or felt to be unreasonably high, informal shunpiking by individuals escalated into a form of boycott by regular users, with the goal of applying the financial stress of lost toll revenue to the authority determining the levy.
One such example of shunpiking as a fo
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U. S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, part of the Salish Sea. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the open Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca—Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and Deception Pass and Swinomish Channel being the minor. Water flow through Deception Pass is equal to 2% of the total tidal exchange between Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Puget Sound extends 100 miles from Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south, its average depth is 450 feet and its maximum depth, off Jefferson Point between Indianola and Kingston, is 930 feet. The depth of the main basin, between the southern tip of Whidbey Island and Tacoma, Washington, is 600 feet. In 2009, the term Salish Sea was established by the United States Board on Geographic Names as the collective waters of Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the Strait of Georgia.
Sometimes the terms "Puget Sound" and "Puget Sound and adjacent waters" are used for not only Puget Sound proper but for waters to the north, such as Bellingham Bay and the San Juan Islands region. The term "Puget Sound" is used not just for the body of water but the Puget Sound region centered on the sound. Major cities on the sound include Seattle, Tacoma and Everett, Washington. Puget Sound is the third largest estuary in the United States, after Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, San Francisco Bay in northern California. In 1792 George Vancouver gave the name "Puget's Sound" to the waters south of the Tacoma Narrows, in honor of Peter Puget, a Huguenot lieutenant accompanying him on the Vancouver Expedition; this name came to be used for the waters north of Tacoma Narrows as well. A different term for Puget Sound, used by a number of Native Americans and environmental groups, is Whulge, an anglicization of the Lushootseed name x̌ʷə́lč, which means "sea, salt water, ocean, or sound".
The USGS defines Puget Sound as all the waters south of three entrances from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The main entrance at Admiralty Inlet is defined as a line between Point Wilson on the Olympic Peninsula, Point Partridge on Whidbey Island; the second entrance is at Deception Pass along a line from West Point on Whidbey Island, to Deception Island to Rosario Head on Fidalgo Island. The third entrance is at the south end of the Swinomish Channel, which connects Skagit Bay and Padilla Bay. Under this definition, Puget Sound includes the waters of Hood Canal, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, Saratoga Passage, others, it does not include Bellingham Bay, Padilla Bay, the waters of the San Juan Islands or anything farther north. Another definition, given by NOAA, subdivides Puget Sound into regions. Four of these correspond to areas within the USGS definition, but the fifth one, called "Northern Puget Sound" includes a large additional region, it is defined as bounded to the north by the international boundary with Canada, to the west by a line running north from the mouth of the Sekiu River on the Olympic Peninsula.
Under this definition significant parts of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Strait of Georgia are included in Puget Sound, with the international boundary marking an abrupt and hydrologically arbitrary limit. According to Arthur Kruckeberg, the term "Puget Sound" is sometimes used for waters north of Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass for areas along the north coast of Washington and the San Juan Islands equivalent to NOAA's "Northern Puget Sound" subdivision described above. Kruckeberg uses the term "Puget Sound and adjacent waters". Continental ice sheets have advanced and retreated from the Puget Sound region; the most recent glacial period, called the Fraser Glaciation, stades. During the third, or Vashon Glaciation, a lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, called the Puget Lobe, spread south about 15,000 years ago, covering the Puget Sound region with an ice sheet about 3,000 feet thick near Seattle, nearly 6,000 feet at the present Canada-U. S. border. Since each new advance and retreat of ice erodes away much of the evidence of previous ice ages, the most recent Vashon phase has left the clearest imprint on the land.
At its maximum extent the Vashon ice sheet extended south of Olympia to near Tenino, covered the lowlands between the Olympic and Cascade mountain ranges. About 14,000 years ago the ice began to retreat. By 11,000 years ago it survived only north of the Canada–US border; the melting retreat of the Vashon Glaciation eroded the land, creating a drumlin field of hundreds of aligned drumlin hills. Lake Washington and Lake Sammamish, Hood Canal, the main Puget Sound basin were altered by glacial forces; these glacial forces are not "carving", as in cutting into the landscape via the mechanics of ice/glaciers, but rather eroding the landscape from melt water of the Vashon Glacier creating the drumlin field. As the ice retreated, vast amounts of glacial till were deposited throughout the Puget Sound region; the soils of the region, less than ten thousand years old, are still characterized as immature. As the Vashon glacier receded a series of proglacial lakes formed, filling the main trough of Puget Sound and inundating the southern lowlands.
Glacial Lake Russell was the first such large recessional lake. From the vicinity of Seattle in the north the lake extended south to the Black Hills, where it drained south into the Chehalis River. Sediments from Lake Russell form the blue-gray clay identified as the Lawton Clay; the second
A strut is a structural component found in engineering, aeronautics and anatomy. Struts work by resisting longitudinal compression, but they may serve in tension. Part of the functionality of the clavicle is to serve as a strut between the scapula and sternum, resisting forces that would otherwise bring the upper limb close to the thorax. Keeping the upper limb away from the thorax is vital for its range of motion. Complete lack of clavicles may be seen in cleidocranial dysostosis, the abnormal proximity of the shoulders to the median plane exemplifies the clavicle's importance as a strut. Strut is a common name in timber framing for a brace of scantlings lighter than a post. Struts are found in roof framing from either a tie beam or a king post to a principal rafter. Struts may be straight or curved. In the U. K. strut is used in a sense of a lighter duty piece: a king post carries a ridge beam but a king strut does not, a queen post carries a plate but a queen strut does not, a crown post carries a crown plate but a crown strut does not.
Strutting or blocking between floor joists adds strength to the floor system. Struts provide outwards-facing support in their lengthwise direction, which can be used to keep two other components separate, performing the opposite function of a tie. In piping, struts restrain movement of a component in one direction while allowing movement or contraction in another direction. Strut channel made from steel, aluminium, or fibre-reinforced plastic is used in the building industry and is used in the support of cable trays and other forms of cable management, pipes support systems. Bracing struts and wires of many kinds were extensively used in early aircraft to stiffen and strengthen, sometimes to form, the main functional airframe. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they fell out of use in favour of the low-drag cantilever construction. Most aircraft bracing struts are principally loaded in compression, with wires taking the tension loads. Lift struts came into increasing use during the changeover period and remain in use on smaller aircraft today where ultimate performance is not an issue.
They are applied to a high-wing monoplane and act in tension during flight. Struts have been used for purely structural reasons to attach engines, landing gear and other loads; the oil-sprung legs of retractable landing gear are still called Oleo struts. As components of an automobile chassis, struts can be passive braces to reinforce the chassis and/or body, or active components of the suspension. An example of an active unit would be a coilover design in an automotive suspension; the coilover combines a spring in a single unit. A common form of automotive suspension strut in an automobile is the MacPherson strut. MacPherson struts are purchased by the automakers in sets of four completed sub-assemblies: These can be mounted on the car bodies as part of the manufacturers' own assembly operations. A MacPherson strut combines the primary function of a shock absorber, with the ability to support sideways loads not along its axis of compression, somewhat similar to a sliding pillar suspension, thus eliminating the need for an upper suspension arm.
This means that a strut must have a more rugged design, with mounting points near its middle for attachment of such loads. Another type common type of strut used in air suspension is an air strut which combines the shock absorber with an air spring and can be designed in the same fashion as a coilover device; these come available in most types of suspension setups including beam axle and MacPherson strut style design. Transportation-related struts are used in "load bearing" applications ranging from both highway and off-road suspensions to automobile hood and hatch window supports to aircraft wing supports; the majority of struts feature a bearing, but only for the cases, when the strut mounts operate as steering pivots. For such struts, the bearing is the wear item, as it is subject to constant impact of vibration and its condition reflects both wheel alignment and steering response. In vehicle suspension systems, struts are most an assembly of coil-over spring and shock absorber. Other variants to using a coil-over spring as the compressible load bearer include support via pressurized nitrogen gas acting as the spring, rigid support which provides neither longitudinal compression/extension nor damping.
Cabane strut Chapman strut Jury strut Lift strut Spacers and standoffs Strut bar
Electronic toll collection
Electronic toll collection aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads, HOV lanes, toll bridges, toll tunnels by collecting tolls without cash and without requiring cars to stop. Electronic toll booths may operate alongside cash lanes so that drivers who do not have transponders can pay a cashier or throw coins into a receptacle. With cashless tolling, cars without transponders are either excluded or pay by plate – a bill may be mailed to the address where the car's license plate number is registered, or drivers may have a certain amount of time to pay with a credit card by phone. Open road tolling is a popular form of cashless tolling without toll booths. Transponders are used to facilitate micropayments from drivers who have signed up in advance and loaded money into a declining-balance account, debited each time they pass a toll point. License plate readers and sensors can be used to detect cars which are evading tolls or which are wanted by law enforcement for other reasons. Electronic tolling is cheaper than a staffed booth, reducing transaction costs for government agencies or private road owners recouping construction or maintenance costs or deriving revenue from a toll road.
The ease of varying the amount of the toll and the ability to charge drivers without building a toll booth makes it easy to implement road congestion pricing, including for high-occupancy lanes, toll lanes that bypass congestion, city-wide congestion charges. In 1959, Nobel Economics Prize winner William Vickrey was the first to propose a system of electronic tolling for the Washington Metropolitan Area, he proposed that each car would be equipped with a transponder: "The transponder's personalised signal would be picked up when the car passed through an intersection, relayed to a central computer which would calculate the charge according to the intersection and the time of day and add it to the car’s bill." In the 1960s and the 1970s, free flow tolling was tested with fixed transponders at the undersides of the vehicles and readers, which were located under the surface of the highway. Modern toll transponders are mounted under the windshield, with readers located in overhead gantries. Italy has been the first Country in the World to deploy a full ETC in Motorways at National scale in 1989.
Telepass, the Brand name of the ETC belonging to Autostrade S.p. A. now Autostrade per l'Italia, was designed by Dr. Eng Pierluigi Ceseri and Dr. Eng. Mario Alvisi and included a full operational real time Classification of Vehicles and Enforcement via cameras interconnected with the PRA via a network of more than 3.000 Km. optical fibers. Telepass introduced the concept of ETC Interoperability because interconnected 24 different Italian Motorway Operators allowing users to travel between different Concession Areas and paying only at the end of the journey. Dr. Eng. Mario Alvisi is considered the father of ETC in Motorways because not only co-designed Telepass but was able to make it the first standardized Operating ETC system in the World as European Standard in 1996 and acting as Consultant for deployment of ETC in many Countries including Japan, the USA, etc.. Norway has been the world's pioneer in the widespread implementation of this technology. ETC was first introduced in 1986, operating together with traditional tollbooths.
In 1991, Trondheim introduced the world's first use of unaided full-speed electronic tolling. Norway now has 25 toll roads operating with electronic fee collection, as the Norwegian technology is called. In 1995, Portugal became the first country to apply a single, universal system to all tolls in the country, the Via Verde, which can be used in parking lots and gas stations; the United States is another country with widespread use of ETC in several states, though many U. S. toll roads maintain the option of manual collection. In some urban settings, automated gates are in use in electronic-toll lanes, with 5 mph legal limits on speed. However, in other areas such as the Garden State Parkway in New Jersey, at various locations in California, Pennsylvania and Texas, cars can travel through electronic lanes at full speed. Illinois' Open Road Tolling program features 274 contiguous miles of barrier-free roadways, where I-PASS or E-ZPass users continue to travel at highway speeds through toll plazas, while cash payers pull off the main roadway to pay at tollbooths.
Over 80% of Illinois' 1.4 million daily drivers use an I-PASS. Enforcement is accomplished by a combination of a camera which takes a picture of the car and a radio frequency keyed computer which searches for a drivers window/bumper mounted transponder to verify and collect payment; the system sends a notice and fine to cars that pass through without having an active account or paying a toll. Factors hindering full-speed electronic collection include significant non-participation, entailing lines in manual lanes and disorderly traffic patterns as the electronic- and manual- collection cars "sort themselves out" into their respective lanes.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Twin bridges are a set of two bridges running parallel to each other. A pair of twin bridges is referred to collectively as a twin-span or dual-span bridge. Bridges of this type are created by building a new bridge parallel to an existing one in order to increase the traffic capacity of the crossing. While most twin-span bridges consist of two identical bridges, this is not always the case; the two bridges that form the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, for example, have several differences, most notably in the number of lanes each carries. The longest twin-span bridge is the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in Louisiana; the Donald and Morris Goodkind Bridges were built at different times. For a bridge owner, twin bridges can improve the management of the structures. For motorists, twin bridges can limit the risk that both directions of traffic will be disrupted by an accident