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Taconic Mountains

The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range are a and range of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State and adjacent New England from northwest Connecticut to western Massachusetts, north to central western Vermont. A physiographic region of the larger New England province, the range includes notable summits, including its high point, 3,840 feet Mount Equinox In Vermont, 3,489 feet Mount Greylock, the highest point in Massachusetts; the Taconics contain several hundred miles of trails, including sections of the 2,175-mile Appalachian Trail, over sixty designated areas of land protected by federal, state and municipal, government agencies and non-profit organizations spanning their four state range. Taconic, a Native American name, was once transliterated as the Taghkanic or Taughannock, meaning "in the trees" and used as the name of a Lenape chieftain. Taghkanic is still used in parts of eastern New York, as in the name of Taghkanic, New York, a small town in the region, for both features within and outside the Taconic Mountains region.

The Taconic Mountains begin in northeast Dutchess County, New York. They extend through western Berkshire County and the adjacent counties in New York along the border of New York and Vermont to the town of Brandon, after which they lose prominence and dwindle into scattered hills and isolated peaks which continue north toward Burlington, Vermont. To the south, they fade into the interior Hudson Highlands range in New York. From the west, a 12-mile wide region of foothills in New York State east of the Hudson River Valley rises to the crest of the Taconic Mountains along the state's eastern border. To the east, the Taconic Mountains fall off abruptly, ending in the valleys of the Housatonic River, the upper Hoosic River, the greater Valley of Vermont; the Berkshires and the Green Mountains rise to the east of the Taconics. Near their northern terminus they approach the eastern foothills of the Adirondack Mountains in Washington County, New York. In Massachusetts and Connecticut the geologically distinct Taconic Mountains are incorrectly grouped as part of the Berkshires, while in Vermont they are mis-grouped as part of the Green Mountains.

Among the highest peaks of the Taconic Mountains are Mount Equinox 3,816 feet, located in Manchester, the range’s high point, Mount Greylock 3,491 feet, the highest point in Massachusetts, Mount Frissell 2,454 feet, the highest point in Connecticut. The Taconic Mountains lie within the New England-Acadian forests ecoregion; the South Taconic Range Because the Taconic Mountains are geologically related and contiguous with the interior Hudson Highlands well east of the Hudson River Valley, the southern boundary of the Taconics is difficult to define. Some notable South Taconic peaks include Mount Frissell, the south slope of which contains the highest point in Connecticut at 2,379 feet. Bash Bish Falls, reputedly Massachusetts' highest waterfall, is located in the South Taconic Range; the Appalachian Trail traverses the eastern escarpment of the range. Central Segment and Upper Hoosic River Valley Region North of Catamount Ski Area, the higher hills shift west and become somewhat less prominent.

North of White Hill the Green River cuts through the range. Beyond this, notable summits include Bald Mountain, 1,768 feet, Harvey Mountain, 2,057 feet, part of the newly created Harvey Mountain State Forest (expanded in 2006 in New York and the site of extensive heath barrens. Several miles to the east of Harvey Mountain is Yokun Ridge, a well defined 9-mile long ridge extending from the Massachusetts Turnpike to the southerly neighborhoods of Pittsfield at elevations ranging between 1,500 and 2,000 feet; the ridge contains an area designated The Stockbridge-Yokun Ridge Reserve by the U. S. Forest Service and thus eligible for certain conservation easements. At Pittsfield, the crest shifts west once again to hills contained within Pittsfield State Forest: Balance Rock Park and Bates Memorial State Park, where heights include Holy Mount 1,968 feet, once the location of religious rituals practiced by a former Shaker community and Berry Hill 2,200 feet, notable for its extensive stands of wild azalea.

North of Jiminy Peak 2,392 feet, the valley of Kinderhook Creek cuts through the hills. Here the westernmost ridgeline is dominated by Misery Mountain and Berlin Mountain 2,818 feet and extending into Pownal, Vermont. Between these is the long ridge of 2,621 feet Brodie Mountain; the area hosts an extensive network of smaller trails. Southern Vermont North of the Massachusetts border, the profile of the Taconic Range is cut and eroded by the Hoosic River as it turns west and south toward its confluence with the Hudson River, by its tributary rivers in the vicinity of Bennington, Vermont. Mount Ant

List of judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa delivered in 1995

The table below lists the judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa delivered in 1995, the first year of the court's existence. The eleven members of the court appointed at its formation were President Arthur Chaskalson, Deputy President Ismail Mahomed, judges Lourens Ackermann, John Didcott, Richard Goldstone, Johann Kriegler, Pius Langa, Tholie Madala, Yvonne Mokgoro, Kate O'Regan and Albie Sachs. Justice Goldstone was granted leave of absence to serve as chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, his seat was filled over the court of the year by acting judges Sydney Kentridge, John Trengove and Bernard Ngoepe. "Overview of the judgments of the Constitutional Court of South Africa since 1994 to 2005". June 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2012. "1995 South Africa: Constitutional Court Decisions". SAFLII. Retrieved 22 January 2011

Šárka (name)

Šárka is an old female given name of Bohemian origin. In the Czech Republic, it is the seventy-second most common female name. "The legend of Divoká Šárka, or Wild Šárka, is shrouded in myth. The story of Šárka and the war between Czech men and women fifteen hundred years ago was first written down in the eleventh century, historians are divided over whether there is any truth in it; some say that the story is based on the ancient tales of the Amazonian warriors, while others say that it may have its roots in a pagan matriarchal society that predated the arrival of Christianity in Bohemia by thousands of years. We will never know the truth, but in much the same way as the tale of Robin Hood in Britain, Divoká Šárka has become part of Czech culture, was used during the Czech National Revival to boost the role of Czech folklore in the Czech Lands... To find the roots of the legend of Divoká Šárka, we need to go back to the sixth century, or the seventh century, no-one knows for sure, it was a time when Prague didn't exist.

There were several settlements of the Slavic tribe, the Czechs, who had settled in the country, in what are now the suburbs of Prague. But the centre of Prague as we know it now was unsettled; the main settlement in the area, according to most historians, was in a narrow valley which today bears the name Divoká Šárka, to the west of today's city centre. At this time, or so legend has it, the Czechs were a matriarchal society, were ruled by women for many generations; the last of these matriarchal rulers was Libuše. For when she died, says Václav Ledvinka, the director of Prague's city archives, the country's men made their own bid for power: "When Libuše died, the matriarchal system of power came to an end, a patriarchal system was introduced, with the arrival of Prince Přemysl, the forefather of the Přemyslid dynasty, which ruled the Czech Lands for several hundred years; the women were furious at this change, this led to a civil war between Czech women and men." The war between the men and women was long.

The women were led by Vlasta. But the main role in the legend belongs not to Vlasta, but to Šárka: "Libuše's right-hand woman in the war against the men was a young girl named Šárka, she decided that the best way to inflict the greatest loss on their opponents was to entrap their bravest and strongest fighter, a young man named Ctirad, using feminine wiles, kill him." Šárka and Ctirad arranged a rendezvous in. According to the legend, Šárka applied her feminine charms to Ctirad, with a little bit of help from some alcohol: "Šárka proceeded to get Ctirad drunk with mead, the favourite drink of most Slavs at that time, he fell in love with her, but being drunk he fell asleep. While he lay sleeping in her arms, Šárka, so the legend says, murdered him." The murder of Ctirad was a great blow to the male opponents of Vlasta's warriors, for a while the loss of their greatest fighter helped the women to continue their fight, but only for a short while. In the end, the women lost the war, a patriarchal, feudal system, under the rule of Přemysl, on the Přemyslid dynasty, was installed.

Rather than surrender to the men, so the legend says, Šárka decided to take her own life, jumped off a cliff in the Divoká Šárka valley. Today, one of the rock formations in the valley is called Dívčí Skok, or Girl's Jump, as this is, according to some, the site of her suicide. Whether or not Libuše, Vlasta, Šárka or Ctirad were real figures in Czech history, will never be known, as, says Václav Ledvinka, there's no proof that the war took place: "There is no historical or archaeological evidence to suggest that the war happened, it is a piece of mythology, most created in the eleventh, or at the beginning of the twelfth century by the chronicler Cosmas, based on the ancient Greek tale of the Amazon warriors and the war against the Amazons." The majority of Czech historians today believe that the legend of Divoká Šárka is down to the chronicler Cosmas, the first to write a history of Bohemia, that there was no matriarchal society in the Czech Lands in the sixth century. They dismiss the story as a rehashing of the Amazonian tale, not to be taken seriously.

But, as with every period in history, says Václav Ledvinka, there are a few dissenting voices: "There are some historians who have, in my opinion, a somewhat fertile imagination. They claim that this women's war could be a throwback to a much older historical fact, that early on, in prehistoric times, there could have been a matriarchal society, that women had primacy, that they were overthrown by men; this could be true, but the same could be said about the ancient Greeks. So it seems most that Cosmas took the basis for the tale of Šárka and Ctirad from those ancient texts." But the importance of the tale of Divoká Šárka may not lie in whether or not it has any historical basis, but in what it meant for the Czech people during the Czech National Revival. Under the rule of the Habsburgs, the Czech language and folklore were replaced by those of Austria. German was spoken in towns and cities, Czech became relegated to villages and hamlets, it was not until towards the end of the eighteenth century that a group of Czech patriots set out to re-establish Czech as a language and to renew the idea of a Czech nation, tales like that of Divoká Šárka played an important role in this process: "During the Czech National Revival, all of these old tales and legends were romanticised to emphasise Czech culture and history.

They were written into books, operas were made out of them and thus they became part of our

The Gathering (Geri Allen album)

The Gathering is an album by pianist Geri Allen recorded in 1998 and released on the Verve label. Allmusic awarded the album 4 stars, stating, "As complete and realized as many of Allen's recordings are, this one displays all of her immense powers coming to light at the same time. It's immaculately programmed executed music that has a haunting quality overall, but enough punch and style to rank it among her best projects, comes recommended". JazzTimes stated "As opportunities increase and as her experience in the music broadens, it becomes all the more clear that Geri Allen is one of our most richly talented jazz musicians. For her first Verve session, Ms. Allen's compositional focus is keen and clear reflective and at times quite introspective". "The Gathering" - 5:22 "Dark Prince" - 5:47 "Sleepin' Pretty" - 6:48 "Light Matter" - 6:56 "Baby's Breath" - 1:13 "Ray" - 5:22 "Soul Beir" - 6:02 "Joy and Wonder" - 4:40 "Gabriel's Royal Blue Reals" - 6:31 "Daybreak and Dreams" - 5:41 "Angels" - 6:42 Geri Allen - piano Wallace Roney - trumpet, flugelhorn Robin Eubanks - trombone Dwight Andrews - piccolo, alto flute, bass flute, bass clarinet Vernon Reid - electric guitar, acoustic guitar Ralphe Armstrong - 7-string bass Buster Williams - bass Lenny White - drums Mino Cinelu - percussion

Avoca, Nebraska

Avoca is a village in Cass County, United States. The population was 242 at the 2010 census. Avoca was platted in 1882; the village is named in Ireland. Avoca is located at 40°47′52″N 96°7′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.13 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 242 people, 94 households, 68 families living in the village; the population density was 1,861.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 107 housing units at an average density of 823.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 95.0% White, 2.1% Native American, 0.8% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 94 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.6% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 27.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the village was 37.3 years. 28.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 270 people, 105 households, 70 families living in the village; the population density was 2,030.2 people per square mile. There were 108 housing units at an average density of 812.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.59% of the population. There were 105 households out of which 37.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.15. In the village, the population was spread out with 31.5% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $36,250, the median income for a family was $44,167. Males had a median income of $32,250 versus $22,500 for females; the per capita income for the village was $15,270. About 2.6% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen and 20.6% of those sixty five or over. Avoca is home to the Quack-Off duck races held annually on the last Saturday in January since 1980. Today the race draws 400 racers and 3500-4000 spectators. Registration begins on main street in Quack-Off Headquarters. Proceeds from the race benefit the Avoca Rural Volunteer Fire Department. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080509141948/http://www.netnebraska.org/extras/nextexit/dreams/quack_03.html http://www.city-data.com/city/Avoca-Nebraska.html http://www. AvocaNebraska.com Official Village Website

Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is a rare form of small bowel obstruction caused by an impaction of a gallstone within the lumen of the small intestine. Such a gallstone enters the bowel via a cholecysto-enteric fistula; the presence of large stones, >2.5 cm in diameter, within the gallbladder are thought to predispose to fistula formation by gradual erosion through the gallbladder fundus. Once a fistula has formed, a stone may travel from the gallbladder into the bowel and become lodged anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Obstruction occurs most at the near the distal ileum, within 60 cm proximally to the ileocecal valve. Gallstone ileus may recur if the underlying fistula is not treated. First described by Thomas Bartholin in 1654, the name "gallstone ileus" is a misnomer because an ileus is, by definition, a non-mechanical bowel motility failure. Diagnosis of gallstone ileus requires radiographic studies. Classic radiographic findings are known as Rigler's triad: pneumobilia evidence of small bowel obstruction radiopaque gallstone on abdominal radiograph Initial management involves fluid resuscitation and nasogastric suctioning.

Since gallstone ileus constitutes a form of mechanical small bowel obstruction, it can be a surgical emergency and requires open or laparoscopic surgery to remove an impacted stone. The different strategies for surgical management are either enterolithotomy alone, allowing a delayed cholecystectomy after an inflammation-free period of 4–6 weeks or enterolithotomy in combination with a cholecystectomy and fistula division; the different strategies for surgical management are controversial, depend on factors such as patient fitness for surgery and comorbidities. Bouveret's syndrome refers to reverse gallstone ileus where the gallstone propagates proximally and causes gastric outlet obstruction by being impacted in first part of duodenum