Health, as defined by the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical and social well-being and not the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy. Health may be defined as the ability to adapt and manage physical and social challenges throughout life; the meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic and psychological integrity. In 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical and social well-being, not the absence of disease and infirmity". Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.
Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s; this brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". 1984 WHO revised the definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for not the objective of living. Thus, health referred to the ability to recover from insults. Mental, intellectual and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living; this opens up many possibilities for health to be taught and learned. Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.
In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued, featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past; the impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years. Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences.
The term "healthy" is widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background and economic, social conditions and spirituality. Studies have shown. In the first decade of the 21st century, the conceptualization of health as an ability opened the door for self-assessments to become the main indicators to judge the performance of efforts aimed at improving human health, it created the opportunity for every person to feel healthy in the presence of multiple chronic diseases, or a terminal condition, for the re-examination of determinants of health, away from the traditional approach that focuses on the reduction of the prevalence of diseases. The context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life It is recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society.
According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors. More key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following: An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, health care organization and health policy, one specific health policy brought into many countries in recent years was the introduction of the sugar tax. Beve
Medieval medicine of Western Europe
Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus."In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Many placed their hopes in the church and God to heal all their sicknesses. Ideas about the origin and cure of disease were not purely secular, but were based on a world view in which factors such as destiny and astral influences played as great a part as any physical cause; the efficacy of cures was bound in the beliefs of patient and doctor rather than empirical evidence, so that remedia physicalia were subordinate to spiritual intervention. The Western medical tradition traces its roots directly to the early Greek civilization, much like the foundation of all of Western society; the Greeks laid the foundation for Western medical practice but much more of Western medicine can be traced to the Middle East and Celtic cultures.
The Greek medical foundation comes from a collection of writings known today as the Hippocratic Corpus. Remnants of the Hippocratic Corpus survive in modern medicine in forms like the “Hippocratic Oath” as in to “Do No Harm.” The Hippocratic Corpus, popularly attributed to an ancient Greek medical practitioner known as Hippocrates, lays out the basic approach to health care. Greek philosophers viewed the human body as a system that reflects the workings of nature and Hippocrates applied this belief to medicine; the body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors. The humors represented fire, air and water through the properties of hot, cold and moist, respectively. Health in the human body relied on keeping these humors in balance within each person. Maintaining the balance of humors within a patient occurred in several ways. An initial examination took place as standard for a physician to properly evaluate the patient; the patient's home climate, their normal diet, astrological charts were regarded during consultation.
The heavens influenced each person in different ways by influencing elements connected to certain humors, important information in reaching a diagnosis. After the examination the physician could determine which humor was unbalanced in the patient and prescribe a new diet to restore that balance. Diet included not only food to eat or avoid but an exercise regimen and medication. Hippocratic medicine was written down within the Hippocratic Corpus, therefore medical practitioners were required to be literate; the written treatises within the Corpus are varied, incorporating medical doctrine from any source the Greeks came into contact with. At Alexandria in Egypt, the Greeks learned the art of surgery and dissection,; the early Hippocratic practitioner Herophilus engaged in dissection and added new knowledge to human anatomy in the realms of the human nervous system, the inner workings of the eye, differentiating arteries from veins, using pulses as a diagnostic tool in treatment. Surgery and dissection yielded much knowledge of the human body that Hippocratic physicians employed alongside their methods of balancing humors in patients.
The combination of knowledge in diet and medication formed the foundation of medical learning upon which Galen would build upon with his own works. The Greeks had been influenced by their Egyptian neighbors, in terms of medical practice in surgery and medication. However, the Greeks absorbed many folk healing practices, including incantations and dream healing. In Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the gods are implicated as the cause of plagues or widespread disease and that those maladies could be cured by praying to them; the religious side of Greek medical practice is manifested in the cult of Asclepius, whom Homer regarded as a great physician, was deified in the third and fourth century BC. Hundreds of temples devoted to Asclepius were founded throughout the Greek and Roman empire to which untold numbers of people flocked for cures. Healing visions and dreams formed the foundation for the curing process as the person seeking treatment from Asclepius slept in a special dormitory; the healing occurred either in the person's dream or advice from the dream could be used to seek out the proper treatment for their illness elsewhere.
Afterwards the visitor to the temple bathed, offered prayers and sacrifice, received other forms of treatment like medication, dietary restrictions, an exercise regiment, keeping with the Hippocratic tradition. Medicine in the Middle Ages had its roots in folk practices; this influence was highlighted by the interplay between Christian theologians who adopted aspects of pagan and folk practices and chronicled them in their own works. The practices adopted by Christian medical practitioners around the 2nd century, their attitudes toward pagan and folk traditions, reflected an understanding of these practices humoralism and herbalism; the practice of medicine in the early Middle Ages was pragmatic. It focused on curing disease rather than discovering the cause of diseases, it was believed the cause of disease was supernatural. Secular approaches to curing diseases existed. People in the Middle Ages understood medicine by adopting the ancient Greek medical theory of humors. Since it was clear that the fertility of the earth depended on the proper balance of the elements, it followed that the same w
The Rhineland is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section. The Rhinelands refers to a loosely defined region embracing the land on the banks of the Rhine in Central Europe, which were settled by Ripuarian and Salian Franks and became part of Frankish Austrasia. In the High Middle Ages, numerous Imperial States along the river emerged from the former stem duchy of Lotharingia, without developing any common political or cultural identity. A "Rhineland" conceptualization did not evolve until the 19th century after the War of the First Coalition, when a short-lived Cisrhenian Republic was established on territory conquered by French troops; the term covered the whole occupied zone west of the Rhine including the bridgeheads on the eastern banks. After the collapse of the French dominated West Bank in the early 19th century, the regions of Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg were annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1822 the Prussian administration reorganized the territory as the Rhine Province, a term continuing in the names of the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia.
Following the First World War, the western part of Rhineland was occupied by Entente forces demilitarized under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles and the 1925 Locarno Treaties. German forces remilitarized the territory in 1936, as part of a diplomatic test of will, three years before the outbreak of the Second World War. To the west the area stretches to the borders with Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Stretching down to the North Palatine Uplands in the south, this area, except for the Saarland, more or less corresponds with the modern use of the term; the southern and eastern parts are hill country, cut by river valleys, principally the Middle Rhine up to Bingen and its Ahr and Nahe tributaries. The border of the North German plain is marked by the lower Ruhr. In the south, the river cuts the Rhenish Massif; the area encompasses the western part of the Cologne Lowland. Some of the larger cities in the Rhineland are Aachen, Cologne, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Koblenz, Leverkusen, Mainz, Mönchengladbach, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Remscheid, Solingen and Wuppertal.
Toponyms as well as local family names trace back to the Frankish heritage. The lands on the western shore of the Rhine are characterized by Roman influence, including viticulture. In the core territories, large parts of the population are members of the Catholic Church. At the earliest historical period, the territories between the Ardennes and the Rhine were occupied by the Treveri, the Eburones and other Celtic tribes, however, were all more or less modified and influenced by their Germanic neighbors. On the East bank of the Rhine, between the Main and the Lahn, were the settlements of the Mattiaci, a branch of the Germanic Chatti, while farther to the north were the Usipetes and Tencteri. Julius Caesar conquered the Celtic tribes on the West bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the East bank; as the power of the Roman empire declined the Franks pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the 5th century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence.
The Frankish conquerors of the Rhenish districts were singularly little affected by the culture of the Roman provincials they subdued, all traces of Roman civilization were submerged. By the 8th century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germania and northern Gaul. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun the part the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Emperor Otto I both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, in 959 the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine, on the Mosel, Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; as the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles. The old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, while the Lower Lorraine lands were referred to as the Low Countries, the name of Lorraine became restricted to the region on the upper Moselle that still bears it.
After the Imperial Reform of 1500/12, the territory was part of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian, Upper Rhenish, Electoral Rhenish Circles. Notable Rhenish Imperial States included: the ecclesiastical electorates of Cologne and Trier the duchies of Jülich and Berg, forming the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg from 1521 the County of Sponheim and numerous further Imperial Counties the Free Imperial Cities of Aachen and Cologne. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbors in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine played a large role in German history. At the Peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was tak
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant. At the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz and other parts of North Africa, he was sent to Fatimid Egypt in 1164 alongside his uncle Shirkuh, a general of the Zengid army, on the orders of their lord Nur ad-Din to help restore Shawar as vizier of the teenage Fatimid caliph al-Adid. A power struggle ensued between Shawar after the latter was reinstated. Saladin, climbed the ranks of the Fatimid government by virtue of his military successes against Crusader assaults against its territory and his personal closeness to al-Adid. After Shawar was assassinated and Shirkuh died in 1169, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Isma'ili Shia caliphate.
During his tenure as vizier, Saladin began to undermine the Fatimid establishment and, following al-Adid's death in 1171, he abolished the Fatimid Caliphate and realigned the country's allegiance with the Sunni, Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphate. In the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestine, commissioned the successful conquest of Yemen, staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt. Not long after Nur ad-Din's death in 1174, Saladin launched his conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. By mid-1175, Saladin had conquered Hama and Homs, inviting the animosity of other Zengid lords, the official rulers of Syria's various regions. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was thereafter proclaimed the "Sultan of Egypt and Syria" by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi. Saladin made further conquests in northern Syria and Jazira, escaping two attempts on his life by the "Assassins", before returning to Egypt in 1177 to address issues there.
By 1182, Saladin had completed the conquest of Muslim Syria after capturing Aleppo, but failed to take over the Zengid stronghold of Mosul. Under Saladin's command, the Ayyubid army defeated the Crusaders at the decisive Battle of Hattin in 1187, thereafter wrested control of Palestine – including the city of Jerusalem – from the Crusaders, who had conquered the area 88 years earlier. Although the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist until the late 13th century, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region. Saladin died in Damascus in 1193, he is buried in a mausoleum adjacent to the Umayyad Mosque. Saladin has become a prominent figure in Muslim, Arab and Kurdish culture, he has been described as being the most famous Kurd in history. Saladin was born in Tikrit in modern-day Iraq, his personal name was "Yusuf". His family was of mixed Kurdish and Turkish ancestry, had originated from the city of Dvin in central Armenia; the Rawadiya tribe he hailed from had been assimilated into the Arabic-speaking world by this time.
In 1132, the defeated army of Imad ad-Din Zengi, the ruler of Mosul, found their retreat blocked by the Tigris River opposite the fortress of Tikrit, where Saladin's father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub served as the warden. Ayyub gave them refuge in Tikrit. Mujahed al-Din Bihruz, a former Greek slave, appointed as the military governor of northern Mesopotamia for his service to the Seljuks, reprimanded Ayyub for giving Zengi refuge and in 1137 banished Ayyub from Tikrit after his brother Asad al-Din Shirkuh killed a friend of Bihruz in an honour killing. According to Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Saladin was born on the same night that his family left Tikrit. In 1139, Ayyub and his family moved to Mosul, where Imad ad-Din Zengi acknowledged his debt and appointed Ayyub commander of his fortress in Baalbek. After the death of Zengi in 1146, his son, Nur ad-Din, became the regent of Aleppo and the leader of the Zengids. Saladin, who now lived in Damascus, was reported to have a particular fondness for the city, but information on his early childhood is scarce.
About education, Saladin wrote "children are brought up in the way in which their elders were brought up." According to his biographers, Anne-Marie Eddé and al-Wahrani, Saladin was able to answer questions on Euclid, the Almagest and law, but this was an academic ideal and it was study of the Qur'an and the "sciences of religion" that linked him to his contemporaries. Several sources claim that during his studies he was more interested in religion than joining the military. Another factor which may have affected his interest in religion was that, during the First Crusade, Jerusalem was taken by the Christians. In addition to Islam, Saladin had a knowledge of the genealogies and histories of the Arabs, as well as the bloodlines of Arabian horses. More he knew the Hamasah of Abu Tammam by heart, he spoke Arabic. Saladin's military career began under the tutelage of his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh, a prominent military commander under Nur ad-Din, the Zengid emir of Damascus and Aleppo and the most influential teacher of Saladin.
In 1163, the vizier to the Fatimid caliph al-Adid, had been driven out of Egypt by his rival Dirgham, a member of the powerful Banu Ruzzaik tribe. He asked for military backing from Nur ad-Din, who compl
Garlic is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, leek and Chinese onion. Garlic is native to Central Asia and northeastern Iran, has long been a common seasoning worldwide, with a history of several thousand years of human consumption and use, it was known to ancient Egyptians, has been used both as a food flavoring and as a traditional medicine. In Ancient Rome, it was "much used for food among the poor". China produces some 80% of the world supply of garlic; the word garlic derives from Old English, meaning gar and leek, as a'spear-shaped leek'. Allium sativum is a bulbous plant, its hardiness is USDA Zone 8. It produces hermaphrodite flowers, it is pollinated by bees, butterflies and other insects. Allium sativum grows in the wild in areas naturalized; the "wild garlic", "crow garlic", "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, Allium oleraceum, respectively. Identification of the wild progenitor of common garlic is difficult, due to the sterility of its many cultivars which may all be descended from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia.
There are at least 120 cultivars originating from Central Asia, making it the main center of garlic biodiversity. In North America, Allium vineale and Allium canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields. So-called elephant garlic is a wild leek, not a true garlic. Single clove garlic originated in the Yunnan province of China; some garlics have protected status in Europe, including: There are two subspecies of A. sativum, ten major groups of varieties, hundreds of varieties or cultivars. A. sativum var. ophioscorodon Döll, called Ophioscorodon, or hard-necked garlic, includes porcelain garlics, rocambole garlic, purple stripe garlics. It is sometimes considered to be a separate species, Allium ophioscorodon G. Don. A. sativum var. sativum, or soft-necked garlic, includes artichoke garlic, silverskin garlic, creole garlic. Garlic can be grown year-round in mild climates. While sexual propagation of garlic is possible, nearly all of the garlic in cultivation is propagated asexually, by planting individual cloves in the ground.
In colder climates, cloves are planted in the autumn, about six weeks before the soil freezes, harvested in late spring or early summer. The cloves must be planted deep enough to prevent freeze/thaw, which causes white rot. Garlic plants can be grown together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, are grown in containers of sufficient depth. Garlic does well in loose, well-drained soils in sunny locations, is hardy throughout USDA climate zones 4–9; when selecting garlic for planting, it is important to pick large bulbs from which to separate cloves. Large cloves, along with proper spacing in the planting bed, will increase bulb size. Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels. There are different varieties or subspecies of garlic, most notably hardneck garlic and softneck garlic; the latitude where the garlic is grown affects the choice of type, as garlic can be day-length sensitive.
Hardneck garlic is grown in cooler climates and produces large cloves, whereas softneck garlic is grown closer to the equator and produces small, tightly-packed cloves. Garlic scapes are removed to focus all the garlic's energy into bulb growth; the scapes can be cooked. Garlic plants are hardy and not affected by many pests or diseases. Garlic plants are said to repel moles. However, pathogens that affect garlic are nematodes and wood-decay fungus, which remain in the soil indefinitely after the ground has become infected. Garlic may suffer from pink root, a non-fatal disease that stunts the roots and turns them pink or red; the larvae of the leek moth attack garlic by mining into the bulbs. In 2016, world production of garlic was 26.6 million tonnes, with China alone accounting for 80% of the total. India was the second largest producer with 5% of world production; the United States – ranked 10th in global production of garlic – grows less than 1% of China's production. Much of the garlic production in the United States is centered in Gilroy, which calls itself the "Garlic Capital of the World".
Garlic is used around the world for its pungent flavor as a seasoning or condiment. The garlic plant's bulb is the most used part of the plant. With the exception of the single clove types, garlic bulbs are divided into numerous fleshy sections called cloves. Garlic cloves are used for medicinal purposes, they have a characteristic pungent, spicy flavor that mellows and sweetens with cooking. Other parts of the garlic plant are edible; the leaves and flowers on the head are sometimes eaten. They are milder in flavor than the bulbs, are most consumed while immature and still tender. Immature garlic is sometimes pulled, rather like a scallion, sold as "green garlic"; when green garlic is allowed to grow past the "scallion" stage, but not permitted to mature, it may produce a garlic "round", a bulb like a boiling onion, but not separated into cloves like a mature bulb. It imparts a garlic aroma in food, minus the spiciness. Green garlic is chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hot
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers. The concept of "humors" became more prominent from the writing of medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton, his list of humours was longer than just four liquids and included fundamental elements described by Empedocles, such as water, earth, etc. Some authors suggest that the concept of "humours" may have origins in Ancient Egyptian medicine or Mesopotamia, though it was not systemized until ancient Greek thinkers; the word humor is a translation of chymos. At around the same time, ancient Indian Ayurveda medicine had developed a theory of three humors, which they linked with the five Hindu elements. Hippocrates is the one credited with applying this idea to medicine. In contrast to Alcmaeon, Hippocrates suggested that humours are the vital bodily fluids, such as blood, phlegm and "black bile". Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness.
Hippocrates and Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament type. One of the treatises attributed to Hippocrates, On the Nature of Man, describes the theory as follows: The Human body contains blood, yellow bile and black bile; these are the things that cause its pains and health. Health is that state in which these constituent substances are in the correct proportion to each other, both in strength and quantity, are well mixed. Pain occurs when one of the substances presents either a deficiency or an excess, or is separated in the body and not mixed with others. Although the theory of the four humors does appear in some Hippocratic texts, some Hippocratic writers only accepted the existence of two humors, while some refrained from discussing the humoral theory at all. Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries through the influence of the writings of Galen. Hippocrates theory of four humours was linked it with the popular theory of the four elements: earth, fire and air proposed by Empedocles but this link wasn't proposed by Hippocrates or Galen who referred to bodily fluids.
While Galen thought that humors were formed in the body, rather than ingested, he believed that different foods had varying potential to be acted upon by the body to produce different humors. Warm foods, for example, tended to produce yellow bile. Seasons of the year, periods of life, geographic regions and occupations influenced the nature of the humors formed; the imbalance of humors, or dyscrasia, was thought to be the direct cause of all diseases. Health was associated with eucrasia; the qualities of the humors, in turn, influenced the nature of the diseases. Yellow bile caused phlegm caused cold diseases. In On the Temperaments, Galen further emphasized the importance of the qualities. An ideal temperament involved a balanced mixture of the four qualities. Galen identified four temperaments in which one of the qualities, cold, moist or dry and four more in which a combination of two and moist, warm and dry and dry or cold and moist, dominated; these last four, named for the humors with which they were associated—that is, choleric and phlegmatic became better known than the others.
While the term temperament came to refer just to psychological dispositions, Galen used it to refer to bodily dispositions, which determined a person's susceptibility to particular diseases as well as behavioral and emotional inclinations. Disease could be the result of the "corruption" of one or more of the humors, which could be caused by environmental circumstances, dietary changes, or many other factors; these deficits were thought to be caused by vapors absorbed by the body. Greeks and Romans, the Muslim and Western European medical establishments that adopted and adapted classical medical philosophy, believed that each of these humors would wax and wane in the body, depending on diet and activity; when a patient was suffering from a surplus or imbalance of one of these four fluids said patient's personality and or physical health could be negatively affected. Though humorism theory had several models that used 2, 3 and 5 components, the most famous model consists of four-humors described in Hippocrates writings and developed further by Galen.
The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile, yellow bile and blood, each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments. A humor is referred to as a cambium. Based on Hippocratic medicine, it was believed that the four humors were to be in balanced proportions with regard to amount and strength of each humor for a body to be healthy; these terms only correspond to the modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile, in which phlegm has a different meaning. These "humors" may have their roots in the appearance of a blood sedimentation test made in open air, which exhibits a dark clot at the bottom, a layer of unclotted erythrocytes, a layer of white blood cells and a