Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970. In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, launching the Infitah economic policy; as President, he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel. Although reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was favorable among Egyptians, it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood and the left, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state.
With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989; the peace treaty was one of the primary factors that led to his assassination. Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, Egypt to a poor Nubian family, one of 13 brothers and sisters. One of his brothers, Atef Sadat became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973, his father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was Sudanese from her father. He was appointed to the Signal Corps, he was posted to Sudan. There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser, along with several other junior officers they formed the secret Free Officers, a movement committed to freeing Egypt and Sudan from British domination, royal corruption.
During the Second World War he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to obtain help from the Axis Powers in expelling the occupying British forces. Anwar Sadat was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt, the secret military group called the Free Officers. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which overthrew King Farouk on 23 July of that year. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks. During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954, he was appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria. In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly and vice president and member of the presidential council in 1964, he was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.
Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David peace treaty with Israel, the "opening up" of Egypt's economy, lastly his assassination in 1981. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970. Sadat's presidency was expected to be short-lived. Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right. On 15 May 1971, Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.
In 1971, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring, which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then. Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabri, who had close ties with Soviet officials, Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police. Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police, expelled Soviet military from the country and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel. On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria
Umar Makram bin Hussien al-Sayouti was an Egyptian political leader at the time of the 1798 French invasion and in the subsequent political disorders. Makram was born in 1750 in Asyut, he was educated at Al-Azhar University, became a leader of the nobles of Egypt. He was prominent in resistance to the 1798 invasion of Egypt by France. After the French withdrew in 1801, control of Egypt was nominally restored to the Ottoman Empire, but in fact was disputed between the old Mamluk elite, Egyptian Arab nobles, the Ottomans. Makram allied with Muhammad Ali, the commander of Albanian troops within the army sent by the Empire to restore control. In May 1805, Egyptians led by Makram forced the Ottomans to replace the Wāli Ahmad Khurshid Pasha with Muhammad Ali. Makram soon discovered. Makram objected to a foreign ruler. Muhammad Ali exiled Makram to Damietta on 9 August 1809. Makram moved to Tanta, where he died in 1822. A mosque named. An exhibition on his life was celebrated at the Louvre in Paris, France.
A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc
The American University in Cairo
The American University in Cairo is an independent, English language, research university located in Cairo, Egypt. The university offers American-style learning programs at the undergraduate and professional levels, along with a continuing education program; the AUC student body represents over 50 countries. AUC's faculty members, adjunct teaching staff and visiting lecturers are internationally diverse and include academics, business professionals, journalists and others from the United States and other countries. AUC holds institutional accreditation from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and from Egypt's National Authority for Quality Assurance and Assessment of Education; the American University in Cairo was founded in 1919 by American Mission in Egypt, a Protestant mission sponsored by the United Presbyterian Church of North America, as an English-language university and preparatory school. University founder Charles A. Watson wanted to establish a western institution for higher education.
AUC was intended as both a university. The preparatory school opened to 142 students on October 5, 1920 in Khairy Pasha palace, built in the 1860s; the first diplomas issued were junior college-level certificates given to 20 students in 1923. There were disputes between Watson, interested in building the university's academic reputation, United Presbyterian leaders in the United States who sought to return the university to its Christian roots. Four years Watson decided that the university could not afford to maintain its original religious ties and that its best hope was the promotion of good moral and ethical behavior. Limited to male students, the university enrolled its first female student in 1928; that same year, the University graduated its first class, with two Bachelor of Arts and one Bachelor of Sciences degrees awarded. In 1950, AUC added its first graduate programs to its ongoing bachelor of arts, bachelor of sciences, graduate diploma, continuing education programs, in 1951, phased out the preparatory school program.
During the Six-Day War, AUC avoided being nationalized, although most American faculty were forced to leave the country. By the mid-1970s, the university offered a broad range of liberal sciences programs. In the following years, the university added bachelors and diploma programs in engineering, computer science and mass communication and sciences programs, as well as establishing a number of research centers in strategic areas, including business, the social sciences and civic engagement, science and technology. In the 1950s, the university changed its name from The American University at Cairo, replacing "at" with "in." The American University in Cairo Press was established in 1960. By 2016, it was publishing up to 80 books annually. In 1978, the university established the Desert Development Center to promote sustainable development in Egypt's reclaimed desert areas; the Desert Development Center's legacy is being carried forward by the Research Institute for a Sustainable Environment. Faculty voted "no confidence" in university president Francis J. Ricciardone in February 2019.
In a letter to the president, the faculty cited "low morale, complaints about his management style, grievances over contracts and accusations of illegal discrimination" with tensions further increasing when Ricciardone invited U. S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo to give a speech at the university. AUC was established in Tahrir Square in downtown Cairo; the 7.8-acre Tahrir Square campus was developed around the Khairy Pasha Palace. Built in the neo-Mamluk style, the palace inspired an architectural style, replicated throughout Cairo. Ewart Hall was established in 1928, named for William Dana Ewart, the father of an American visitor to the campus, who made a gift of $100,000 towards the cost of construction on the condition that she remain anonymous; the structure was designed by A. St. John Diament, abutting the south side of the Palace; the central portion of the building houses an auditorium large enough to seat 1,200, as well as classrooms and exhibition galleries. The school's continued growth required additional space, in 1932, a new building was dedicated to house the School of Oriental Studies.
East of Ewart Hall, the building featured Oriental Hall, an auditorium and reception room built and decorated in an adaptation of traditional styles, yet responsive to the architectural style of its own time. Over time AUC added more buildings to what has become known as THE GrEEK CAMPUS, for a total of five buildings and 250,000 square feet in downtown Cairo. Sadat Metro was developed with access to the campus, its main lines intersect near there. Nearby is the Ramses Railway Station; the campus wall on Mohamed Mahmoud Street still has revolutionary graffiti put up. The American University in Cairo tried to preserve the wall graffiti. Many admirers published and documented these graffiti by collecting images/photos of the mural taken by visitors, who were present during this historic period. In the fall of 2008, AUC left the Greek Campus and inaugurated AUC New Cairo, a new 260-acre suburban campus in New Cairo, a satellite city about 20 miles from the downtown campus. New Cairo is a governmental development comprising 46,000 acres of land with a projected population of 2.5 million people.
AUC New Cairo provides advanced facilities for research and learning, as well as all the modern resources needed to support campus life. In its master plan for the new campus, the university mandated that the
Egyptian Revolution of 1919
The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of the revolutionary Egyptian Nationalist leader Saad Zaghlul, other members of the Wafd Party in 1919; the revolution led to Great Britain's recognition of Egyptian independence in 1922 as the Kingdom of Egypt, the implementation of a new constitution in 1923. Britain, refused to recognise full Egyptian sovereignty over Sudan, or to withdraw its forces from the Suez Canal Zone, factors that would continue to sour Anglo-Egyptian relations in the decades leading up to the Egyptian revolution of 1952. Turkey retained nominal sovereignty over Egypt, but the political connection between the two countries was severed by the earlier seizure of power by Muhammad Ali in 1805, re-enforced by the increasing British influence and occupation of Egypt in 1882. From 1883 to 1914, the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan under the Ottoman Sultan remained the official ruler of the country, but ultimate power was exercised by the British Consul-General.
When the Caucasus Campaign of World War I broke out between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, Britain declared martial law in Egypt, announced that it would shoulder the entire burden of the war. On 14 December 1914, the Khedivate of Egypt was elevated to a separate level of Sultanate of Egypt, declared as a British protectorate, thus terminating definitively the legal fiction of Ottoman sovereignty over its province of Egypt; the terms of the protectorate led Egyptian nationalists to believe that it was a temporary arrangement that would be changed after the world war through bilateral agreement with Britain. Before World War One, nationalist agitation was limited to the educated elite. During the war, dissatisfaction with the British occupation spread among all classes of the population; this was the result of Egypt's increasing involvement in the war, despite Britain's promise to shoulder the entire burden of the war. During the war, the British poured masses of foreign troops into Egypt, conscripted over one and a half million Egyptians into the Labour Camps, requisitioned buildings and animals for the use of the army.
In addition, because of Allied promises during the war, Egyptian political classes prepared for self-government. By war's end the Egyptian people demanded their independence. Shortly after the First World War armistice on 11 November was concluded on the Western Front in Europe, a delegation of Egyptian nationalist activists led by Saad Zaghlul made a request to High Commissioner Reginald Wingate to end the British Protectorate in Egypt and Sudan, gain Egyptian representation at the planned peace conference in Paris; the delegation included'Ali Sha'rawi Pasha, Abd al-Aziz Fahmi Bay, Muhammad'Ali Bay,'Abd al-Latif al-Makabati Bay, Muhammad Mahmud Pasha, Sinut Hanna Bay, Hamd Pasha al-Basil, Gurg Khayyat Bay, Mahmud Abu al-Nasr Bay, Mustafa al-Nahhas Bay and Dr. Hafiz'Afifi Bay. Meanwhile, a mass movement for the full independence of Egypt and Sudan was being organised at a grassroots level, using the tactics of civil disobedience. By Zaghlul and the Wafd Party enjoyed massive support among the Egyptian people.
Wafdist emissaries went into towns and villages to collect signatures authorizing the movement's leaders to petition for the complete independence of the country. Seeing the popular support that the Wafd leaders enjoyed, fearing social unrest, the British proceeded to arrest Zaghlul on 8 March 1919 and exiled him with two other movement leaders to Malta. In the course of widespread disturbances between 15 and 31 March, at least 800 Egyptians were killed, numerous villages were burnt down, large landed properties plundered and railways destroyed. "The result was revolution," according to noted professor of Egyptian history James Jankowski. For several weeks until April and strikes across Egypt by students, civil servants, peasants and religious leaders became such a daily occurrence that normal life was brought to a halt; this mass movement was characterised by the participation of both men and women, by spanning the religious divide between Muslim and Christian Egyptians The uprising in the Egyptian countryside was more violent, involving attacks on British military installations, civilian facilities and personnel.
By 25 July 1919, 800 Egyptians were dead, 1,600 others were wounded. The British government under Prime Minister David Lloyd George, sent a commission of inquiry, known as the "Milner Mission", to Egypt in December 1919, to determine the causes of the disorder, to make a recommendation about the political future of the country. Alfred Milner /first Viscount Milner / Lord Milner's report to Lloyd George, the Cabinet and King George V, published in February 1921, recommended that the protectorate status of Egypt was not satisfactory and should be abandoned; the revolts forced London to issue a unilateral declaration of Egyptian independence on 22 February 1922. The British government offered to recognize Egypt as an independent sovereign state, but with the British government holding on these powers: the security of the communications of the British Empire in Egypt; the Wafd Party drafted a new constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary representative system. Egyptian independence at this stage was nominal, as British forces continued to be physically present on Egyptian soil.
Moreover, Britain's recognition of Egyptian independence directly excluded Sudan, which conti
Helwan is a city in Egypt and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis. A southern suburb of Cairo, it served as the capital of the now defunct Helwan Governorate from April 2008 to April 2011, after which it was re-incorporated into the Cairo Governorate; the kism of Helwan had a population of 643,327 in the 2006 census. The Helwan and Isnian cultures of the late epipaleolithic, their Ouchata retouch methods for creating microlithic tools may have contributed to the development of the Harifian cultural assemblage of the Sinai, which may have introduced Proto-Semitic languages into the Middle East. Around 3000 to 2600 BC, there was a cemetery near Helwan serving the city of Memphis; the Khedivial Astronomical Observatory was built here 1903-1904, was used to observe Halley's comet. Egypt's oldest and largest private psychiatric clinic, the Behman Hospital, was constructed here in 1939. During the early part of the 20th century, the city was the site of RAF Helwan, a major British airfield, used by the Egyptian Air Force.
In 1959 Helwan was chosen to serve as a site of a major industrial city, as part of President Gamal Abdel Nasser's attempts to industrialize Egypt. Throughout the 1960s, it developed into a massive steelworks zone, with numerous automobile factories being built; the site continues to use electricity from the Aswan iron ore from Egypt's western deserts. Helwan was transformed into a mass suburb of Cairo for the working class. In April 2008, the Helwan Governorate was split from the Cairo Governorate, it encompassed most of the suburbs, new compounds and villages located in the southern part of Cairo. The city of Helwan became the capital of the new governorate. Following the dissolution of the Helwan Governorate in April 2011, the city of Helwan was reincorporated into the Cairo Governorate. Alphocranon was important enough in the Late Roman province of Arcadia Aegypti to be a suffragan of its Metropolitan Archbishop of Oxyrhynchus, its bishop, participated in the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
The bishopric is mentioned in two Notitiae Episcopatuum. No longer a residential diocese, Alphocranon is today listed by the Catholic Church as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric, nominally restoring the diocese since 1933, but no incumbent is recorded; the now defunct Helwan Governorate encompassed the following cities or districts: Maadi, Helwan, 15th of May, El Shorouk, New Cairo, Madinaty. The city of Helwan itself includes districts such as Wadi Hof, Hadayek Helwan, Maasara. Local industry includes iron, steel and cement; the area has hot sulphur springs, an astronomical observatory, the Helwan University and a burial chamber. It is the terminus of Cairo's light rail Metro Line 1. Trams in Helwan serve the people. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot desert. Owing to its proximity to Cairo, its average monthly temperatures are quite similar, but it has a quite different distribution of humidity and its diurnal average temperature variation is larger. Sadd el-Kafara, one of the earliest prehistoric man-made dams in the world.
Harold Knox-Shaw, one of the earliest astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory. John Reynolds, one of the earliest astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory & president of the English Royal Astronomical Society between 1935 and 1937. Operation Priha: Helwan was targeted in Priha-1. Tewfik Pasha died in his palace at Helwan; the 6th Armoured Division was present at Helwan during WW II. The 82-BM-37 is known as "Helwan M-69 82mm mortar". Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam Pasha lived in Helwan. Moataz Eno was born in Helwan. Cars produced at Helwan: Nasr 128 Sahin 1.4S Sahin 1.6SL Zastava Florida In Fiat 1100 Fiat 1300/1500 Fiat 2300 Polski Fiat 125p/FSO 125p FSO Polonez MR'83/MR'85 FSO Polonez MR'86/MR'87/MR'89 Fiat Ritmo Fiat Regata Fiat Tempra The English Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate was present in Helwan. Geoffrey Barkas designed the Operation Bertram while heading Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate. RAF Helwan was a British airbase. No. 112 Squadron RAF was stationed at Helwan.
A crater on the 951 Gaspra asteroid was named after the spa city of Helwan. Aneb-Hetch Maadi 15th of May Greater Cairo Helwan University Helwan retouch Helwan on Wikivoyage GCatholic