The Sienese School of painting flourished in Siena, between the 13th and 15th centuries. Its most important artists include Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence, his pupil Simone Martini, the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo and Matteo di Giovanni. Duccio may be considered the "father of Sienese painting"; the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti were "responsible for a crucial development in Sienese art, moving from the tradition inherited from Duccio towards a Gothic style, incorporating the innovations in Florence introduced by Giotto and Arnolfo di Cambio"."Sienese art flourished when Siena itself had begun to decline economically and politically. And while the artists of 15th-century Siena did not enjoy the widespread patronage and respect that their 14th-century ancestors had received, the paintings and illuminated manuscripts they produced form one of the undervalued treasures in the bounty of Italian art."In the late 15th century, Siena "finally succumbed" to the Florentine school's teachings on perspective and naturalistic representation, absorbing it's "humanist culture".
In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome; the economic and political decline of Siena by the 16th century, its eventual subjugation by Florence checked the development of Sienese painting, although it meant that a good proportion of Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed. Unlike Florentine art, Sienese art opted for a more decorative style and rich colors, with "thinner and courtly figures", it has "a mystical streak...characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, with less attention to proportions, distortions of time and place, dreamlike coloration". Sienese painters did not paint allegories, or classical myths. Guido da Siena Duccio di Buoninsegna Segna di Buonaventura Niccolò di Segna Simone Martini Lippo Memmi Naddo Ceccarelli Ambrogio Lorenzetti Pietro Lorenzetti Bartolomeo Bulgarini Ugolino di Nerio Lippo Vanni Bartolo di Fredi Andrea Vanni Francesco di Vannuccio Jacopo di Mino del Pellicciaio Niccolò di Bonaccorso Niccolò di Ser Sozzo Luca di Tommè Taddeo di Bartolo Andrea di Bartolo Paolo di Giovanni Fei Benedetto di Bindo Domenico di Bartolo Giovanni di Paolo Gregorio di Cecco Martino di Bartolomeo Master of the Osservanza Triptych Pietro di Giovanni d'Ambrogio Priamo della Quercia Sano di Pietro Sassetta Lorenzo di Pietro Nicola di Ulisse Matteo di Giovanni Benvenuto di Giovanni Carlo di Giovanni Francesco di Giorgio Martini Neroccio di Bartolomeo de' Landi Pietro di Francesco degli Orioli Guidoccio Cozzarelli Bernardino Fungai Pellegrino di Mariano Andrea di Niccolò Pietro di Domenico Girolamo di Benvenuto Giacomo Pacchiarotti Girolamo del Pacchia Domenico Beccafumi Il Sodoma Riccio Sanese Francesco Vanni Ventura Salimbeni Rutilio Manetti Bolognese School Lucchese School School of Ferrara Florentine School Timothy Hyman.
Pope-Hennessy, John & Kanter, Laurence B.. The Robert Lehman Collection I, Italian Paintings. New York, Princeton: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 0870994794. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Italian paintings: a catalogue of the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Sienese and Central Italian schools, a collection catalog containing information about the artists and their works
Pisa Cathedral is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is a notable example of Romanesque architecture, in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Pisa. Construction on the cathedral began in 1063 by the architect Buscheto, expenses were paid using the spoils received fighting against the Muslims in Sicily in 1063, it includes various stylistic elements: classical, Lombard-Emilian and Islamic, drawing upon the international presence of Pisan merchants at that time. In the same year, St. Mark's Basilica began its reconstruction in Venice, evidence of a strong rivalry between the two maritime republics to see which could create the most beautiful and luxurious place of worship; the church was erected outside Pisa's early medieval walls, to show that Pisa had no fear of being attacked. The chosen area had been used in the Lombard era as a necropolis and at the beginning of the 11th century a church had been erected here, but never finished, to be named Santa Maria.
Buscheto's grand new church was called Santa Maria Maggiore until it was named Santa Maria Assunta. In 1092 the cathedral was declared a primatial church, archbishop Dagobert having been given the title of Primate by Pope Urban II; the cathedral was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II, who belonged to the Caetani family, powerful both in Pisa and in Rome. In the early 12th century the cathedral was enlarged under the direction of architect Rainaldo, who increased the length of the nave by adding three bays consistent with the original style of Buscheto, enlarged the transept, planned a new facade, completed by workers under the direction of the sculptors Guglielmo and Biduino; the exact date of the work is unclear: according to some, the work was done right after the death of Buscheto about the year 1100, though others say it was done closer to 1140. In any case, work was finished in 1180, as documented by the date written on the bronze knockers made by Bonanno Pisano found on the main door.
The structure's present appearance is the result of numerous restoration campaigns that were carried out in different eras. The first radical interventions occurred after the fire of 1595, following which the roof was replaced and sculptors from the workshop of Giambologna, among whom were Gasparo Mola and Pietro Tacca, created the three bronze doors of the facade. In the early 18th century began the redecoration of the inside walls of the cathedral with large paintings, the "quadroni", depicting stories of the blesseds and saints of Pisa; these works were made by the principal artists of the era, a group of citizens arranged for the special financing of the project. Successive interventions occurred in the 19th century and included both internal and external modifications. Other notable interventions include: the dismantling of Giovanni Pisano's pulpit between 1599 and 1601 that only in 1926 was reassembled and returned to the cathedral; the original building plan was a Greek cross with a grand cupola at the crossing, but today the plan is a Latin cross with a central nave flanked by two side aisles on each side, with the apse and transepts having three naves.
The inside offers a spatial effect similar to that of the great mosques thanks to the use of raised lancet arches, the alternating layers of black and white marble, the elliptical dome, inspired by the Moors. The presence of two raised matronea in the nave, with their solid, monolithic columns of granite, is a clear sign of Byzantine influence. Buscheto welcomed Armenian influence; the rich exterior decoration contains multicolored marble and numerous bronze objects from the spoils of war, among, the griffin, taken in Palermo in 1061 and placed on the eastern part of the roof. In the early 19th century the original sculpture, which can now be seen in the cathedral museum, was removed from the roof and replaced with a copy; the high arches show southern Italian influence. The blind arches with lozenge shapes recall similar structures in Armenia; the facade of grey and white marble, decorated with colored marble inserts, was built by Master Rainaldo. Above the three doorways are four levels of loggia divided by cornices with marble intarsia, behind which open single and triple windows.
The heavy bronze doors of the facade were made by different Florentine artists in the 17th century. Contrary to what might be thought, from the beginning the faithful entered the cathedral through the door of Saint Rainerius, found in the transept of the same name, which faces the bell tower; this was because the nobles of the city, who approached the cathedral by via Santa Maria, would find themselves at this entrance. This door was cast about 1180 by Bonanno Pisano, it is the only door not destroyed by the fire of 1595 that damaged the cathedral; the door of Saint Rainerius is decorated with 24 bronze relief sculptures showing stories of the New Testament. This door is one of the first produced in Italy during the Middle Ages, after the importation of numerous examples from Constantinople, a western sensibility, detached from t
Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest)
The Museum of Fine Arts is a museum in Heroes' Square, Hungary, facing the Palace of Art. It was built by the plans of Albert Schickedanz and Fülöp Herzog in an eclectic-neoclassical style, between 1900 and 1906; the museum's collection is made up of international art, including all periods of European art, comprises more than 100,000 pieces. The collection is made up of older additions such as those from Buda Castle, the Esterházy and Zichy estates, as well as donations from individual collectors; the Museum's collection is made up of six departments: Egyptian, Old sculpture gallery, Old master paintings gallery, Modern collection, Graphics collection. The institution celebrated its centenary in 2006; the gallery holds the second largest collection of Egyptian art in central Europe. It comprises a number of collections bought together by Hungarian Egyptologist, Eduard Mahler, in the 1930s. Subsequent digs in Egypt have expanded the collection; some of the most interesting pieces are the painted mummy sarcophagi.
The core of the collection was made up of pieces acquired from a classicist from Munich. The exhibition includes works from Ancient Greece and Rome. Most significant is the 3rd century marble statue called the Budapest dancer; the Cyprean and Mycenaean collection is notable the ceramics and bronzes. The 3000 paintings in the collection offer an uninterrupted survey of the development of European painting from the 13th to the late 18th centuries; the core of the collection is constituted by the 700 paintings acquired from the Esterhazy estate. The collection is split up into Italian, Netherlandish, French and Spanish art; the most important works include Maso di Banco's Coronation of the Virgin, Sassetta's Saint Thomas Aquinas at Prayer, Domenico Ghirlandaio's Saint Stephen Martyr, Bernardo Bellotto's The Piazza della Signoria in Florence, Gentile Bellini's Portrait of Caterina Cornaro, Giorgione's Portrait of a Young Man, Raphael's Esterhazy Madonna, Giambattista Pittoni's St Elizabeth Distributing Alms, Correggio's Madonna and Child with an Angel, three works by Sebastiano del Piombo, Bronzino's Adoration of the Shepherds as well as his Venus and Jealousy, Romanino's Doge Agostino Barbarigo Handing over a Banner to Niccolo Orsini, Titian's Portrait of Doge Marcantonio Trevisani, Tintoretto's Supper at Emmaus, Tiepolo's St James the Greater in the Battle of Clavijo, Dürer's Portrait of a Young Man, Bernard van Orley's Portrait of Emperor Charles V, eight pictures by Lucas Cranach the Elder, Pieter Bruegel the Elder's St John the Baptist Preaching, Rubens's Mucius Scaevola Before Porsenna, Maarten van Heemskerck's Lamentation, two excellent portraits by Frans Hals, a strong collection of works by Spanish masters including El Greco, Velázquez and Goya.
The collection's main section is devoted to pieces from the Middle Ages to the 17th century. It was based on the Italian collection of Karoly Istvan Ferenczy's bronze collections. From the latter came one of the most treasured works, the small equestrian by Leonardo da Vinci. A number of painted wooden sculptures feature in the Austrian section; the collection shows selected rotating exhibitions of its collection of 10,000 drawings and 100,000 prints originating from the Esterhazy, Istvan Delhaes and Pal Majovsky acquisitions. All periods of European graphic art are represented. Important pieces include two studies by Leonardo da Vinci for the'Battle of Anghiari', 15 drawings by Rembrandt, 200 pieces by Goya, French aquatints; the museum's collection of 19th- and 20th-century art is less significant than those found in other departments. The bulk of the painting is from French art. From the latter are representatives of the Romantic period, the Barbizon school and Impressionism. There is a large collection of sculptures by Constantin Meunier.
Hungarian artist, Victor Vasarely, donated a significant collection of his works to the gallery. These have found a permanent home outside the walls of the gallery at the Zichy mansion in Obuda; the two-storey wing of the building is known as the Vasarely Museum and is the only one of its kind in eastern Europe. 1906–1914 Ernő Kammerer 1914–1935 Elek Petrovics 1935–1944 Dénes Csánky 1949–1952 Imre Oltványi 1952–1955 Ferenc Redő 1956–1964 Andor Pigler 1964–1984 Klára Garas 1984–1989 Ferenc Merényi 1989–2004 Miklós Mojzer 2004– László Baán In 2008, the director of the Museum of Fine Arts, László Baán, proposed the merging of his museum with that of the Hungarian National Gallery, due to the similar exhibition and collection profile of the two. Both specialize in 20th century and contemporary fine art, much of, created by Hungarian artists living overseas. After his request to add an €18million underground extension to the Museum of Fine Arts, which would have united collections spread across the city, was denied in February 2011, Baán presented an alternative plan to the government to build two new buildings at the cost of €150m.
He envisioned the new buildings, one housing contemporary European art and the other Hungarian photography, as a "special museum island" that would complement the Museum of Fine Arts and the Budapest Art Hall by permanently joining the two collections by 2017. In September 2011, Secretary of State for Culture Géza Szőcs announced plans to build a new structure along Andrássy út close to City Park and near the existing Bu
Santa Maria della Scala (Siena)
Santa Maria della Scala is located in Siena, Italy. Now a museum, it was once an important civic hospital dedicated to caring for abandoned children, the poor, the sick, pilgrims. Revenues were earned from bequests and donations from the citizens of Siena the wealthy; the head of the hospital was the rector. Santa Maria della Scala was one of Europe's first hospitals and is one of the oldest hospitals still surviving in the world, it is considered one of Siena's 3 main artistic hubs. The Hospital gets its name from its position. Located across the Piazza del Duomo from Siena Cathedral, Santa Maria della Scala refers to its position across from the steps that lead into the Cathedral; the Hospital is made up of a complex of buildings. Those buildings have been enlarged and improved upon over the years, yet the Hospital's properties once included much of the Via del Capitano and land outside the city walls as well as other, smaller hospitals. Around the 13th and 14th centuries, the Hospital organized its land into large agricultural estates.
This is said to have "represented the largest concentration of land of the Sienese state". This agricultural land helped to financially support the Hospital's works. Particular sections of note include the Church of the Santissima Annuziata, built at the end of the 13th century but completely renovated towards the end of the 15th century, the Pellegrinaio; the Pellegrinaio is the main hall. It served as a location for public festivities; this hall, along with another to house women was built around 1325. The church of the Santissima Annuziata, built during the 13th century, was enlarged during the second part of the 15th century, along with the "vertical expansion" of the Palazzo del Rettore. Santa Maria della Scala was dedicated to its services. From at least as far back as 1193 up to the 18th century, the Hospital took on many philanthropic endeavors: Abandoned babies found their way to the Hospital. Meticulous records were kept of the details relating to each child, in order that the original parents may be able to find them.
The procedure for the children's care was implemented according to age: As infants, they were given to wet nurses later weaned and educated. At age 8, they were taught a trade and any profits they made were kept for them; when they reached 18, the children had the option of leaving. Those that chose to leave were given all their saved earnings, plus 100 soldi, a set of clothing, furnishings for a house. Girls were given an additional 50 lire as a dowry. Meals were served for the poor three times a week; the sick were given free meals and treatment. The Hospital's treatment of the sick was unusual for the time: their policy was to have one bed for each sick patient, the sheets were kept clean. In what has been suggested as "one of the earliest examples of such a therapeutic objective," patients were treated in order to be cured; the Hospital employed one surgeon. In the 16th century, it added an additional surgeon; as the Hospital became a training ground for doctors, there was, for the 17th and 18th centuries, a unique emphasis on using a more hands-on learning approach.
Another service implemented by the Hospital was to care for pilgrims. They were offered free board in the pilgrimage halls, which were segregated by sex; when they left, pilgrims received vouchers for food and drink in Sienese territory as they continued their travels. Siena lies on the Via Francigena, the main pilgrimage road to Rome, the Hospital was founded to accommodate the pilgrims and other travelers who passed through by the canons of the Duomo. According to legend, the Hospital was founded in 898 by a cobbler named Sorore. However, the first known document mentioning it is a "deed of gift" from March 29, 1090; the first rector, was said to be appointed in 1200. To settle infighting between the clergy and laypeople over who held more authority, Pope Celestine III issued a papal bull in 1193 that declared the Hospital a lay organization independent of the Cathedral. In 1359, the Hospital acquired several new relics, including part of the Virgin Mary's girdle and her veil to stimulate pilgrim travel.
More relics were acquired under the Rector Giovanni Buzzichelli. Other relics owned by the Hospital included those of Sts Augustinus and Marcellinus, a nail from the cross of Christ. At the end of the 13th century, the Hospital sped up its physical expansion and internally began splitting up according to the different functions it held. In 1404 the Council of Siena took control of the rector nomination process and made it a city office. In the 1430s, the confraternity devoted to Saint Jerome moved into the rooms in the lower levels of the Hospital, which were directly accessible from the streets. Other confraternities active at this time include an older confraternity dedicated to Mary Most Holy, the brotherhood of Saint Michael the Archangel renamed the brotherhood of Saint Catherine of the Night, a confraternity founded by Andrea Gallerani, "active in good works" at the Hospital. During the 18th century, the Hospital became part of the university. In 1995, the Hospital opened up to the public as a museum.
At first, only the areas considered. As more areas were restored, access increased, it is still being restored. In the 1330s Santa Maria della Scala commissioned many important interior and exterior frescoes as well as several significant altar
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Snite Museum of Art
The Snite Museum of Art is the fine art museum on the University of Notre Dame campus, near South Bend, Indiana. With over 29,000 works of art that span cultures and media, the Snite Museum's permanent collection serves as a rich resource for audiences on campus and beyond. Through programs, lectures and exhibitions, the museum supports faculty teaching and research and provides valuable cultural opportunities for students and visitors. Students play an active role in programming in their capacities as gallery guides and as student advisory members; the museum opened in the fall of 1980, consolidating the adjacent O'Shaughnessy Hall Galleries and the studio of sculptor Ivan Meštrović with the new structure. The 70,000 square-foot building, designed by Ambrose Richardson, A. I. A. was a gift of the Snite Family in memory of Frederick Jr.'33. With the donation in 2018 of funds from lead benefactors Ernestine Raclin and her daughter and son-in-law Carment and Chris Murphy, plans are underway for construction of a 132,000 square foot complex to be built in two phases on the south edge of campus.
The first phase of the Raclin Murphy Museum of Art is anticipated to be 70,000 square feet and will house the museum galleries and other functions. In 2019, the University hired the leading classical design firm Robert A. M. Stern Architects, as the architects of the new museum; as a prominent element of a growing arts district, the Raclin Murphy Museum of Art will be situated in a location accessible for both on- and off-campus patrons. Construction is scheduled to commence in June 2020 with completion anticipated in 2022; the Snite's holdings are strong in prints, French 18th- and 19th painting, Baroque period paintings, decorative arts, African art and Mesoamerican art, Native American art, 20th-century art. The museum has been the fortunate recipient of exceptional holdings from donors, gifts responsible for many of the museum's strongest collections; these collections include the Alfrieda Feddersen Collection of Rembrandt Etchings. A generous gift by Charles S. Hayes made possible the creation of a unique public space for reflection and enjoyment of nature and art.
Reopened in 2017, the Charles B. Hayes Family Sculpture Park was designed by noted American landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh on an eight-acre site at the south edge of the Notre Dame campus. A part of the Snite's permanent collection, the twelve sculptures in the park are by important national and international artists. Throughout the year, the Museum provides curriculum-related tours for 7,000 area-school children. Official website
San Francesco (Pisa)
San Francesco de' Ferri is a church in Pisa, Italy. Mentioned for the first time in a document from 1233, the church was rebuilt starting from 1261 by will of archbishop Federico Visconti; the church was under the patronage of the Pisane noble families, who owned a series of private chapels for their burials. The works, directed by Giovanni di Simone, ended in 1270 and included the slender bell tower; the marble façade is from 1603. The interior was revamped in the same age, with paintings by Jacopo da Empoli and Santi di Tito. In the transept are frescoes by Taddeo Gaddi, Galileo Chini and an altar frontal by Tommaso Pisano; the sacristy has frescoes by Taddeo di Bartolo with Histories of Mary, while the Capitolium Hall has frescoes by Niccolò di Pietro Gerini with Histories of the life of Christ. The rectangular cloister is from the 14th century. After a period as military barracks, the church was declared national monument in 1893; the church was once home to Giotto's Stigmata of St. Francis and Cimabue's Maestà, both robbed by the French in the 1810s and now housed at the Louvre Museum.
Barsali, U.. Castelli. Storia e Capolavori di Pisa. Florence: Bonechi. Donati, Roberto. Pisa. Arte e storia. Narni: Plurigraf