click links in text for more info


A tailplane known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes. Not all fixed-wing aircraft have tailplanes. Canards and flying wing aircraft have no separate tailplane, while in V-tail aircraft the vertical stabiliser and the tail-plane and elevator are combined to form two diagonal surfaces in a V layout; the function of the tailplane is to provide control. In particular, the tailplane helps adjust for changes in position of the centre of pressure or centre of gravity caused by changes in speed and attitude, fuel consumption, or dropping cargo or payload; the tailplane comprises the tail-mounted fixed horizontal movable elevator. Besides its planform, it is characterised by: Number of tailplanes - from 0 to 3 Location of tailplane - mounted high, mid or low on the fuselage, fin or tail booms. Fixed movable elevator surfaces, or a single combined stabilator or flying tail.

Some locations have been given special names: Cruciform: mid-mounted on the fin T-tail: high-mounted on the fin A wing with a conventional aerofoil profile makes a negative contribution to longitudinal stability. This means that any disturbance which raises the nose produces a nose-up pitching moment which tends to raise the nose further. With the same disturbance, the presence of a tailplane produces a restoring nose-down pitching moment, which may counteract the natural instability of the wing and make the aircraft longitudinally stable; the longitudinal stability of an aircraft may change when it is flown "hands-off". In addition to giving a restoring force a tailplane gives damping; this is caused by the relative wind seen by the tail as the aircraft rotates around the centre of gravity. For example, when the aircraft is oscillating, but is momentarily aligned with the overall vehicle's motion, the tailplane still sees a relative wind, opposing the oscillation. Depending on the aircraft design and flight regime, its tailplane may create positive lift or negative lift.

It is sometimes assumed that on a stable aircraft this will always be a net down force, but this is untrue. On some pioneer designs, such as the Bleriot XI, the centre of gravity was between the neutral point and the tailplane, which provided positive lift; however this arrangement can be unstable and these designs had severe handling issues. The requirements for stability were not understood until shortly before World War I - the era within which the British Bristol Scout light biplane was designed for civilian use, with an airfoiled lifting tail throughout its production run into the early World War I years and British military service from 1914-1916 — when it was realised that moving the centre of gravity further forwards allowed the use of a non-lifting tailplane in which the lift is nominally neither positive nor negative but zero, which leads to more stable behaviour. Examples of aircraft from World War I and onwards into the interwar years that had positive lift tailplanes include, the Sopwith Camel, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Gee Bee Model R Racer - all aircraft with a reputation for being difficult to fly, the easier-to-fly Fleet Finch two-seat Canadian trainer biplane, itself possessing a flat-bottom airfoiled tailplane unit not unlike the earlier Bristol Scout.

But with care a lifting tailplane can be made stable. An example is provided by the Bachem Ba 349 Natter VTOL rocket-powered interceptor, which had a lifting tail and was both stable and controllable in flight. In many modern conventional aircraft, the centre of gravity is placed ahead of the neutral point; the wing lift exerts a pitch-down moment around the centre of gravity, which must be balanced by a pitch-up moment from the tailplane. A disadvantage is. Using a computer to control the elevator allows aerodynamically unstable aircraft to be flown in the same manner. Aircraft such as the F-16 are flown with artificial stability; the advantage of this is a significant reduction in drag caused by the tailplane, improved maneuverability. At transonic speeds, an aircraft can experience a shift rearwards in the center of pressure due to the buildup and movement of shockwaves; this causes. Significant trim force may be needed to maintain equilibrium, this is most provided using the whole tailplane in the form of an all-flying tailplane or stabilator.

A tailplane has some means allowing the pilot to control the amount of lift produced by the tailplane. This in turn causes a nose-up or nose-down pitching moment on the aircraft, used to control the aircraft in pitch. Elevator A conventional tailplane has a hinged aft surface called an elevator, Stabilator or all-moving tail In transonic flight shock waves generated by the front of the tailplane render any elevator unusable. An all-moving tail was developed by the British for the Miles M.52, but first saw actual transonic flight on the Bell X-1. This saved the program from a time-consuming rebuild of the aircraft. Transonic and supersonic aircraft now have all-moving tailplanes to counterac

Comb over

A comb over or combover is a hairstyle worn by balding men in which the hair is grown long and combed over the bald area to minimize the appearance of baldness. Sometimes the part is lowered. Iñaki AnasagastiBasque nationalist Rainer Barzel – former Christian Democratic Union of Germany chairman Jair Bolsonaro - President of Brazil Abdelaziz BouteflikaPresident of Algeria Julius Caesar – combed his hair on the side Bobby Charlton – English World Cup winner Constantine I – combed his hair forward Boris Johnson - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Gene KeadyPurdue University basketball coach Tan Soo Khoon – former Speaker of the Parliament of Singapore – had a combover in the 1980s Alexander LukashenkoPresident of Belarus Douglas MacArthur – American general John McCain – former U. S. Senator of Arizona and 2008 U. S. Presidential nominee Wang Qishan – Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China Heng SamrinPresident of the National Assembly of Cambodia Robert Robinson – former game show host Donald TrumpPresident of the United States On May 10, 1977, Donald J. Smith and his father, Frank J. Smith, of Orlando, were awarded a patent for their variation of the comb over that conceals baldness by combing long hair in three separate directions.

Pattern hair loss § Society and culture Walker, W. H.. "Is the "Comb Over" Dying? A Mouse Model for Male Pattern Baldness". Endocrinology. 151: 1981–3. Doi:10.1210/en.2010-0217. PMID 20410210. Media related to Combover at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of comb over at Wiktionary

Knightsbridge tube station

Knightsbridge is a London Underground station in Knightsbridge, London. It is on the Piccadilly line between South Kensington and Hyde Park Corner, is in Travelcard Zone 1; the station was opened on 15 December 1906 by the Great Northern and Brompton Railway. When opened, the platforms were accessed in the standard manner by four lifts and an emergency staircase connecting to parallel passageways and bridges to midway along the platforms; the original station building designed by Leslie Green was located on Brompton Road a short distance west of its junction with Knightsbridge and Sloane Street. A rear entrance was located on Basil Street; the location of the station in a busy and fashionable shopping district meant that patronage at the station was high from the beginning due to the presence locally of the Harrods and Harvey Nichols emporiums. This contrasted with the next station on the line westward — Brompton Road — where passenger numbers were so low that from soon after its opening many trains were timetabled not to stop there.

In the early 1930s, the availability of government grants to stimulate the depressed economy enabled the Underground Group to carry out a major modernisation programme, during which many central London stations were brought up to date with escalators to replace the original lifts. Knightsbridge was one of the Piccadilly line stations to benefit from the installation of escalators. To enable the escalators to reach the existing platforms without excessive below ground reconstruction or interference with station operations a new ticket hall was constructed under the Brompton Road/Knightsbridge/Sloane Street junction and new circulation passages were constructed at the lower level. A new station entrance was inserted into the existing building on the corner of Brompton Road and Sloane Street Subway entrances on the other corners of the junction enabled pedestrians to avoid the traffic on the busy junction; the original entrances in Brompton Road and Basil Street were closed. The Brompton Road building was subsequently demolished, but the rear entrance at the corner of Basil Street and Hoopers Court remains, although converted for use as offices.

To ease congestion, it was decided to provide an additional entrance to the western end of the platforms closer to Harrods. The additional exit would further diminish the passenger numbers at Brompton Road so this station was scheduled to close. A separate ticket hall was provided for the western escalators, accessed by a long subway from the surface entrance at the corner of Hans Crescent; this narrow subway was to be a regular problem becoming congested with groups of passengers trying to pass each other in the confined space. In 2004, this congestion was solved by the expansion of this exit into a large circular area, under the road towards Harrods, with the way out of the station being by a stairway in the midst of the road. In recent years, several piecemeal improvements to the station have occurred; the platforms were refurbished in 2005, with the 1930s cream-coloured tiles being concealed behind a modern metal cladding system. In December 2010, a new entrance was opened across the road from the station, as part of the One Hyde Park residential development.

In 2017, a major upgrade to the station was announced, with two new entrances constructed on Brompton Road and Hooper's Court. The new Hooper's Court entrance will have two large lifts, which will allow for step-free access throughout the station; this entrance will re-open some areas of the station that were closed in the early 1930s when escalators were installed. This work will take at least 3 years, with the new Brompton Road entrance open to customers in 2019, the Hooper's Court entrance opening in 2020 - with the station becoming step free at that time. Most of the upgrade costs will be paid for by Knightsbridge Estate and developers Chelsfield, who own the property above the station. TfL are contributing £ 12m; the station appeared in a 1992 episode of Rumpole of the Bailey, as Horace Rumpole and his wife Hilda travel there separately from Temple and Gloucester Road stations respectively. They exit Knightsbridge station from the stairs at the former street level portico on the corner of Hans Crescent and Brompton Road, which has since been redeveloped as the main entrance to a Zara fashion shop at 79 Brompton Road.

The opening scene of the 1997 film version of Henry James's The Wings of the Dove was set on the east-bound platforms at both Dover Street and Knightsbridge stations, both represented by the same studio mock-up, complete with a working recreation of a 1906 Stock train. London Buses routes 9, 14, 19, 22, 23, 52, 74, 137, 414 and C1 and night routes N9, N19, N22, N74 and N137 serve the station. "Photographic Archive". London Transport Museum. Archived from the original on 18 March 2008. Original station building featuring non-standard decorative relief at high level, 1906 Basil Street entrance, 1925 Ticket hall, 1927 New station building, 1934. Compare elevation with current image which shows changes have been made to increase the width of the façade and to the first floor windows New sub-surface ticket hall with ticket machines and top of escalators, 1934 Western ticket hall from end of sub-way with ticket machines, 1934 Sub-way to western ticket hall, 1934 Sub-way to western ticket hall, alternative view, 1934

What About Us (Livin Out Loud album)

What About Us is the third studio album of American R&B group Livin Out Loud. It was released first in the United Kingdom; as of July 2, 2006, it ranked number 7 on the World Hip Hop Chart and number 7 on the UK Hip Hop Chart. The album was pre-released on CD Baby before its official UK release in September 2006. In London, Livin Out Loud achieved chart success with the single, "All That Really Matters," which went to #1 on the DJ Play list; this led to a deal with a Universal Music Group company. "Lately" made it onto Billboard’s Hot Adult R&B Airplay chart and became #1 in several markets, including Little Rock and New Orleans. "Lately" charted at #31 on the Urban Adult Contemporary Chart. "So Amazing" was the featured track on Bob Mardis' award-winning documentary, Keeping The Faith, about rebuilding efforts by faith-based organizations after Hurricane Katrina. In 2010, the music video, "Brokeazz," received over 300,000 YouTube views in the first few months of its release; the songs "Lately" and "All That Really Matters" appear on the UK release of their 2015 album, Take It Easy, in addition to an interlude form of "You Are My Sunshine." Lately-club mix on YouTube

Uday Maitra

Uday Maitra is an Indian organic chemist and a professor in the department of organic chemistry at the Indian Institute of Science. He is known for his studies on molecular tools and supramolecular assemblies, he is a recipient of the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards. Born in Durgapur, Maitra secured B. Sc. in Chemistry from Presidency College and PhD in 1986 from Columbia University, working under the guidance of Ronald Breslow and did his post-doctoral studies at the laboratory of Paul A. Bartlett of the University of California, Berkeley, his studies are characterized by the new methodologies he employed in developing supramolecular assemblies and molecular tools like receptors and gelators. He has published his researches in a number of peer-reviewed articles, he has mentored many doctoral scholars and is involved in initiatives for the popularization of chemistry. He has participated in seminars to deliver plenary/invited addresses, was a member of the Indian delegation at the Indo-German Symposium on Frontiers of Chemistry organized by the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur and is a member of the editorial board of the Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry.

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards, in 2001, for his contributions to chemical sciences. Ronald Breslow


Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine founded in 1933. Newsweek was a distributed newsweekly through the 20th century, with many notable editors-in-chief throughout the years. Newsweek was acquired by The Washington Post Company in 1961, under whose ownership it remained until 2010. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition relaunched in March 2014 under different ownership. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC.

IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U. S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale"; the group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family.

As a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959. In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief, he changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement.

Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974. Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue.

It shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year. Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.

Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co