click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Taejo of Goryeo

Taejo of Goryeo known as Taejo Wang Geon, was the founder of the Goryeo dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century. Taejo ruled from 918 to 943, achieving unification of the Later Three Kingdoms in 936. Wang Geon was born in 877 to a powerful maritime merchant family based in Songak as the eldest son of Wang Ryung, he traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. His ancestors were Goguryeo refugees who settled around Songak, accumulating great wealth through maritime trade and gaining control of the region, including the Ryesong River. During the Later Silla period, the northern regions, including Songak, were the strongholds of Goguryeo refugees, Wang Geon's hometown of Songak would become the original capital of Later Goguryeo in 901. Taejo began his career in the turbulent Later Three Kingdoms. In the years of Silla, many local leaders and bandits rebelled against the rule of Queen Jinseong, who did not have strong enough leadership or policies to improve the condition of the people.

Among those rebels, Gung Ye of the northwestern region and Gyeon Hwon of the southwest gained more power. They defeated and absorbed many of the other rebel groups as their troops marched against local Silla officials and bandits. In 895, Gung Ye led his forces into the far northwestern part of Silla. Taejo's father, Wang Yung, along with many local clans surrendered to Gung Ye. Wang Geon followed his father into service under Gung Ye, the future leader of Taebong, he began his service under Gungye's command. Wang Geon's ability as a military commander was soon recognized by Gung Ye, who promoted him to general and regarded him as his brother. In 900, he led a successful campaign against local clans and the army of Later Baekje in the Chungju area, gaining more fame and recognition from the king. In 903, he led a famous naval campaign against the southwestern coastline of Hubaekje, while Gyeon Hwon was at war against Silla, he led several more military campaigns, helped conquered people who lived in poverty under Silla rule.

The public favored him due to his generosity. In 913, he was appointed as prime minister of the newly renamed Taebong, its king, Gung Ye, whose leadership helped found the kingdom but who began to refer to himself as the Buddha, began to persecute people who expressed their opposition against his religious arguments. He executed many monks later his own wife and two sons, the public began to turn away from him, his costly rituals and harsh rule caused more opposition. In 918, four top-ranked generals of Taebong—Hong Yu, Bae Hyeongyeong, Shin Sung-gyeom and Bok Jigyeom —met secretly and agreed to overthrow Gung Ye's rule and crown Wang Geon as their new king. Wang Geon first opposed the idea but agreed to their plan; the same year Gung Ye was killed near the capital, Cheorwon. The generals installed Wang Geon as the new king of this short-lived state, he renamed the kingdom Goryeo. The next year he moved the capital back to Gaegyeong, he promoted Buddhism as Goryeo's national religion, laid claim to the northern parts of the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria, which he considered his rightful legacy as the successor of Goguryeo.

According to the Goryeosa, in 918, the ancient capital of Pyongyang had been in ruins for a long time and foreign barbarians were using the surrounding lands as hunting grounds and raiding the borders of Goryeo. Afterward, he decreed Pyongyang as the Western Capital, he sought alliances and cooperation with local clans rather than trying to conquer and bring them under his direct control. In 927, Gyeon Hwon of Hubaekje led forces into Silla's capital, Gyeongju and executing its king, King Gyeongae, he established King Gyeongsun as his puppet monarch before he turned his army toward Goryeo. Hearing of the news, Taejo planned a strike with 5000 cavalrymen to attack Gyeon's troops on the way back home at Gongsan near Daegu, he met Hubaekje forces and suffered disastrous defeat, losing most of his army including his generals Kim Nak and Shin Sung-gyeom, the same man who crowned Wang as a king. However, Goryeo recovered from defeat and defended Hubaekje's attack on its front. In 935, the last king of Silla, King Gyeongsun, felt there was no way to revive his kingdom and surrendered his entire land to Taejo.

Taejo gladly accepted his surrender and gave him the title of prince, accepted his daughter as one of his wives. It caused much disgust to Gyeon Hwon. Gyeon's father, who held his own claim to the Sangju region defected and surrendered to Goryeo and was received as the father of a king. In the same year, Gyeon Hwon's oldest son, Gyeon Singeom, led a coup with his brothers Yanggeom and Yonggeom, against their father, who favored their half-brother, Geumgang, as his successor to the throne. Gyeon Hwon was sent into exile and imprisoned in Geumsansa, but escaped to Goryeo and was treated like Taejo's father, who died just before his surrender. In 936, Wang led his final campaign against Singeom of Later Baekje. Singeom fought against Taejo, but facing much disadvantage and inner conflict, he surrendered to Taejo. Wang occupied Hubaekje formally, unified the nation for the second time since Unified Silla.

Joseph PĂ©rier

Joseph Périer was a French businessman involved in banking and mining. His brother, Casimir Pierre Périer, served as Prime Minister of France. Joseph Périer was wealthy the richest man in France from his coal mining interests, he served in the Chamber of Deputies for 16 years during the July Monarchy. André Jean Joseph Périer was born on 28 November 1786 in Isère, his parents were Marie-Charlotte Pascal. Claude Périer was a fabric manufacturer from Grenoble who became a wealthy banker and one of the fifteen founding regents of the Bank of France. Joseph Périer was the ninth son of Claude Périer, his twelfth child. One of his brothers was Casimir Pierre Périer, a banker in Paris who became prime minister of France. In 1795 Claude Périer obtained 27.5 deniers of the Anzin Mining Company during a financial reorganization. When he died in 1801 his shares were divided between two daughters. In 1805 Scipion Périer became director of the mining company, Casimir Périer became assistant director. In 1809 Joseph Périer married Aglaé de Clavel de Kergoman in Paris.

Their children were Edmond, Laure, Octavie and Arthur. In 1811 Joseph Périer was named auditor to the Council of State, in that role was placed in charge of the Ponts et Chaussées. In 1811 he was sent as sub-prefect to Oldenburg. At the start of Napoleon's German campaign of 1813 he was attached to Pierre Antoine Noël Bruno, comte Daru, Intendant General of the Grande Armée. After the capture of Dresden and the entry of the French army into Silesia he was chosen as Intendant of the Crossen Circle, as Receiver-General of the Grande Armée, he returned to France after the Battle of Leipzig, was sent to Lille under Senator Jacques-Pierre Orillard de Villemanzy, extraordinary commissioner of the 16th military division. He did not return to Paris until after the Bourbon Restoration. Joseph Périer did not return to Paris until after the return of the Bourbons. For some years he was receiver of finances of the 4th arrondissement of Paris retired to private life. In 1825 he became the partner of his brother Casimir in the Périer frères banking house of Paris, of which he became the sole head.

This bank had been created by Claude Périer in 1801. He was a regent of the Bank of France in the 11th seat from 1833 to his death; the Bank of France had in theory five regents chosen from the merchants and manufacturers and seven from the bankers, as well as three censors with an advisory role selected from the Paris merchants. In practice, the distinctions were blurred, since the merchants and manufacturers engaged in banking, while Périer and others designated as "bankers" were industrialists. A biographer said of him, He is a man endowed with a precious quality, he counts a bag of a thousand francs faster than one of the boys of the Bank. Grenoble was one of the first cities to obtain a branch of the Bank of France, in 1840, due to the combined efforts of Alphonse and Joseph Périer; when Scipion Périer died in 1821, Casimir Périer became director of the Anzin mines and Joseph Périer became assistant director. Joseph became director after Casimir died in 1832, Casimir's son Auguste became assistant director.

The Périers held a large block of shares in the company, their bank managed the company's finances, including investments, changes in shoreholdings and loans to shareholders. The machine shops of Jacques Périer at Chaillot supplied steam engines and equipment for mining from 1818. Joseph Périer was concerned that productivity might suffer if the mines supervisory staff became too close to the workers. In 1826 he asked the general agent of the Anzin company "to arrange a kind of police that would inform him if the director, the under-director and the master foremen were doing their job." The census of 1842 shows that Périer may have been the most wealthy property-owner in France, paying 56,503 francs for the Anzin mines. The Joseph Périer mine was opened in 1841, reached coal at 75 metres. By 1867 it had reached a depth of 380 metres. Joseph succeeded Casimir Périer as a member of the Paris Chamber of Commerce and participated in the Society for the Encouragement of National Industry; the Association pour la défense du Travail.

In 1845 it was joined by the committee of metallurgists. The council included Auguste Mimerel, Joseph Périer and Louis-Martin Lebeuf. Members included Léon Talabot and Eugène Schneider. During the July Revolution of 1830 Joseph Périer played a leading role in quieting a crowd, on the point of attacking some disarmed soldiers who had taken refuge in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, he was a member of the General Council of the Seine. In 1832, the General Council of the Seine appointed him member of the commission charged with examining various projects of the entrepôt réel in Paris. On 7 June 1832 he was appointed a member of the Superior Council of Commerce. During the July Monarchy Joseph Périer was elected on 15 November 1832 as deputy for Épernay, the 4th district of the Marne department, as a member of the conservative majority, he replaced baron Louis, who had chosen to run for another district. He was reelected on 21 June 1834, he supported François Guizot in his opposition to the ministry of Louis-Mathieu Molé.

Joseph Périer was reelected on 2 March 1839, still with the government majority. He was reelected on 9 July 1842, sitting with the const

Interracial marriage in the United States

Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal in all U. S. states since the 1967 U. S. Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia that deemed "anti-miscegenation" laws unconstitutional. Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote in the court opinion that "the freedom to marry, or not marry, a person of another race resides with the individual, cannot be infringed by the State." The court's decision, made on June 12, 1967, has been commemorated every year on the Loving Day. The proportion of interracial marriages as a proportion of all marriages has been increasing since 1967, such that 15.1% of all new marriages in the United States were interracial marriages by 2010 compared to a low single-digit percentage in the mid 20th century. Interracial marriage has continued to rise throughout the 2010s. Public approval of interracial marriage rose from around 5% in the 1950s to around 80% in the 2000s; the proportion of interracial marriages is markedly different depending on the ethnicity and gender of the spouses.

In Social Trends in America and Strategic Approaches to the Negro Problem, Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal ranked the social areas where restrictions were imposed on the freedom of Black Americans by Southern White Americans through racial segregation, from the least to the most important: basic public facility access, social equality, jobs and police, politics and marriage. This ranking scheme illustrates the manner in which the barriers against desegregation fell: Of less importance was the segregation in basic public facilities, abolished with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. However, the most tenacious form of legal segregation, the banning of interracial marriage, was not lifted until the last anti-miscegenation laws were struck down by the U. S. Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren in a unanimous ruling Loving v. Virginia; the court's landmark decision, made on June 12, 1967, has been commemorated and celebrated every year on the Loving Day in the United States. The differing ages of individuals, culminating in the generation divides, have traditionally played a large role in how mixed ethnic couples are perceived in American society.

Interracial marriages have been highlighted through two points of view in the United States: Egalitarianism and cultural conservatism. Egalitarianism's view of interracial marriage is acceptance of the phenomenon, while traditionalists view interracial marriage as taboo and as unacceptable. Egalitarian viewpoints are held by younger generations, however older generations have an inherent influence on the views of the younger. Gurung & Duong compiled a study relating to mixed-ethnic relationships and same-ethnic relationships, concluding that individuals part of "MER"s do not view themselves differently from same-ethnic couples. Research led by Barnett and Monahan in 1963 and 1971 showed people who marry outside of their race are older and are more to live in an urban setting. Social enterprise research conducted on behalf of the Columbia Business School showed that regional differences within the United States in how interracial relationships are perceived have persisted: Daters of both sexes from south of the Mason–Dixon line were found to have much stronger same-race preferences than northern daters did.

The study observed a clear gender divide in racial preference with regards to marriage: Women of all the races which were studied revealed a strong preference for men of their own race for marriage, with the caveat that East Asian women only discriminated against Black and Hispanic men, not against White men. A woman's race was found to have no effect on the men's choices. Several studies have found that a factor which affects an individual's choices with regards to marriage is socio-economic status —the measure of a person's income, social class, etc. For example, a study by the Centre for Behaviour and Evolution, Newcastle University confirmed that women show a tendency to marry up in socio-economic status. Research at the universities of Alabama at Birmingham and Texas A&M addressing the topic of socio-economic status, among other factors, showed that none of the socio-economic status variables appeared to be positively related to outmarriage within the Asian American community, found lower-socioeconomically stable Asians sometimes utilized outmarriage to whites as a means to advance social status.

A 2008 study by Jenifer L. Bratter and Rosalind B. King conducted on behalf of the Education Resources Information Center examined whether crossing racial boundaries increased the risk of divorce. Using the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth, the likelihood of divorce for interracial couples to that of same-race couples was compared. Comparisons across marriage cohorts revealed that, interracial couples have higher rates of divorce for those that married during the late 1980s; the authors found that gender plays a significant role in interracial divorce dynamics: According to the adjusted models predicting divorce as of the 10th year of marriage, interracial marriages that are the most vulnerable involve White females and non-White males relative to White/White couples. White wife/Black husband marriages are twice as to divorce by the 10th year of marriage compared to White/White couples, while White wife/Asian husband marriages are 59% more to end in divorce compared to White/White unions.

Conversely, White men/non-White women couples show either little or no differences in divorce rates. Asian wife/White husband marriages show only 4% greater likelihood of divorce by the 10th year of marriage

Gunnar Gehl

Gunnar Gehl is an American singer-songwriter. He released his debut single, "Ocean Blue" in October 2018. Gehl was the opening act of PrettyMuch's North American Funktion Tour, he first started playing the guitar at the age of seven. At the same age, he started playing on his grandfather's piano. Gehl was a cowboy before shifting towards music, he is the father of two dogs and Kona, who he loves dearly. Gehl started his music career playing as a solo artist, he recorded at a local studio where he met other artists including PrettyMuch. He was the opening act for all 22 dates on PrettyMuch's North American Funktion Tour. Gehl's depute single, "Ocean Blue" released in October 2018, had 100,000 streams on Spotify within three weeks of its release, it was one of the first songs. He worked in Los Angeles with producer Julian Fefel. Before releasing "Ocean Blue," Gehl had posted covers and original songs including "Change" and "Time Stands Still" on SoundCloud and Instagram. An EP is anticipated to be released in 2019.

He has stated that modern technology has had a beneficial impact on the music industry, making it easier for listeners to find music. He uses uses technology in music production, including to write down lyrics while writing songs, he sings covers of Shawn Mendes, Justin Bieber, Billie Eilish, Juice Wrld. He plans on releasing more covers by these artists and other artists such as Why Don't We and Harry Styles. Gehl began working the WE Charity organization in 2014 where he has spoken at events and performed with a Kenyan Boys’ Choir, he was invited to the board of the organization in 2017. In 2019, Gehl performed at WE Day Texas, along with Johnny Orland and MKTO; as part of the charity, Gehl helps young students. He sang the song "Change." Gehl has traveled to Africa twice and to India. He donates ten percent of the proceeds from his music career to the organization. Gehl describes his sound as alternative and pop, he stated in an interview with Asymetric Magazine that he likes to use electric or acoustic guitar mixed with modern beats and melodies.

L'Officiel describes Gehl's music as having an "accessible yet dense sound." He has been compared to Shawn Mendes but Gehl cites John Mayer and Bruno Mars as his biggest inspirations. Emina Lukaranin of Billboard describes his music as catchy and "flirty pop" while Taylor Weatherby calling Gehl an "urban singer-songwriter." Digital Journal calls Gehl a teen pop sensation. Gehl reported. Fox 2 Detroit describes his voice as soulful. "Change" "Time Stands Still" "Famous" "More Than You Know" "Who Cares" "Love Like" "Ocean Blue" "Outta My Mind" Funktion Tour WE Day Official website

H. L. Mencken House

The H. L. Mencken House was the home of Baltimore Sun journalist and author Henry Louis Mencken, who lived here from 1883 until his death in 1956; the Italianate brick row house at 1524 Hollins Street in Baltimore was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985. Mencken wrote of his home: "I have lived in one house in Baltimore for nearly 45 years, it has changed in that time, as I have—but somehow it still remains the same.... It is as much a part of me as my two hands. If I had to leave it I'd be as crippled as if I lost a leg."After his death on January 26, 1956, his home was bequeathed to the University of Maryland. In 1983 the City of Baltimore acquired the H. L. Mencken House from the University, in exchange for the Old Pine Street Station. With period furniture, his restored second-floor office, backyard gazebo, the H. L. Mencken House opened as part of the City Life Museums and a center for theatrical and musical events. Although the City Life Museums closed in 1997, the landmark still displays a special commemorative plaque about its famous occupant.

The house is not open to the public and stands empty. The organization "Friends of the H. L. Mencken House" is leading efforts of several groups to redirect and expand the use of it. A $3 million donation from retired naval commander Max Hency in 2018 allowed the organization to begin renovating the house, make plans to reopen it by September 2019, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1983. The Mencken House is a three-story brick row house in Baltimore's Union Square neighborhood; the property extends between Hollins Street at the front to Booth Street to the rear. The house fronts on Union Square, it is one of several nearly identical houses on the north side of the park, sharing Italianate detailing with its neighbors. The house and its interiors have remained faithful to its period of historical significance, from 1883 to 1956; the three-story section stands at the front, while an extension to the rear telescopes to two stories one story. In standard Baltimore rowhouse style, the house has entrance steps.

The entry features double doors leading to a vestibule with marble tiled walls. A further set of glazed double doors leads to the stair hall on the side of the house. A front parlor is located to one side of the hall, followed by the back parlor, connected by pocket doors. A further room was a dining room in the Mencken years, but was originally the kitchen, it is followed by the existing kitchen, built in 1923. On the second floor, the front room was Mencken's study. List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland National Register of Historic Places listings in Central Baltimore H. L. Mencken House, Baltimore City, including photo in 1982, at Maryland Historical Trust H. L. Mencken House, National Park Service, Baltimore: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary "Writings of H. L. Mencken", broadcast from the H. L. Mencken House from C-SPAN's American Writers H. L. Mencken House - Explore Baltimore Heritage

Brian Potter (footballer)

Brian Potter is a Scottish former professional footballer who played as a goalkeeper. He is employed as the goalkeeping coach at Hamilton Academical. Potter began his career with Raith Rovers, was the substitute goalkeeper when Scott Thomson was sent off in the 1994–95 Scottish League Cup semi-final. Despite being a YTS player with only one previous first team appearance, Potter played the remainder of the match, conceding once but surviving to a penalty shoot-out. On the final penalty, Alan Lawrence – who had put Raith out of the Scottish League Challenge Cup earlier in the season in a penalty shoot-out – saw his penalty saved by Potter, putting Raith into the final. First choice Thomson was recalled, coincidentally saving the first sudden death penalty to win the final, allowing Potter to pick up a winners' medal as a substitute. Potter should not have been present at either match – Ray Allan, Raith's backup goalkeeper, was ineligible after being an unused substitute earlier in the competition for Motherwell.

Potter failed to make any further first team appearances for Rovers and joined East Fife as a goalkeeping coach. After a playing spell in junior football with Oakley United, Potter joined Hamilton Academical as a goalkeeping coach. Potter was signed as a player by Hamilton in March 2008 to offer cover to their two existing goalkeepers, he had been listed as a trialist substitute on a number of occasions earlier in the season. He made his Hamilton debut, as a substitute, against Dundee in April 2008. On 12 October 2011 he left Hamilton Academical to sign on as a goalkeeping coach at SPL Dunfermline Athletic. Scottish First Division: 11994–95Scottish League Cup: 11994–95 Brian Potter at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Brian Potter at Soccerbase