A baseball doughnut is a weighted ring that fits over the end of a baseball bat, used for warming up during a baseball game. A doughnut is thought to help increase bat speed. Doughnuts can weigh as little as 4 oz. and as much as 28 oz. Players feel baseball doughnuts increase bat velocity because after warming up with a baseball doughnut decreasing the weight after taking the doughnut off, the swing feels faster; the heavier load of the weighted bat stimulates the neural system and increases muscle activation during lighter bat swings. Researchers have found. One research study found that additional weight added to the bat may strengthen the muscles of the forearms and wrists. Baseball doughnuts are based on the theory of complex training, which alternates the use of heavier and lighter weights to increase explosive power. By increasing the number of motor units recruited; the doughnut was created by former New York Yankees catcher Elston Howard. Howard, in 1955, was the first African-American player on the Yankees' roster.
He played the outfield during his time with the Yankees. The first team to invest in Howard's product was the St. Louis Cardinals; this got players out of the habit of swinging multiple bats to warm up. While Howard is credited with inventing the doughnut, he did not make the amount of money he had hoped due to other companies making their own versions of the batting doughnut. Howard and his supporters did not have the funds to take the companies to court. During a game, you can find the doughnut lying in the on-deck circle; the player in the on-deck circle swings a bat and stretches to prepare for his at-bat. The different doughnuts weigh varying amounts; the doughnut is discarded in the on-deck circle. The weight was dubbed the "doughnut" and the "iron doughnut". In 2011 The Wall Street Journal reported a study from the University of Hawaii that showed using a bat doughnut decreased a batter's speed at the plate after warming up with a baseball doughnut. Researchers claim the use of a baseball doughnut can change the muscles recruited and therefore creates inefficient hitting mechanics.
A study conducted by California State University, Fullerton found that recreational baseball players warming up with a light and normal weight bat produced faster bat velocity compared to weighted bat warm-ups. Most research studies have found that the weighted bat doughnut has a positive mental effect yet negative physical effect; the "kinesthetic illusion" created by the bat doughnut makes players believe they are swinging the standard bat post warm-up with the bat doughnut when the subsequent swings are in fact, slower. This effect influences batters hitting mechanics and timing of swing; the length of time between warming up with a baseball doughnut and swinging at a pitch seems to have an effect. Researchers in Japan found that post warm-up with a weighted bat doughnut, the first swing had the slowest bat velocity; this may affect a baseball player's decision of. Although baseball doughnuts are used among Major League Baseball players as well as high school and college players, the beneficial or detrimental short-term effects are inconclusive in research.
However, long-term use of batting doughnuts increases upper body strength therefore increasing bat velocity. For safety reasons, some leagues have begun to prohibit the use of baseball doughnuts. In 2012 Little League revised their Senior League rules to prohibit the use of "traditional batting donuts". Baseball clothing and equipment
A baseball card is a type of trading card relating to baseball printed on cardboard, silk, or plastic. These cards feature one or more baseball players, stadiums, or celebrities. Baseball cards are most found in the U. S. mainland but are common in Puerto Rico or countries such as Canada and Japan, where top-level leagues are present with a substantial fan base to support them. Some notable baseball card producing companies include Topps, Upper Deck Company, Panini Group. Previous manufacturers include Fleer and Donruss. Baseball card production peaked in the late 1980s and many collectors left the hobby disenchanted after the 1994-95 MLB strike. However, baseball cards are still one of the most influential collectibles of all time. A T206 Honus Wagner was sold for $2.8 million in 2007. While baseball cards were first produced in the United States, as the popularity of baseball spread to other countries, so did the production of baseball cards. Sets appeared in Japan as early as 1898, in Cuba as early as 1909 and in Canada as early as 1912.
The obverse of the card displays an image of the player with identifying information, but not limited to, the player's name and team affiliation. The reverse of most modern cards biographical information. Many early trade cards displayed advertisements for company on the back. Tobacco companies were the most instrumental in the proliferation of baseball cards, which they used as value added bonuses and advertisements for their products. Although the function of trading cards had much in common with business cards, the format of baseball cards most resembled that of playing cards — at least initially. For an example, one need look no further than the design of 1951 Topps Baseball. While there are no firm standards that limit the size or shape of a baseball card, most cards of today are rectangular, measuring 2½ inches by 3½ inches. Since early baseball cards were produced as a marketing vehicle, collectors began to classify those cards by the'type' of company producing the set; the system implemented by Jefferson Burdick in The American Card Catalog has become the de facto standard in identifying and organizing trade cards produced in the Americas pre-1951.
The catalog itself extends into many other areas of collecting beyond the sport of baseball. Sets like 1909–1911 White Borders, 1910 Philadelphia Caramels, 1909 Box Tops are most referred to by their ACC catalog numbers; the rarest baseball cards are the ones which are difficult to find and the most expensive ones. The rare type of cards are those from limited edition sets. A rare card must be kept in good condition in order to be valuable, although the rarest cards can be worth tens of thousands of dollars in poor condition. Price increases if there is an autograph on it. Rare baseball cards or the vintage baseball cards do not have a certain price established, their value is judged upon their quality, condition and upon the number of collectors that are seeking them. Among other rare cards, are ones of baseball legend, Jackie Robinson, Babe Ruth, Luke Pease, Anshul Srivastava and others; these cards are sold for many thousands of dollars. One card in 2011 sold for over 45,800 dollars. Vintage baseball cards have been a prime focus of countless collectors and historians of one of America's favorite pastimes.
Some baseball card collectors pay large sums of money to gain possession of these cards and they may put a lot of time into it. Since rare baseball cards are difficult to find, collectors seek for ways to be aware of the rare cards that come into the trading or selling market. Baseball card collectors obtain them from other card collectors or from specialized dealers; some collectors may sell rare baseball cards over the internet and often on eBay. Rare baseball cards may be purchased at major baseball card shows; these events are held periodically in different cities, allowing baseball card collectors and dealers to meet. The rare baseball cards do not have a specific price and they are worth what other collectors are willing to pay for, in order to establish a price, the collector takes into consideration the condition of the card. Rookie cards, first cards of specific players, are the most valuable ones; the price of rare cards depends on the market demand as well. If there are many collectors who are looking to get a specific rare card, the one who gets it is the one who pays more for it regardless of its predetermined value.
Sports card catalogs are a main source of obtaining detailed information on baseball cards. Online catalogs also contain tools for collection management and trading platforms. During the mid-19th century in the United States and photography were both gaining popularity; as a result, baseball clubs began to pose for group and individual pictures, much like members of other clubs and associations posed. Some of these photographs were printed onto small cards similar to modern wallet photos; as baseball increased in popularity and became a professional sport during the late 1860s, trade cards featuring baseball players appeared. These were used by a variety of companies to promote their business if the products being advertised had no connection with baseball. In 1868, Peck and Snyder, a sporting goods store in New York, began producing trade cards featuring baseball teams. Peck and Snyder sold baseball equipment, the cards were a natural advertising vehicle; the Peck and Snyder cards are sometimes considered the first baseball cards.
In baseball, base running is the act of running around the bases performed by members of the team at bat. In general, base running is a tactical part of the game with the goal of reaching home to score a run; the goal of batting is to produce base runners, or help move base runners along. Runners on second or third base are considered to be in scoring position since a normal hit a single, will score them. Part of the goal of a runner and a batter is to get the runner into scoring position. For any base running to occur, a batter must become a base runner; this happens when: He hits the baseball into fair territory and is not put out, He receives a base on balls, He is hit by a pitch, He hits into a fielder's choice, The defensive team commits an error that allows him to reach base, There is an uncaught third strike, or The catcher interferes with him. The term batter-runner is used in official terminology to identify an offensive player from the time he puts a fair ball into play or the third strike is not caught until the end of the play he initiated, whether the play results in the player being put out or becoming a runner by attaining first base or any subsequent base.
The term is not applied if the batter hits a foul ball or to a player awarded first base, e.g. for a base on balls. A player ceases to be a base runner when: He scores a run, He is put out in any way, or A teammate is put out for the third out of the inning. If a base runner's teammate is put out for the third out of the inning, he is said to be left on base. A runner, touching a base which he is entitled to occupy may not be tagged out. Runners may attempt to advance from base to base on any fair ball; when a ball is hit in the air and caught by the defending team, runners must return and touch the base they occupy—called tagging up—after the ball is first touched by a fielder. Once they do this, they may attempt to advance at their own risk. On a ball that touches the ground in fair territory, if there is a force, runners are required to run. Base runners may attempt to advance at any time while the ball is alive before or while the pitcher is throwing a pitch; the catcher—or pitcher, in lieu of delivering the pitch—often tries to prevent this by throwing the ball to one of the infielders in order to tag the runner.
This pick-off attempt is unsuccessful in tagging out the runner but is effective in keeping the runner closer to the base. If the runner is tagged out while diving back to the base, it is called a pickoff. If the runner attempts to advance to the next base but is tagged out before reaching it safely, he is caught stealing. A successful attempt by the runner is called a stolen base. If a pitch gets away from the catcher, runners may try to advance; this may be a wild pitch, if the pitcher is held responsible for the ball getting away, or a passed ball if the catcher is deemed to be at fault. Sometimes the defending team will ignore a runner, trying to steal a base. An infielder who cleanly fields a ball hit on the ground throws it and will get the ball to a base before the runner runs the 90 feet. However, any hesitation or mistake on the part of the fielder may allow the runner to reach the base safely. Teams take advantage of players who are poor at defense. For example, on a deep fly ball to center field with a man on second base, if the center fielder has a weak arm, the runner on second base may tag the base and attempt to reach third despite the risks of being tagged out.
Base running and hitting are coordinated to produce better results in the squeeze play and the hit and run play. When the count is full and there are two outs, any runners forced to advance begin running as soon as the pitcher's motion obliges him to complete his pitch, as their distance from the base will not be the cause of any third out. Good runners try to get extra bases when a play is being made at a different base. For example, a batter who hits a single should determine whether the defense's focus on another runner gives the batter a chance to reach second base. Sliding into a base is an important part of base running; the pop-up slide both ensures that the runner touches the base and elevates him to an upright posture to help him take additional bases if the defense misperforms. A take-out slide tries to use a collision with a fielder to keep him from taking additional action, such as throwing to achieve a double play. However, this move, when made independently of the attempt to reach the base, has been illegal since 2016 because of the potential for injury.
The base coach at third base, any batter still at home plate, may watch the ball approaching the base and may signal the base runner on the optimum slide to avoid being tagged out. Official Rules of Major League Baseball "The Runner"
In baseball, interference occurs in situations in which a person illegally changes the course of play from what is expected. Interference might be committed by players on the offense, players not in the game, umpires, or spectators; each type of interference is covered differently by the rules. The most common incidence of interference occurs when a member of the offensive team physically hinders the defensive team, decreasing its chances to make an out or increasing the chance that a baserunner will advance. Whenever this offensive interference occurs, the ball becomes dead. If the interference was committed by a batter or a baserunner, that player is called out and all other runners must return to the bases they occupied at the time of the interference. If interference is committed by a runner with the obvious intent of preventing a double play, the batter-runner will be called out in addition to the runner who committed the interference. If interference is committed by the batter-runner before he or she reaches first base with the possible intent of preventing a double play, the runner closest to scoring is called out in addition to the batter-runner.
If interference is committed by a retired runner or by some other member of the offensive team, the runner, most to have been put out will be called out. Under Little League, high school and college rules, if interference is committed by a runner with the effect of preventing a double play, regardless of his intent, the batter-runner will be called out in addition to the runner who committed the interference. Under NFHS rules only, all runners are required to attempt to avoid collisions. If a runner fails to do so, he is guilty of malicious contact, one kind of offensive interference. Malicious contact carries the additional penalty of ejection from the game. In contrast, in professional and higher amateur baseball, violent collisions can occur without any interference when a fielder is receiving a thrown ball near a base where a runner is trying to reach. Any collision that occurs in this situation is not interference, because the fielder's action is in regard to a thrown ball; as long as such a runner's actions are related to his attempt to reach the base, he cannot be called for interference.
The most common case of this is when a runner is attempting to score and the catcher has control of the ball. If the catcher is in the path between third base and home plate, the baserunner may strike the catcher with his body in an attempt to dislodge the ball from the catcher's hand and reach home plate; this is attempted only when the play is close. When the catcher is set up and ready, the runner has little chance of knocking the ball away. Any such attempt presents a significant chance of injury to the baserunner, which has prompted the malicious contact rule to be used more often. In addition to the general subjective definition of offensive interference, it is interference by specific rule when: The bat hits the ball a second time in fair territory, such as while the bat is being dropped; the batter physically hinders the catcher's opportunity to throw out a baserunner while standing outside of the batter's box. There are some exceptions to the penalty for offensive interference. If there are fewer than two outs and a runner is trying to score, the batter interferes with the tag attempt at home plate the runner is out for the batter's interference, while the batter is not out.
If there are two outs in this situation, the normal interference penalty applies: the batter is out and the run does not score. If a runner's interference is caused by his being positioned at a occupied base and the fielder is trying to make a play on a batted ball in the vicinity of the base, interference is not called. At some levels of play, verbal as well as physical hindrance can be called for interference. For example, if a runner or other member of the offense calls out "foul" on a fair ball or "mine" on a fly ball, he may cause the defense to react differently from how they otherwise would have, resulting in an interference call; this is not called as interference in higher amateur baseball. On October 15, 1969, in Game Four of the 1969 World Series between the New York Mets and Baltimore Orioles, Mets pinch hitter J. C. Martin attempted a tenth-inning sacrifice bunt; the Orioles protested vehemently, but although replays showed Martin ran inside the first base line, umpires ruled the play valid and no interference was called.
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A baseball field called a ball field, sandlot or a baseball diamond, is the field upon which the game of baseball is played. The term can be used as a metonym for a baseball park. Unless otherwise noted, the specifications discussed in this section refer to those described within the Official Baseball Rules, under which Major League Baseball is played; the starting point for much of the action on the field is home plate, a five-sided slab of whitened rubber, 17 inches square with two of the corners removed so that one edge is 17 inches long, two adjacent sides are 8.5 inches and the remaining two sides are 12 inches and set at an angle to make a point. The plate is set into the ground such. Adjacent to each of the two parallel 8.5-inch sides is a batter's box. The point of home plate where the two 12-inch sides meet at right angles is at one corner of a 90-foot square; the other three corners of the square, in counterclockwise order from home plate, are called first and third base. Three canvas or rubber bases 15 inches square and 3–5 inches in thickness made of soft material mark the three bases.
Near the center of the square is an artificial hill known as the pitcher's mound, atop, a white rubber slab known as the pitcher's plate, colloquially the "rubber." The specifications for the pitcher's mound are described below. All the bases, including home plate, lie within fair territory. Thus, any batted ball that touches those bases must be in fair territory. While the first and third base bags are placed so that they lie inside the 90-foot square formed by the bases, the second base bag is placed so that its center coincides with the "point" of the ninety-foot square. Thus, although the "points" of the bases are 90 feet apart, the physical distance between each successive pair of base markers is closer to 88 feet; the lines from home plate to first and third bases extend to the nearest fence, stand or other obstruction and are called the foul lines. The portion of the playing field between the foul lines is fair territory; the area within the square formed by the bases is called the infield, though colloquially this term includes fair territory in the vicinity of the square.
Most baseball fields are enclosed with a fence. The fence is set at a distance ranging from 300 to 420 feet from home plate. Most professional and college baseball fields have a right and left foul pole; these poles are at the intersection of the foul lines and the respective ends of the outfield fence and, unless otherwise specified within the ground rules, lie in fair territory. Thus, a batted ball that passes over the outfield wall in flight and touches the foul pole is a fair ball and the batter is awarded a home run. First base is the first of four bases that must be touched by a player on the batting team in order to score a run. Unlike when an offensive player reaches second or third base, it is permissible for a batter-runner to overrun first base without being in jeopardy of being put out. After contact is made with the base, the batter-runner may slow down and return to first base at his leisure, so long as he makes no move or attempt to advance to second base; the first baseman is the defensive player responsible for the area near first base.
A professional first baseman is a slow runner and tall. A tall first baseman presents a large target to which other fielders can throw, his height gives him a larger range in reaching and catching errant throws. Players who are left-handed are marginally preferable for first base because: first, it is easier for a left-handed fielder to catch a pick-off throw from the pitcher and tag the baserunner. A right-handed first baseman must, when setting himself up to receive a throw from an infielder, execute a half-pivot near the base. There are three infield positions that can only be occupied by right-handed players: 2nd base, 3rd base, shortstop; this is. It takes a left-handed thrower more time to make that pivot and in the fast-paced major league game, that time is critical; as a result, there are fewer positions a left-handed player can occupy, if that player is not fast, the outfield may not be a good fit. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the first baseman is assigned the number 3.
Second base is the second of four stations on a baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a base runner in order to score a run for that player's team. Second base is defended by the second baseman and the shortstop. Second base is known as the keystone sack. A runner on second base is said to be in "scoring position," owing to the high likelihood of reaching home plate and scoring a run from second base on most base hits. Since second is the farthest base from home plate, it is the most common target of base stealing. Ideally, the second baseman and shortstop possess quick hands and feet and the ability to release the ball and with accuracy. One will cover second base when the other attempts to field the ball. Both players must communicate well to be able to make a double play. Particular agility is required of the second baseman in double play situations, which forces the player to t
A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff peak projecting in front. The front of the cap contains a design or a logo of sports team; the back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may have a plastic, Velcro, or elastic and zipper strip, adjuster so that it can be adjusted to fit different wearers. The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. Since the 1980s varieties of the cap have become a common fashion accessory in the United States. In 1860, the Brooklyn Excelsiors wore the ancestor of the modern rounded-top baseball cap, which featured a long peak and a button on top, by 1900, the "Brooklyn style" cap became popular. During the 1940s, latex rubber became the stiffening material inside the hat and the modern baseball cap was born; the peak known in certain areas as the "bill" or "brim", was designed to protect a player's eyes from the sun. The peak was much shorter in the earlier days of the baseball hat.
The hat has become more structured, versus the overall "floppy" cap of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The baseball cap still is an important means by which to identify a team; the logo, mascot, or team's initial was placed on the cap. The cap was fashioned in the official colors of a particular team; the basic shape, including curved peak, is similar to some styles of 19th century sun bonnets. Fitted baseball caps — those without an adjuster — are sewn in six sections, may be topped with a matching fabric-covered button on the crown. Metal grommets or fabric eyelets are sewn or attached near the top of each of the six sections of fabric to provide ventilation. In some cases, the rear sections of the crown are made of net-like mesh material for extra ventilation; the peak is stiffened by a sewn-in piece of paperboard or stiff plastic. Baseball caps are made of many types of material and shaped in various styles for different purposes. Major and minor league baseball players wear classic-style caps made of wool with their team's simple logo and colors.
More there are brands that are using uncommon materials for snapback hats as for example wood brims. Baseball caps only came in standard hat sizes. Since the early 70's, they have been available in a one-size-fits-all form, with an adjustment strap in the back; the style called snapback, has become popular as fashion accessories. Advances in textiles have led to the "stretch-fit" hat, which uses Lycra or rubber to allow a hat to have a fitted style while still being "adjustable" within sizes; the front may be stiffened by buckram to display a logo more clearly. Another version of the baseball cap is a plastic mesh cap with a foam front imprinted with a company logo; this style is sometimes called a trucker cap or a "gimme cap" because it is given away for free as a promotional item. Dad hats are unstructured caps with low profile, curved brim, stripe on the back. There are high profile, adjustable. Adjustable hat - unstructured, low profile, curved brim, adjustable. Fitted hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, unadjustable.
"Flexfit" hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, adjustable by the use of elastic materials. Beginning with the 2014 season, MLB pitchers are permitted to wear a special reinforced cap to protect their heads from line drives. Athletes in other sports wear caps with their team's logo and colors as "sideline" caps. Other caps may have a maker's logo, such as Reebok, Nike or Carhartt. Golfers tend to prefer the sports visor form which does not cover the head but keeps the sun out of their eyes; some armed forces use baseball caps as part of their uniforms, including the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. Used with the utility uniform and coveralls, the baseball cap has a command logo on the front to denote command affiliation. Baseball caps of a particular color are worn to denote a specific function of a person or particular job. For example, in the United States submarine force, red baseball caps are worn by drill monitors who facilitate and critique members of the boat's crew during drills.
In the United States Army, parachute riggers wear red baseball caps and parachute instructors wear black baseball caps as part of their uniform. In various squadrons of the United States Air Force's civilian auxiliary, squadron-distinctive baseball caps have been issued as headgear for the Battle Dress Uniform displaying squadron colors, squadron number, and/or squadron patch. Although the BDUs have their own cover, a patrol cap in M81 Woodland, some squadrons have opted for more distinctive covers. In many United States police forces, the baseball cap is worn as a more practical alternative to the traditional peaked cap or campaign hat, the latter of, used by Sheriff's departments and state police forces; this is more common on the West Coast, whereas in eastern states the traditional peaked cap is more prominent. A notable exception is the San Francisco Police Department, where peaked caps
A baseball park known as a ballpark or diamond, is a venue where baseball is played. A baseball park consists of the surrounding spectator seating. While the diamond and the areas denoted by white painted lines adhere to strict rules, guidelines for the rest of the field are flexible; the term "ballpark" sometimes refers either to the entire structure, or sometimes to just the playing field. A home run where the player makes it around the bases, back to home plate, without the ball leaving the playing field is called an "inside-the-park" home run. Sometimes a home run ball passing over an outfield fence is said to have been hit "out of the ballpark", but that phrase more refers to a home run ball that cleared the stands, landing outside the building; the playing field is most called the "ballfield", though the term is used interchangeably with "ballpark" when referring to a small local or youth league facility. A baseball field can be referred to as a diamond; the infield is a rigidly structured diamond of dirt containing the three bases, home plate, the pitchers mound.
The space between the bases and home is a grass surface, save for the dirt mound in the center. Some ballparks, like Toronto's Rogers Centre, have grass or artificial turf between the bases, dirt only around the bases and pitcher's mound. Others, such as Koshien Stadium in Hyōgo Prefecture, have an dirt infield. Two white lines run out from the home plate area, aligned with third bases; these are the foul lines or base lines differentiated by referring to them as the first base line, or the third base line. If a ball hit by the batter lands outside of the space between these two lines, or rolls out of this space before reaching first or third base, the ball is "foul". If it lands between or on the lines, it is "fair". At the end of the lines are two foul poles, which help the umpires judge whether a ball is fair or foul; these "foul poles" are in fair territory, so a ball that hits them on the fly is a home run. On either side of home plate are the two batter's boxes This is. Behind home is the catcher's box, where the catcher and the home plate umpire stand.
Next to first and third base are two coaches' boxes, where the first and third base coaches guide the baserunners with gestures or shouts. As the baserunner faces away from the outfield when running from second base to third, they cannot see where the ball is, must look to the third base coach on whether to run, stop, or slide. Farther from the infield on either side are the dugouts, where the teams and coaches sit when they're not on the field, they are named such because, at the professional levels, this seating is below the level of the playing field so as to not block the view from prime spectator seating locations. In amateur parks, the dugouts may be above-ground wooden or CMU structures with seating inside, or benches behind a chain link fence. Beyond the infield and between the foul lines is a large grass outfield twice the depth of the infield; the playing field is bordered by fences of varying height. The infield fences are in foul territory, a ball hit over them isn't a home run. Sometimes, the outfield fence is made higher in certain areas to compensate for a close proximity to the batter.
In professional parks, the field is surrounded by an area 10 feet wide made of dirt or rubberized track surface called a "warning track". Used in Yankee Stadium in 1923 as an actual footrace track, it is now present in all major league ballparks; this change in terrain warns a fielder, watching a ball in the air, that the wall is near, avoiding possible injury. Beyond the outfield fence in professional parks is an area called the batter's eye. To ensure the batter can see the white ball, the batter's eye contains no seating, is a darker color; the batter's eye area can be anything from a dark wall to a grassy slope. Today, in Major League Baseball, a grandstand, surrounds the infield. How far this seating extends down the baselines or around the foul poles varies from park to park. In minor league parks, the grandstands are notably smaller, proportional to expected sizes of crowds compared with the major leagues; the seating beyond the outfield fence differs from the grandstand, though some multi-purpose or jewel box parks have the grandstand surround the entire field.
This area could contain inexpensive bleacher seats, smaller grandstands, or inclined seating. In local ballparks, there are simply a set or two of aluminum bleachers on the first-base and third-base sides. Distinctive from "goal games" such as football and basketball, which have fixed-size playing areas, the infield is the only rigidly laid-out part of the field. Like its English relative, there is significant flexibility in the shape and size of the rest of the playing area. To prevent "cheap" home runs, baseball leagues may specify a minimum distance from home plate to the outfield fences; the higher the skill level, the deeper the minimum dimensions must be, to prevent an excess of home runs. In the major leagues, a rule was passed in 1958 that compelled any new fields built after that point to have a minimum distance of 325 feet from home plate to the fences in left and right field, 400 feet to center.. This rule was passed to avoid situations like the Los Angeles Coliseum, 251 ft. down the left