Free University of Berlin
The Free University of Berlin is a research university located in Berlin, Germany. One of Germany's most distinguished universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences; the Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University, located in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008, in a joint effort, The Free University of Berlin, along with the Hertie School of Governance, WZB Social Science Research Center Berlin, created the Berlin Graduate School for Transnational Studies. Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948; the foundation is connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946.
The universities were influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period. This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system. Between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence; the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948: after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the "preparatory committee for establishing a free university" consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students, met. With a manifesto titled "Request for establishing a free university in Berlin" the committee appealed to the public for support.
The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university and requested the opening for the coming winter semester 1948/49. Meanwhile, the students committee in the German Democratic Republic protested against the formation, the GDR described the new university as the "so-called free university" in official documents until the fall of the Berlin Wall; the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948. The by-law achieved prominence under its alias "the Berlin model": The university was founded as a statutory corporation and was not directly subjected to the state, as it was controlled by a supervisory board consisting of six representatives of the state of Berlin, three representatives of the university and students; this form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had much more influence on the system than before. But until the 1970s, the involvement of the students in the committees was cut back while adapting to the model of the western German universities in order to be recognized as an equivalent university.
On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, the film theater with the biggest hall available in the western sectors of Berlin. Attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University; the first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke. By 1949, Free University had registered 4,946 students; until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many students came from the soviet sector supported through the "Währungsstipendium" of the senate. On 26 June 1963, the same day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg, John F. Kennedy was awarded honorary citizen by the Free University and held a ceremonial speech in front of the Henry Ford building in which he addressed the future of Berlin and Germany under the consideration of the motto of the FU.
Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and the Chancellor of Germany Konrad Adenauer. His brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited the university in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy; the speech he held at the event was dedicated to John F. Kennedy, assassinated just the year before. In the late 1960s, Free University of Berlin was one of the main scenes of the German student movement of 68 as a reaction to the global student protests during that time. After the assassination of student Benno Ohnesorg and the attempt on Rudi Dutschke's life, protests escalated to violence in all of Germany; the events of the 68-movement provided the impulse for more openness and democracy in German society. During the 1970s and the 1980s, the university became a "Massenuniversität" with 50,298 registered students in 1983. After reunification, Free University of Berlin was the second largest university in Germany with 62,072 students in the winter te
Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, leek and Chinese onion. Garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, it was known to ancient Egyptians, has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. In Ancient Rome, it was "much used for food among the poor". China produces some 80% of the world supply of garlic; the word garlic derives from Old English, meaning gar and leek, as a'spear-shaped leek'. Allium sativum is a bulbous plant, its hardiness is USDA Zone 8. It produces hermaphrodite flowers, it is pollinated by bees, butterflies and other insects. Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas naturalized; the "wild garlic", "crow garlic", "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, Allium oleraceum, respectively. Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult, due to the sterility of its many cultivars which may all be descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia.
There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity. In North America, Allium vineale and Allium canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields. So-called elephant garlic is a wild leek, not a true garlic. Single clove garlic originated in the Yunnan province of China; some garlics have protected status in Europe, including: There are two subspecies of A. sativum, ten major groups of varieties, hundreds of varieties or cultivars. A. sativum var. ophioscorodon Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, purple stripe garlics. It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G. Don. A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, creole garlic. Garlic can be grown year-round in mild climates. While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground.
In colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes white rot. Garlic plants can be grown together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, are grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic does well in loose, well-drained soils in sunny locations, is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9; when selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will increase bulb size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels. There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic; the latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive.
Hardneck garlic is grown in cooler climates and produces large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic's energy into bulb growth; the scapes can be cooked. Garlic plants are hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. Garlic plants are said to repel moles. However, pathogens that affect garlic are nematodes and wood-decay fungus, which remain in the soil indefinitely after the ground has become infected. Garlic may suffer from pink root, a non-fatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red; the larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the bulbs. In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 80% of the total. India was the second largest producer with 5% of world production; the United States – ranked 10th in global production of garlic – grows less than 1% of China's production. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, which calls itself the "Garlic Capital of the World".
Garlic is used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant's bulb is the most used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for medicinal purposes, they have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens with cooking. Other parts of the garlic plant are edible; the leaves and flowers on the head are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, are most consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, sold as "green garlic"; when green garlic is allowed to grow past the "scallion" stage, but not permitted to mature, it may produce a garlic "round", a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb. It imparts a garlic aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot
Medieval medicine of Western Europe
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus."In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Many placed their hopes in the church and God to heal all their sicknesses. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not purely secular, but were based on a world view in which factors such as destiny and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause; the efficacy of cures was bound in the beliefs of patient and doctor rather than empirical evidence, so that remedia physicalia were subordinate to spiritual intervention. The Western medical tradition traces its roots directly to the early Greek civilization, much like the foundation of all of Western society; the Greeks laid the foundation for Western medical practice but much more of Western medicine can be traced to the Middle East and Celtic cultures.
The Greek medical foundation comes from a collection of writings known today as the Hippocratic Corpus. Remnants of the Hippocratic Corpus survive in modern medicine in forms like the “Hippocratic Oath” as in to “Do No Harm.” The Hippocratic Corpus, popularly attributed to an ancient Greek medical practitioner known as Hippocrates, lays out the basic approach to health care. Greek philosophers viewed the human body as a system that reflects the workings of nature and Hippocrates applied this belief to medicine; the body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors. The humors represented fire, air and water through the properties of hot, cold and moist, respectively. Health in the human body relied on keeping these humors in balance within each person. Maintaining the balance of humors within a patient occurred in several ways. An initial examination took place as standard for a physician to properly evaluate the patient; the patient's home climate, their normal diet, astrological charts were regarded during consultation.
The heavens influenced each person in different ways by influencing elements connected to certain humors, important information in reaching a diagnosis. After the examination the physician could determine which humor was unbalanced in the patient and prescribe a new diet to restore that balance. Diet included not only food to eat or avoid but an exercise regimen and medication. Hippocratic medicine was written down within the Hippocratic Corpus, therefore medical practitioners were required to be literate; the written treatises within the Corpus are varied, incorporating medical doctrine from any source the Greeks came into contact with. At Alexandria in Egypt, the Greeks learned the art of surgery and dissection,; the early Hippocratic practitioner Herophilus engaged in dissection and added new knowledge to human anatomy in the realms of the human nervous system, the inner workings of the eye, differentiating arteries from veins, using pulses as a diagnostic tool in treatment. Surgery and dissection yielded much knowledge of the human body that Hippocratic physicians employed alongside their methods of balancing humors in patients.
The combination of knowledge in diet and medication formed the foundation of medical learning upon which Galen would build upon with his own works. The Greeks had been influenced by their Egyptian neighbors, in terms of medical practice in surgery and medication. However, the Greeks absorbed many folk healing practices, including incantations and dream healing. In Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the gods are implicated as the cause of plagues or widespread disease and that those maladies could be cured by praying to them; the religious side of Greek medical practice is manifested in the cult of Asclepius, whom Homer regarded as a great physician, was deified in the third and fourth century BC. Hundreds of temples devoted to Asclepius were founded throughout the Greek and Roman empire to which untold numbers of people flocked for cures. Healing visions and dreams formed the foundation for the curing process as the person seeking treatment from Asclepius slept in a special dormitory; the healing occurred either in the person's dream or advice from the dream could be used to seek out the proper treatment for their illness elsewhere.
Afterwards the visitor to the temple bathed, offered prayers and sacrifice, received other forms of treatment like medication, dietary restrictions, an exercise regiment, keeping with the Hippocratic tradition. Medicine in the Middle Ages had its roots in folk practices; this influence was highlighted by the interplay between Christian theologians who adopted aspects of pagan and folk practices and chronicled them in their own works. The practices adopted by Christian medical practitioners around the 2nd century, their attitudes toward pagan and folk traditions, reflected an understanding of these practices humoralism and herbalism; the practice of medicine in the early Middle Ages was pragmatic. It focused on curing disease rather than discovering the cause of diseases, it was believed the cause of disease was supernatural. Secular approaches to curing diseases existed. People in the Middle Ages understood medicine by adopting the ancient Greek medical theory of humors. Since it was clear that the fertility of the earth depended on the proper balance of the elements, it followed that the same w
A codex, plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, papyrus, or similar materials. The term is now only used of manuscript books, with hand-written contents, but describes the format, now near-universal for printed books in the Western world; the book is bound by stacking the pages and fixing one edge to a bookbinding, which may just be thicker paper, or with stiff boards, called a hardback, or in elaborate historical examples a treasure binding. At least in the Western world, the main alternative to the paged codex format for a long document is the continuous scroll, the dominant book form in the ancient world; some codices are continuously folded like a concertina, in particular the Maya and Aztec codices, which are long sheets of paper or animal skin folded into pages. These do not meet most current definitions of the "codex" form, but are so called by convention; the Romans developed the form from wooden writing tablets. The gradual replacement of the scroll by the codex has been called the most important advance in book making before the invention of printing.
The codex transformed the shape of the book itself, offered a form that lasted until present day. The spread of the codex is associated with the rise of Christianity, which adopted the format for use with the Bible early on. First described by the 1st-century AD Roman poet Martial, who praised its convenient use, the codex achieved numerical parity with the scroll around AD 300, had replaced it throughout what was by a Christianized Greco-Roman world by the 6th century; the codex provides considerable advantages over other book formats: Compactness Sturdiness Economic use of materials by using both sides Ease of reference The change from rolls to codices coincides with the transition from papyrus to parchment as the preferred writing material, but the two developments are unconnected. In fact, any combination of codices and scrolls with papyrus and parchment is technically feasible and common in the historical record; the codex began to replace the scroll as soon as it was invented. In Egypt, by the fifth century, the codex outnumbered the scroll by ten to one based on surviving examples.
By the sixth century, the scroll had vanished as a medium for literature. Technically modern paperbacks are codices, but publishers and scholars reserve the term for manuscript books produced from Late antiquity until the Middle Ages; the scholarly study of these manuscripts from the point of view of the bookbinding craft is called codicology. The study of ancient documents in general is called paleography; the Romans used precursors made of reusable wax-covered tablets of wood for taking notes and other informal writings. Two ancient polyptychs, a pentatych and octotych, excavated at Herculaneum used a unique connecting system that presages sewing on of thongs or cords. Julius Caesar may have been the first Roman to reduce scrolls to bound pages in the form of a note-book even as a papyrus codex. At the turn of the 1st century AD, a kind of folded parchment notebook called pugillares membranei in Latin became used for writing in the Roman Empire. Theodore Cressy Skeat theorized that this form of notebook was invented in Rome and spread to the Near East.
Codices are described in certain works by Martial. He wrote a series of five couplets meant to accompany gifts of literature that Romans exchanged during the festival of Saturnalia. Three of these books are described by Martial as being in the form of a codex. In another poem by Martial, the poet advertises a new edition of his works noting that it is printed as a codex, taking less space than a scroll and more comfortable to hold in one hand. According to Theodore Cressy Skeat, this might be the first recorded known case of an entire edition of a literary work being published in codex form, though it was an isolated case and was not a common practice until a much time. In his discussion of one of the earliest parchment codices to survive from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, Eric Turner seems to challenge Skeat's notion when stating, “…its mere existence is evidence that this book form had a prehistory”, that “early experiments with this book form may well have taken place outside of Egypt.” Early codices of parchment or papyrus appear to have been used as personal notebooks, for instance in recording copies of letters sent.
The parchment notebook pages were washed or scraped for re-use and writings in a codex were considered informal and impermanent. As early as the early 2nd century, there is evidence that a codex—usually of papyrus—was the preferred format among Christians. In the library of the Villa of the Papyri, all the texts are scrolls. However, in the Nag Hammadi library, hidden about AD 390, all texts are codices. Despite this comparison, a fragment of a non-Christian parchment codex of Demosthenes' De Falsa Legatione from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt demonstrates that the surviving evidence is insufficient to conclude whether Christians played a major or central role in the development of early codices—or if they adopted the format to distin