Outline of oceanography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Oceanography. Oceanography can be described as all of the following: The study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean Oceanography known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean, it is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range including ecosystem dynamics. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, chemistry, geography, hydrology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past. An oceanographer is a person who studies many matters concerned with oceans including marine geology, physics and biology. Accretion – The process of coastal sediment returning to the visible portion of a beach Acoustic seabed classification – The partitioning of a seabed acoustic image into discrete physical entities or classes Acoustical oceanography – The use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents Advection – The transport of a substance by bulk motion Ageostrophy – The real condition that works against geostrophic wind or geostrophic currents in the ocean, works against an exact balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force Astrooceanography – The study of oceans outside planet Earth Atlantic Equatorial mode – A quasiperiodic interannual climate pattern of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean Baroclinity – A measure of misalignment between the gradient of pressure and the gradient of density in a fluid Barotropic fluid – A fluid whose density is a function of pressure only Barrier layer – A layer of water separating the well-mixed surface layer from the thermocline Bathometer – An instrument for measuring water depth Bathymetry – The study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors Benthic boundary layer – The layer of water directly above the sediment at the bottom of a river, lake or sea Beta plane – An approximation whereby the Coriolis parameter, ƒ, is set to vary linearly in space Biosphere – The global sum of all ecosystems on Earth Bioturbation – The reworking of soils and sediments by animals or plants Borders of the oceans – The limits of the Earth's oceanic waters Bottom water – The lowermost water mass in a water body Brunt–Väisälä frequency – The angular frequency at which a vertically displaced parcel will oscillate within a statically stable environment Cabbeling – When two separate water parcels mix to form a third, denser and sinks below both constituents Carbonate compensation depth – Depth in the oceans below which no calcium carbonate sediment particles are preserved Chemocline – A cline caused by a strong, vertical chemistry gradient within a body of water Climate inertia – The widespread inherent characteristic of the climate to take a considerable time to respond to a changed input Cold core ring – A type of oceanic eddy, characterized as unstable, time-dependent swirling ‘cells’ that separate from their respective ocean current and move into water bodies with different characteristics Color of water – The variability of water colour with ambient conditions Conservative temperature – A thermodynamic property of seawater that represents the heat content Coriolis frequency – Frequency of inertial oscillation at the Earth's surface resulting from the Coriolis effect Cum sole – A Latin phrase meaning with the sun, sometimes used in meteorology and physical oceanography to refer to anticyclonic motion Currentology – A science that studies the internal movements of water masses Deep chlorophyll maximum – A subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake.

Deep sea community – Groups of organisms living deep below the sea surface sharing a habitat Deep-sea exploration – The investigation of conditions on the sea bed, for scientific or commercial purposes Density ratio – A measure of the relative contributions of temperature and salinity in determining the density gradient in a seawater column Dynamic topography – Elevation changes caused by the flow within the Earth's mantle Gas hydrate stability zone – A zone and depth of the marine environment at which methane clathrates exist in the Earth's crust Ecosystem-based management – An environmental management approach that recognizes the full array of interactions within an ecosystem Ekman velocity – Wind induced part of the total horizontal velocity in the upper layer of water of the open ocean such that Coriolis force is balanced by wind force Ferromanganese nodules – The result of ion exchange reactions that precipitate ore components from the water or out of the interstitial water of the sediments layers.

Geostrophic current – An oceanic flow in which the pressure gradient force is balanced by the Coriolis effect Geostrophic wind – The theoretical wind that would result from an exact balance between the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force Hadley cell – A global scale tropical atmospheric circulation feature Halocline – Stratification of a body of water due to salinity differences Harmful algal bloom – Population explosion of organisms that can lower oxygen levels in natural waters, killing marine life High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions – Regions of the ocean where the abundance of phytoplankton is low and constant despite the availability of macronutrients Hough function – The eigenfunctions of Laplace's ti


Dhulikatta is a village in Eligaid Mandal in Peddapalli district before it was in Karimnagar District in the state of Telangana earlier known as Andhra Pradesh in India. It is 15 km away from 25 km from Karimnagar; the three day Satavahana festival is held there every year in January. Dhulikatta is surrounded by Eligaid Mandal towards South, Peddapalli Mandal towards East, Sulthanabad Mandal towards South, Choppadandi Mandal towards west, Karimnagar, Mancherial, Jagtial are the near by Cities to Dhulikatta. Dhulikatta was famous for Buddhist center. Buddhist stupa's were famous in Dhulikatta; the Buddhist Mahastupa or the great stupa and vihar in Dhulikatta village were established at the end of the 2nd century BC, more than 2000 years ago. During that period, the region played a greater role and thus was protected with numerous fortifications. According to many historians, the description of this fortified town, situated on the banks of a river, conceptualized by the Greek emissary Megasthenes, matches with that of this town.

The remains and ruins of this ancient stupa, built on an elevated place are still discernible. The constructions of platforms make the Mahastupa look larger; the lime-stone blocks that are elegantly carved are decorated with many Buddhist symbols like the Muchalindanaga. Several other remnants such as the punched coins from Roman Kingdom and Satvahana dynasty, combs made of ivory and authentic silver jewellery have been brought to light in the excavations around the Mahastupa in Dhulikatta. TSRTC Operates buses from Dhulikatta to major Towns like Godavarikani & Karimnagar. Peddapalli railway station is nearest railway station to Dhulikatta. Https://